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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: July 2009

12 - Legislation that regulates, limits, or bans electroconvulsive therapy

from Part II - Historical, societal, and geographic perspectives


Aden v. Younger, 129 Cal. Rptr. 535 (Cal. Ct. App., 1976).
Aiken v. Clary, 396 S.W. 2d 668 (Mo., 1965).
American Psychiatric Association (APA). 1978. Electroconvulsive therapy, Task Force Report 14. Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). 2001. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy: Recommendations for treatment, training and privileging, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: APA.
Avedis, H. H. (Director). 1980. The fifth floor [Motion picture]. United States: Hickmar Productions.
Barclay v. Campbell, 704 S.W. 2d 8 (Tex. Sup. Ct., 1986).
Brakel, S. and Rock, R. 1971. The mentally disabled and the law. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bromberg, W. 1979. The uses of psychiatry in the law: Clinical view of forensic psychiatry. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
California Assembly Bill No. 1032, 1976.
California Welfare and Institutions Code, Section 5326, West Supp., 1971.
Clark, M. and Lubenow, G. 1975. Attack on electroshock. Newsweek (Mr 17) 85: 86.
Clifford, G. (Director). 1982. Frances [Motion picture]. United States. Universal.
Comeback for shock therapy? 1979. Time (N19) 114: 76.
Dawson, J. 2005. Community treatment orders: International comparisons, May 2005. Cited in “ECT is Banned in Swiss Canton.” Available at Accessed September 17, 2008.
Dukakis, K. and Tye, L. 2006. Shock: The healing power of electroconvulsive therapy. New York: Penguin Group.
Editor. 1995. News and notes: Anti-ECT legislation in Texas. Convuls Ther 11(2): 148.
Electric shock findings. 1949. Newsweek (Ja 17) 33: 43.
Felthous, A. R. 1987. Barclay v. Campbell: Informed consent for antipsychotic medication comes to Texas. Newsl Am Acad Psychiatry Law 12(1): 7–9.
Felthous, A. R. 1989. Legislative update. Newsl Am Acad Psychiatry Law 14(2): 51–3.
Felthous, A. R. 1993. Legislative update. Newsl Am Acad Psychiatry Law 18(3): 69–71.
Fink, M. 1978. Efficacy and safety of induced seizures (EST) in man. Compr Psychiatry 19: 1–9.
Forman, M. (Director). 1975. One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Motion picture]. United States: Fantasy Films.
Frankel, F. H.,1973. ECT in Massachusetts: A task force report. Mass Journal Ment Health 3: 3–29.
Freishtat, H. W. 1985. Electroconvulsive therapy: No ban in Berkeley. J Clin Psychopharmacol 5: 52–3.
Friedberg, J. 1975. Electroshock therapy: Let's stop shocking the brain. Psychology Today 9(3): 18, 20–21, 23, 25–26.
Friedberg, J. 1976. Shock treatment is not good for your brain. San Francisco: Glide Publications.
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Fuller, S. (Writer, director, and producer). 1964. Shock treatment [Motion picture]. United States: Arcola Pictures.
Gabbard, G. O. and Gabbard, K. 1999. Psychiatry and the cinema, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Grosser, G. H., Pearsall, D. J., Fisher, C. L., et al. 1975. The regulation of ECT in Massachusetts: A follow-up. Mass Journal Ment Health 5: 12–25.
Hapgood, F. 1980. Electroshock: The unkindest therapy of all. Atlantic Monthly 245: 53–6, 58–9.
Harris, V. 2006. Electroconvulsive therapy: Administrative codes, legislation and professional recommendations. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 34(3): 406–11.
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Janicak, P. G., David, J. M., and Gibbons, R. D. 1985. Efficacy of ECT. A meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 132: 297–302.
Jenusky, S. M. 1992. Public perceptions of electroconvulsive therapy: A historical review. The Jefferson Journal of Psychiatry 10: 2–11.
Keller, R. 2001. Presenting Rod Keller's alt.religion.scientology week in review 5(40) Jan 21, 2001. Citing article in Atlantic Monthly.
Kelley, J. L. 1996. Psychiatric malpractice: Stories of patients, psychiatrists and the law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, pp. 117–133, p. 129. (For sources for Chapter 9, The Osheroff's Case, Kelley relied on depositions taken in the case, Osheroff v. Chestnut Lodge Hospital, Inc., Claim No. 82-262, Health Claims Arbitration Office, State of Maryland.)
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Levine, S. B., Blank, K., Schwartz, H. I., and Rait, D. S. 1991. Informed consent in the electroconvulsive treatment of geriatric patients. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 19: 395–403.
Levy, S. 1988. Letter to the Editor. “Cuff” monitoring, osteoporosis and fracture. Convuls Ther 4(3): 248–9.
Massachusetts Mental Health Regulation 181, effective May 1, 1973.
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Mills, M. J., Pearsall, D. T., Yesavage, J. A., and Salzman, C. 1984. Electroconvulsive therapy in Massachusetts. Am J Psychiatry 141(4): 534–8.
Missouri Revised Statute, Section 630.130.
Mitchell v. Robinson, 334 S.W. 2d 11 (Mo., 1960).
Morgan, R. F. 2005. Electroshock: The case against. Morgan Foundation Publisher: International Published Innovation.
Not so shocking. September 8, 1947. Time. Available at:,9171,804181,00.thml?iid=digg_share, accessed December 26, 2008.
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Quinley v. Cooke, 192 S.W. 2d 992 (Tenn., 1946).
Reid, W. H., Keller, S., Leatherman, M., and Mason, M. 1998. ECT in Texas: 19 months of mandatory reporting. J Clin Psychiatry 59(1): 8–13.
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Rudorfer, M. V., Henry, M. E., and Sackeim, H. A. 1997. Electroconvulsive therapy. In Psychiatry (eds. Tasman, A., Kay, J., and Liberman, J. A.). Vol. 2. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, pp. 1535–1556, 1536.
Sackeim, H. A., Prudic, J., and Devanand, D. P. 1991. Stimulus intensity, seizure threshold and seizure duration: Impact on the efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatr Clin North Am 14: 803–43.
Scarano, V. R., Felthous, A. R., and Early, T. S. 2000a. The state of electroconvulsive therapy in Texas, Part 1. Reported data on 41,660 ECT treatments in 5971 patients. J Forensic Sci 45(6): 1197–202.
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Summary and analysis. 1982. Mental Disability Law Reporter 6: 366.
Texas House of Representatives Bill 2435.
Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated, Article 4590; 6.07 (b) (Vernon Supp., 1986).
Thompson, J. W. and Blaine, J. D. 1987. The use of ECT in the United States in 1975 and 1980. Am J Psychiatry 144(5): 557–62.
Vernon Texas Civil Statutes. Title 7. Mental Health and Mental Retardation. Chapter 578. Electroconvulsive and other therapies.
Vernon Texas Civil Statutes. Title 7. Mental Health and Mental Retardation. Chapter 578. Electroconvulsive and other therapies. Section 578.002(a).
Vernon Texas Civil Statutes. Title 7. Mental Health and Mental Retardation. Chapter 578. Electroconvulsive and other therapies. Section 578.003.
Vernon Texas Civil Statutes. Title 7. Mental Health and Mental Retardation. Chapter 578. Electroconvulsive and other therapies. Section 578.007(a) and (b).
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Winslade, W. J., Liston, E. H., Ross, J. W., and Weber, K. D. 1984. Medical, judicial and statutory regulation of ECT in the United States. Am J Psychiatry 141: 1349–5.
Wyatt v. Hardin. U.S. Dist. (M.D. Ala., 1975).