Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: May 2010

7 - Putting your own down: How members of disadvantaged groups unwittingly perpetuate or exacerbate their disadvantage

Summary

Group-based disadvantage in organizations

One of the great challenges contemporary work organizations face, is the increasing diversity of the labor force. It is generally acknowledged that, in addition to a variety of practical issues that may play a role, there are a number of relevant psychological processes that affect the well-being, motivation, and career performance of workers with different ethnic or demographic backgrounds. For instance, in relation to personnel selection, it has been established that the same job application is rated differently, depending on whether or not the person who submitted it uses an ethnic name (Bovenkerk, Gras, and Ramsoedh, 1995; see also Riach and Rich, 2002). Likewise, the same product is evaluated less favorably when people think it is made by a female worker than when they think it is produced by a male (e.g., Bartol, 1999; Davison and Burke, 2000; Graves, 1999). When the quality of a particular work performance is established objectively, people still draw different conclusions about the actual competence of the person, or hold different expectations about future possibilities, depending on their ethnic or gender identity (Deaux, 1976; 1984; Deaux and Emswiller, 1974; Swim et al., 1989). As a result of such psychological biases, individual workers may experience discrimination in employment situations, on the basis of their age (Bendick, Jackson, and Romero, 1996), race and gender (Hitt, Zikmund, and Pickens, 1982; McIntrye, Moberg, and Posner, 1980), physical disabilities (Ravaud, Madiot, and Ville, 1992), or sexual orientation (Weichselbaumer, 2003).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Aronson, J. and Salinas, M. F. (2001). Stereotype threat, attributional ambiguity, and Latino underperformance. Unpublished manuscript, New York University.
Ashforth, B. E. and Kreiner, G. E. (1999). “How can you do it?”: Dirty work and the challenge of constructing a positive identity. Academic of Management Review, 24, 413–434.
Baron, R. S., Burgess, M. L., and Kao, C. F. (1991). Detecting and labeling prejudice: Do female perpetrators go undetected?Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 115–123.
Baron, J. and Pfeffer, J. (1994). The social psychology of organizations and inequality. Social Psychological Quarterly, 57, 190–207.
Barreto, M. and Ellemers, N. (2000). You can't always do what you want: Social identity and self-presentational determinants of the choice to work for a low status group. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 891–906.
Barreto, M. and Ellemers, N. (2005a). The burden of “benevolent” sexism: How it contributes to the maintenance of gender inequalities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 633–642.
Barreto, M. and Ellemers, N. (2005b). The perils of political correctness: Responses of men and women to old-fashioned and modern sexism. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68, 75–88.
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., and Banal, S. (2006). Working under cover: Performance-related self-confidence among members of contextually devalued groups who try to pass. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 337–352.
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., and Palacios, M. (2004). The backlash of token mobility: The impact of past group experiences on individual ambition and effort. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1433–1445.
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., and Tiemersma, J. (2005). The effects of passing on emotional well-being and work-related outcomes. Manuscript in preparation.
Bartol, K. M. (1999). Gender influences on performance evaluations. In Powell, G. N. (ed.), Handbook of Gender and Work (pp. 165–178). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Becker, H. A. and Beekes, A. M. G. (1990). Loopbanen van mannelijke en vrouwelijke academici aan Nederlandse universiteiten. Een studie naar de ontwikkelingen tussen 1974 en 1986 [Career development among male and female academics at universities in the Netherlands. A study into developments between 1974 and 1986]. Utrecht: ISOR.
Bendick, M. Jr., Jackson, C., and Romero, J. (1996). Employment discrimination against older workers: An experimental study of hiring practices. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 8, 25–46.
Biernat, M., Crandall, C. S., Young, L. V., Kobrynowicz, D., and Halpin, S. M. (1998). All that you can be: Stereotyping of self and others in a military context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 301–317.
Blascovich, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., and Steele, C. M. (2001). Stereotype threat and the cardiovascular reactivity of African-Americans. Psychological Science, 12, 225–229.
Bobo, L. and Hutchings, V. L. (1996). Perceptions of racial group competition: Extending Blumer's theory of group composition to a multiracial social context. American Sociological Review, 61, 951–972.
