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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: February 2015

Section 28 - Intensive care unit

Further reading

American Heart Association (2010). American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 122(Suppl 3), S729–S676.
Aufderheide, T. P., Sigurdsson, G., Pirrallo, R. G. et al. (2004). Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 109, 1960–1965.
Sayre, M. R., Koster, R. W., Botha, M. et al. (2005). Part 5: Adult basic life support: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2010 Oct 19; 122(16 Suppl 2): S 298–324.
Stiell, I. G., Wells, G. A., Hebert, P. C. et al. (1995). Association of drug therapy with survival in cardiac arrest: limited role of advanced cardiac life support drugs. Academy of Emergency Medicine 2, 264–273.
Young, K. D. and Seidel, J. S. (1999). Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a collective review. Annals of Emergency Medicine 33, 195–205.
Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Further reading

Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. eds. (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 955–959.
ARDS Definition Task Force. (2012). Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. Journal of the American Medical Association 307(23), 2526–2533.
Rivers, E., Nguyen, B., Havstad, S. et al. (2001). Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 1368–1377.
Dellinger, R., Levy, M., Rhodes, A. et al. (2013). Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Critical Care Medicine 41(2), 580–637.

Further reading

Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 960–965.
Link, M. (2012). Evaluation and initial treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. New England Journal of Medicine 367(15), 1438–1448.

Further reading

Theiele, H., Zymer, U., and Neumann, F-J. et al. (2012). Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. New England Journal of Medicine 367, 1287–1296.
Sandham, J. D., Hull, R. D., Brant, R. F. et al. (2003). A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary-artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients. New England Journal of Medicine 348, 5–14.

Further reading

Barash, P. G., Cullen, B. F., Stoelting, R. K. et al. (2009). Clinical Anesthesia, 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Longnecker, D. E., Brown, D. L., Newman, M. F., and Zapol, W. M. (2012). Anesthesiology, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill.

Further reading

MacIntyre, N. (2007). Discontinuing mechanical ventilatory support. Chest 132(3), 1049–1056.
MacIntyre, N. (2005) Respiratory mechanics in the patient who is weaning from the ventilator. Respiratory Care 50(2), 275–286.

Further reading

Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hansen-Flaschen, J. and Siegel, M. (2013). Acute respiratory distress syndrome: clinical features and diagnosis. www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-clinical-features-and-diagnosis.
Siegel, M.D. (2013). Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology; pathophysiology; pathology; and etiology. www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-epidemiology-pathophysiology-pathology-and-etiology
Siegel, M.D. (2013). Supportive care and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. www.uptodate.com/contents/supportive-care-and-oxygenation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome.
Siegel, M.D. (2013). Acute respiratory distress syndrome: prognosis and outcomes. www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-prognosis-and-outcomes
Siegel, M.D. and Hyzy, R. C. (2013). Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. www.uptodate.com/contents/mechanical-ventilation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
Siegel, M.D. (2013). Novel therapies for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. www.uptodate.com/contents/novel-therapies-for-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome.
Sud, S., Friedrich, J. O., Taccone, P. et al. (2010). Prone ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure and severe hypoxemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Medicine 36, 585.
Ashbaugh, D. G., Bigelow, D. B., Petty, T. L., and Levine, B. E. (1967). Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 2, 319.
Bernard, G. R., Artigas, A., Brigham, K. L. et al. (1994). The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 149, 818.
Artigas, A., Bernard, G. R., Carlet, J. et al. (1998). The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS, part 2. Ventilatory, pharmacologic, supportive therapy, study design strategies, and issues related to recovery and remodeling. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 157, 1332.
Rubenfeld, G. D., Caldwell, E., Peabody, E. et al. (2005). Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury. New England Journal of Medicine 353, 1685.

Further reading

Thomas, M. D. (2013). Epidemiology, pathogenesis, microbiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia in adults. www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathogenesis-microbiology-and-diagnosis-of-hospital-acquired-ventilator-associated-and-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in-adults.
Thomas, M. D. (2013). Risk factors and prevention of hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia in adults. www.uptodate.com/contents/risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hospital-acquired-ventilator-associated-and-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in adults.
American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America (2005). Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 171, 388–416.
Kollef, M. H. (2004). Prevention of hospital-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Critical Care Medicine 32(6), 1396–1405.
No authors listed (1994). Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Respiratory Care 39(12), 1191–1236.
Mermel, L. A., Allon, M., Bouza, E. et al. (2009). Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: 2009. Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 49, 1.
Chaiyakunapruk, N., Veenstra, D. L., Lipsky, B. A., and Saint, S. (2002). Chlorhexidine compared with providine-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 136, 792.
O’Grady, N. P., Alexander, M., Dellinger, E. P. et al. (2002). Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 51, 1–29.
Safdar, N., Fine, J. P., and Maki, D. G. (2005). Meta-analysis: methods for diagnosing intravascular device-related bloodstream infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 142, 451–466.
Deshpande, K. S., Hatem, C., Ulrich, H. L. et al. (2005). The incidence of infectious complications of central venous catheters at the subclavian, internal jugular, and femoral sites in an intensive care unit population. Critical Care Medicine 33, 13–20.
Lai, K. K. (1998). Safety of prolonging peripheral cannula and i.v. tubing use from 72 hours to 96 hours. American Journal of Infection Control 26, 66–70.
Collin, J., Collin, C., Constable, F. L., and Johnston, I. D. (1975). Infusion thrombophlebitis and infection with various cannulas. Lancet 2, 150–153.
Raad, I., Umphrey, J., Khan, A. et al. (1993). The duration of placement as a predictor of peripheral and pulmonary arterial catheter infections. Journal of Hospital Infection 23, 17–26.
Band, J. D. and Maki, D. G. (1979). Infections caused by arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. American Journal of Medicine 67, 735–741.

