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  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: December 2010

4 - Pediatric trauma

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Further reading
Head trauma
Ashwal, S, Holshouser, BA, Tong, KA (2006) Use of advanced neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of pediatric traumatic brain injury. Dev Neurosci 28, 309–26.
Duhaime, AC, Durham, S (2007) Traumatic brain injury in infants: the phenomenon of subdural hemorrhage with hemispheric hypodensity (“big black brain”). Prog Brain Res 161, 293–302.
Duhaime, AC, Alario, AJ, Lewander, WJet al. (1992) Head injury in very young children: mechanisms, injury types, and ophthalmologic findings in 100 hospitalized patients younger than 2 years of age. Pediatrics 90, 179–85.
Duhem, R, Vinchon, M, Tonnelle, V, Soto-Ares, G, Leclerc, X (2006) Main temporal aspects of the MRI signal of subdural hematomas and practical contribution to dating head injury. Neurochirugie 52, 93–104.
Gean, AImaging of Head Trauma (New York: Raven Press, 1994) pp. 368–426.
Haydel, MJ, Shembekar, AD (2003) Prediction of intracranial injury in children aged five years and older with loss of consciousness after minor head injury due to nontrivial mechanisms. Ann Emerg Med 42, 507–14.
Khoshyomn, S, Tranmer, BI (2004) Diagnosis and management of pediatric closed head injury. Sem Pediatr Surg 13, 80–6.
Noguchi, K, Ogawa, T, Inugami, Aet al. (1995) Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: MR imaging with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequences. Radiology 196, 773–7.
Palchak, MJ, Holmes, JF, Vance, CWet al. (2003) A decision rule for identifying children at low risk for brain injuries after blunt head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 42, 492–506.
Poussaint, TY, Moeller, KK (2002) Imaging of pediatric head trauma. Neuroimag Clin N Am 12, 271–94.
Schutzman, SA, Greenes, DS (2001) Pediatric minor head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 37, 65–74.
Tung, GA, Kumar, M, Richardson, RC, Jenny, C, Brown, WI (2006) Comparison of accidental and nonaccidental traumatic head injury in children on noncontrast computed tomography. Pediatrics 118, 626–33.
Woodcock, RJ, Davis, PC, Hopkins, KL (2001) Imaging of head trauma in infancy and childhood. Sem Ultrasound CT MR 22, 162–82.
Zimmerman, RA, Bilaniuk, LT (1994) Pediatric head trauma. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 4, 349–66.
Cervical spine trauma
Brown, RL, Brunn, MA, Garcia, VF (2001) Cervical spine injuries in children: a review of 103 patients treated consecutively at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Surg 36, 1107–14.
Dwek, JR, Chung, CCB (2000) Radiography of cervical injury in children: are flexion-extension radiographs useful for acute trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174, 1617–19.
Eleraky, MA, Theodore, N, Adams, M, Rekate, HL, Sonntag, VKH (2000) Pediatric cervical spine injuries: report of 102 cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 92, 12–17.
Hanson, JA, Blackmore, CC, Mann, Fa, Wilson, AJ (2000) Cervical spine injury: a clinical decision rule to identify high-risk patients for helical CT screening. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174, 713–17.
Harris, JH, Carson, GC, Wagner, LK (1994) Radiologic diagnosis of traumatic occipitovertebral dissociation: 1. Normal occipitovertebral relationships on lateral radiographs of supine subjects. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162, 881–6.
Jimenez, RR, DeGuzman, MA, Shiran, S, Karrellas, A, Lorenzo, RL (2008) CT versus plain radiographs for evaluation of c-spine injury in young children: do benefits outweigh risks?Pediatr Radiol 38, 635–44.
Pang, D (2004) Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children, 2 decades later. Neurosurgery 55, 1325–42.
Platzer, P, Jaindl, M, Thalhammer, Get al. (2007) Cervical spine injuries in pediatric patients. J Trauma 62, 389–96.
Slack, SE, Clancy, MJ (2004) Clearing the cervical spine of paediatric trauma patients. Emerg Med J 21, 189–93.
