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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: April 2019

5 - Estimation of Revenue Neutral Rates for Goods and Services Tax in India

from Part II - Revenue Neutrality of GST

Summary

Introduction

The purpose of this report is to generate Revenue Neutral Rates (RNR) for the Goods and Services Tax (GST) for both the Centre and each individual state using information on the contours of GST that have been decided so far in the discussions of the Union government and the Empowered Committee of State Finance Ministers. For this exercise, it is important to summarise the key features of the design of GST (section titled ‘Key Features of GST Design’). Methodology adopted to estimate RNR is presented in the next section (‘Methodology’). The section titled ‘Results’ provides the combined RNR followed by rates computed for each individual government including the Central government. In undertaking this exercise, two alternative estimates of base of services have been used – one using PROWESS data obtained from CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy) and the other using turnover data from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) provided by the Ministry of Finance, Government of India (GOI). It should be noted that the entire turnover of firms supplying services would not constitute additional base for GST. There are two possible reasons why the base can be different from the total turnover – one, if these firms purchase taxable goods which are used for providing these services, then they can avail of input tax credit. In other words, the turnover of these purchases needs to be deducted from the turnover of supply of services. Second, since these services in turn can be used as inputs in the supply of presently taxable goods, they would already be a part of the base for taxation of goods at present. Hence, a correction on this count too would be required to identify the extent of turnover of supply of services for final consumption. The methodology used for deriving activity code wise turnover in each of these cases is discussed in the section titled ‘Methodology’.

Key Features of GST Design

The key features on which decisions seem to have emerged on the design of GST can be summarised as follows:

1. Dual GST, a central GST and a state GST both levied on all goods and services.

  • a. It is proposed that there would be a list of exemptions and exclusions from the regime, but the exact items on the list are yet to be decided.