Further reading

Dellinger, R. P., Levy, M. M., Rhodes, A., Annane, D., Gerlach, H. et al. (2013). Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including the Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Critical Care Medicine 41(2), 580–637.
Neviere, R. (2013). Sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome: definitions, epidemiology, and prognosis. www.uptodate.com/contents/sepsis-and-the-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-definitions-epidemiology-and-prognosis.
Schmidt, G. and Mandel, J. (2013). Management of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-in-adults.
Neviere, R. (2013). Pathophysiology of sepsis. www.uptodate.com/contents/pathophysiology-of-sepsis.
Kaufman, D. and Mancebo, J. (2013). Corticosteroid therapy in septic shock. www.uptodate.com/contents/corticosteroid-therapy-in-septic-shock.
No authors listed (1992). American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Critical Care Medicine 20, 864–874.
Levy, M. M., Fink, M. P., Marshall, J. C. et al. (2003). SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Critical Care Medicine 31(4), 1250–1256.
Annane, D., Bellissant, E., and Cavaillon, J.M. (2005). Septic shock. Lancet 365,63–78.
Dellinger, R. P., Levy, M. M., Carlet, J. M. et al. (2008). Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Critical Care Medicine 36,296–327.
Hollenberg, S. M., Ahrens, T. S., Annane, D. et al. (2004). Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Critical Care Medicine 32, 1928–1948.
Rivers, E., Nguyen, B., Havstad, S. et al. (2001). Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 1368–1377.
Rhodes, A. and Bennett, E. D. (2004). Early goal-directed therapy: an evidence-based review. Critical Care Medicine 32, S448–S450.
Brun-Buisson, C, Doyon, F., Carlet, J. et al. (1995). Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis. Journal of the American Medical Association 274, 968–974.

Further reading

Pasternak, J. and Lanier, W. (2008). Diseases affecting the brain. In Hines, R. and Marschall, K. (eds) Stoelting’s Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill-Livingstone, pp. 199–238.
Walz, J. and Heard, S. (2011). Anesthetic management of the brain-dead organ donor. In Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. J., Urman, R. D., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) Essential Clinical Anesthesia. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1002–1006.
Williams, M. and Rogers, S. O. (2011). Principles of trauma management. In Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. J., Urman, R. D., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) Essential Clinical Anesthesia. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1007–1009.

Further reading

Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 163.

Further reading

Williams, M., Shimizu, N., and Gates, J. D. (2011). Venous thromboembolic disease in the critically ill patient. In Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. J., Urman, R. D., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (eds) Essential Clinical Anesthesia. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1010–1015.
Roizen, M. F. and Fleisher, L. A. (2010). Anesthetic implications of concurrent diseases. In Miller, R. D. et al. (eds) Miller’s Anesthesia, 7th edn. Philadelphia: Elsevier, pp. 1067–1150.
Decousus, H., Leizorovicz, A., Parent, F. et al. (1998). A clinical trial of vena caval filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. Prevention du Risque d’Embolie Pulmonaire par Interruption Cave Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 338, 409–415.

Further reading

Bullock, M. R., ed. (2007). Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, 3rd edn. Journal of Neurotraumawww.braintrauma.org/pdf/protected/Guidelines_Management_2007w_bookmarks.pdf.
Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1016–1023.
Miller, R. D. (2010). Miller’s Anesthesia. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill-Livingstone/Elsevier, pp. 2296–2299.

Further reading

Alvarado, R., Chung, K. K., Cancio, L. C., and Wolf, S. E. (2009). Burn resuscitation. Burns 35(1), 4–14.
Bittner, E. A., Grecu, L., and Martyn, J. A. J. (2008). Evaluation of the burn patient. In Longnecker, D. E. et al. (eds) Anesthesiology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bittner, E. A., Grecu, L., and Martyn, J. A. J. (2008). Management of anesthesia for the burn patient. In Longnecker, D. E. et al. (eds) Anesthesiology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ipaktchi, K. and Arbabi, S. (2006). Advances in burn critical care. Critical Care Medicine 34(Suppl.), S239–S244.
Latenser, B. A. (2009). Critical care of the burn patient: the first 48 hours. Critical Care Medicine 37, 2819–2826.
Sheridan, R. (2002). Burns. Critical Care Medicine 30(Suppl.), S500–S514.
Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press.
El-Helbawy, R. H. and Ghareeb, F. M. (2011). Inhalation injury as a prognostic factor for mortality in burn patients. Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters 24(2), 82–88.
Mann, E. A., Baun, M. M., Meininger, J. C., and Wade, C. E. (2012). Comparison of mortality associated with sepsis in the burn, trauma, and general intensive care unit patient: a systematic review of the literature. Shock 37(1), 4–16.
Dai, T., Huang, Y. Y., Sharma, S. K. et al. (2010). Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections. Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery 5(2), 124–151.

Further reading

Applebaum, P. S. (2007). Assessment of patients’s competence to consent to treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 357, 1834–1840.
Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (1994). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th edn. New York: Oxford University Press.
Englehardt, H. T. (1996). The Foundations of Bioethics, 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press.
Vacanti, C. A., Sikka, P. K., Urman, R. U., Dershwitz, M., and Segal, B. S. (2011). Essential Clinical Anesthesia, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press.