Steinmetz, MP, Lechner, RM, Anderson, JS (2003) Atlantooccipital dislocation in children: presentation, diagnosis, and management. Neurosurg Focus 14, 1–7.
Chest trauma
Cooper, A, Barlow, B, DiScala, C, String, D (1994) Mortality and truncal injury: the pediatric perspective. J Pediatr Surg 29, 33–8.
Holmes, JF, Sokolove, PE, Brant, WE, Kuppermann, N (2002) A clinical decision rule for identifying children with thoracic injuries after blunt torso trauma. Ann Emerg Med 39, 492–9.
Renton, J, Kincaid, S, Ehrlich, PF (2003) Should helical CT scanning of the thoracic cavity replace the conventional chest X-ray as a primary assessment tool in pediatric trauma? An efficacy and cost analysis. J Pediatr Surg 38, 793–7.
Abdominal trauma
Angus, LD, Tachmes, L, Kahn, Set al. (1993) Surgical management of pediatric renal trauma: an urban experience. Am Surg 59, 388–94.
Benya, EC, Lim-Dunham, JE, Landrum, O, Statter, M (2000) Abdominal sonography in examination of children with blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174, 1613–16.
Bernstein, MP, Mirvis, SE, Shanmuganathan, K (2006) Chance-type fractures of the thoracolumbar spine: imaging analysis in 53 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187, 859–68.
Brenner, DJ, Elliston, CD, Hall, EJ, Berdon, WE (2001) Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 176, 289–96.
Bulas, DI, Taylor, GA, Eichelberger, MR (1989) The value of CT in detecting bowel perforation in children after blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153, 561–4.
Capaccio, E, Magnano, GM, Valle, M, Derchi, (2006) Traumatic lesions of the adrenal glands in paediatrics: about three cases. Radiol Med 111, 906–10.
Chan, DPN, Abujudeh, HH, Cushing, GL, Novelline, RA (2006) CT cystography with multiplanar reformation for suspected bladder rupture: experience in 234 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187, 1296–1302.
Choit, RL, Tredwell, SJ, Leblanc, JG, Reilly, CW, Mulpuri, K (2006) Abdominal aortic injuries associated with Chance fractures in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg 41, 1184–90.
Durbin, DR, Arbogast, KB, Moll, EK (2001) Seat-belt syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care 17, 474–7.
Federle, MP, Griffiths, B, Minagi, H, Jeffrey, RB (1987) Splenic trauma: evaluation with CT. Radiology 162, 69–71.
Guillamondegui, OD, Mahboubi, S, Stafford, PW, Nance, ML (2003) The utility of the pelvic radiograph in the assessment of pediatric pelvic fractures. J Trauma 55, 236–40.
Hall, EJ (2002) Lessons we have learned from our children: cancer risks from diagnostic radiology. Pediatr Radiol 32, 700–6.
Hennes, HM, Smith, DS, Schneider, Ket al. (1990) Elevated liver transaminase levels in children with blunt abdominal trauma: a predictor of liver injury. Pediatrics 86, 87–90.
Moore, EE, Cogbill, TH, Malangni, MAet al. (1995) Organ injury scaling. Surg Clin North Am 75, 293–303.
Mutabagani, KJ, Coley, BD, Zumberge, Net al. (1999) Preliminary experience with focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in children: is it useful?J Pediatr Surg 24, 48–54.
Nance, ML, Mahboubi, S, Wickstrom, J, Prendergast, F, Stafford, PW (2002) Pattern of abdominal free fluid following isolated blunt spleen or liver injury in the pediatric patient. J Trauma 52, 85–7.
Nguyen, MM, Das, S (2002) Pediatric renal trauma. Urology 59, 762–6.
Shalaby-Rana, E, Eichelberger, M, Kerzner, B, Kapur, S (1992) Intestinal stricture due to lap-belt injury. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158, 63–4.
Shin, SS, Jeong, YY, Chung, TWet al. (2007) The sentinel clot sign: a useful CT finding for the evaluation of intraperitoneal bladder rupture following blunt trauma. Korean J Radiol 8, 492–7.
Siegel, MJThe child with abdominal trauma. In Practical Pediatric Radiology, 3rd edn., ed. Hilton, SvW, Edwards, DK (Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2006) Chapter 10, pp. 351–73.
Sivit, CJ, Cutting, JP, Eichelberger, MR (1995) CT diagnosis and localization of rupture of the bladder in children with blunt abdominal trauma: significance of contrast material extravasation in the pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164, 1243–6.
Sivit, CJ, Taylor, GA, Newman, KDet al. (1991) Safety-belt injuries in children with lap-belt ecchymosis: CT findings in 61 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 157, 111–14.
Sivit, CJ, Eichelberger, MR, Taylor, GAet al. (1992) Blunt pancreatic trauma in children: CT diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158, 1097–100.
Sivit, CJ, Ingram, JD, Taylor, GAet al. (1992) Posttraumatic adrenal hemorrhage in children: CT findings in 34 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158, 1299–302.
Sivit, CJ, Taylor, GA, Bulas, DIet al. (1992) Posttraumatic shock in children: CT findings associated with hemodynamic instability. Radiology 182, 723–6.
Stalker, HP, Kaufman, RA, Towbin, R (1986) Patterns of liver injury in childhood: CT analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 147, 1199–205.
Strouse, PJ, Close, BJ, Marshall, KW, Cywes, R (1999) CT of bowel and mesenteric trauma in children. Radiographics 19, 1237–50.
Taylor, GA, Eichelberger, MR (1989) Abdominal CT in children with neurologic impairment following blunt trauma. Ann Surg 210, 229–33.
Taylor, GA, Fallat, ME, Eichelberger, MR (1987) Hypovolemic shock in children: abdominal CT manifestations. Radiology 164, 479–81.
Taylor, GA, Eichelberger, MR, O'Donnell, R, Bowman, L (1991) Indications for computed tomography in children with blunt abdominal trauma. Ann Surg 213, 24–30.
Fractures
Laor, T, Jaramillo, D, Oestreich, AEMusculoskeletal system. In Practical Pediatric Imaging: Diagnostic Radiology of Infants and Children, 3rd edn., ed. Kirks, DR (Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998) Chapter 5, pp. l415–47.
Ozonoff, MBSkeletal trauma. In Pediatric Orthopedic Radiology, 2nd edn., ed. Ozonoff, MB (Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co., 1992) Chapter 8, pp. 604–89.
Non-accidental trauma
Barnes, PD, Robson, CD (2000) CT findings in hyperacute nonaccidental brain injury. Pediatr Radiol 30, 74–81.
Duhaime, AC, Alario, AJ, Lewander, WJet al. (1992) Head injury in very young children: mechanisms, injury types and ophthalmologic findings in 100 hospitalized patients younger than 2 years of age. Pediatrics 90, 179–85.
Hilton, SvWDifferentiating the accidentally injured from the physically abused child. In Practical Pediatric Radiology, 3rd edn., ed. Hilton, SvW, Edwards, DK (Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2006) Chapter 17, pp. 576–629.
Kleinman, PK (1990) Diagnostic imaging in infant abuse. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155, 703–12.
Kleinman, PK, Marks, SC, Blackbourne, B (1986) The metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: a radiologic-histopathologic study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 146, 895–905.
Lonergan, GJ, Baker, AM, Morey, MK, Boos, SC (2003) Child abuse: radiological-pathological correlation. Radiographics 23, 811–45.
Nimkin, K, Kleinman, PK (1997) Imaging of child abuse. Pediatr Clin North Am 44, 615–35.
Sivit, CJ, Taylor, GA, Eichelberger, MR (1989) Visceral injury in battered children: a changing perspective. Radiology 173, 659–61.
,Society for Pediatric Radiology, National Association of Medical Examiners (2004) Post-mortem radiography in the evaluation of unexpected death in children less than 2 years of age whose death is suspicious for fatal abuse. Pediatr Radiol34, 675–7. DOI 10.1007/s00247-004-1235-3.
Zimmerman, RA, Bilaniuk, LT, Bruce, Det al. (1978) Interhemispheric acute subdural hematomas: a computed tomographic manifestation of child abuse by shaking. Neuroradiology 16, 39–40.