Bovenkerk, F., Gras, M., and Ramsoedh, D. (1995). Discrimination against migrant workers and ethnic minorities in access to employment in the Netherlands. International Migration Papers, 4. Geneva: International Labour Office.
Branscombe, N. R. (1998). Thinking about one's gender-group's privileges or disadvantages: Consequences for well-being in women and men. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 167–184.
Branscombe, B. and Ellemers, N. (1998). Use of individualistic and group strategies in response to perceived group-based discrimination. In Swim, J. and Stangor, C. (eds.), Prejudice: The Target's Perspective (pp. 243–266). New York: Academic Press.
Branscombe, N. R., Schmitt, M. T., and Harvey, R. D. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African-Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 135–149.
Burgoon, J. K., Poire, B. A., and Rosenthal, R. (1995). Effects of preinteraction expectancies and target communication on perceiver reciprocity and compensation in dyadic interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 287–321.
Bylsma, W. H. and Major, B. (1992). Two routes to eliminating gender differences in personal entitlement: Social comparison and performance evaluations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16, 193–200.
Bylsma, W. H. and Major, B. (1994). Social comparisons and contentment: Exploring the psychological costs of the gender wage gap. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 241–249.
Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Frigerio, S., Impagliazzo, L., and Latinotti, S. (2003). Stereotype threat: The effect of expectancy on performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 267–285.
Carvallo, M. and Pelham, B. W. (2006). When fiends become friends: The need to belong and perceptions of personal and group discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 94–108.
Cihangir, S., Barreto, M., and Ellemers, N. (2006a). Dealing with discrimination: The moderating role of self-efficacy in responses to subtle and blatant discrimination. Manuscript under review.
Cihangir, S., Barreto, M., and Ellemers, N. (2006b). The role of social influence in moderating perceptions of subtle discrimination and their impact on the self. Manuscript in preparation.
Clair, J. A., Beatty, J. E., and MacLean, T. L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30, 78–95.
Claire, T. and Fiske, S. T. (1998). A systemic view of behavioral confirmation: Counterpoint to the individualistic view. In Sedikides, C. and Schopler, C. (eds.), Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behavior (pp. 205–231). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., and Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54, 316–322.
Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., and Visscher, B. R. (1996). Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Health Psychology, 15, 243–251.
Crocker, J. and Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608–630.
Crocker, J., Voekl, K., Testa, M., and Major, B. (1991). Social stigma: The affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 218–228.
Croizet, J. C. and Claire, T. (1998). Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class : The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 588–594.
Crosby, F. (1982). Relative Deprivation among Working Women. New York: Oxford University Press.
Crosby, F. (1984). The denial of personal discrimination. American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 371–386.
Crosby, F., Clayton, S., Alksnis, O., and Hemker, K. (1986). Cognitive biases in the perception of discrimination: The importance of format. Sex Roles, 14, 637–646.
Crosby, F., Pufall, A., Snyder, R. C., O'Connell, M., and Whalen, P. (1989). The denial of personal disadvantage among you, me, and all the other ostriches. In Crawford, M., and Gentry, M. (eds.), Gender and Thought (pp. 79–99). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 195–209.
Davison, H. J. and Burke, M. J. (2000). Sex discrimination in simulated employment contexts: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 225–248.
Deaux, K. (1976). Sex: A perspective on the attribution process. In Harvey, J. H., Ickes, W. J., and Kidd, R. J. (eds.), New Directions in Attribution Research (Vol. 1, pp. 335–352). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's research on gender. American Psychologist, 39, 105–116.
Deaux, K. and Emswiller, T. (1974). Explanations for successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 80–85.
Derks, B., Laar, C., and Ellemers, N. (2006). Striving for success in outgroup settings: Effects of contextually emphasizing ingroup dimensions on stigmatized group members' social identity and performance styles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 576–588.
Derks, B., Laar, C., and Ellemers, N. (2007). Social creativity strikes back: Improving low status group members' motivation and performance by valuing ingroup dimensions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 470–493.
Devine, P. G., Plant, E. A., and Blair, I. V. (2001). Classic and contemporary analyses of racial prejudice. In Brown, R. and Gaertner, S. (eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes (pp. 198–217). Oxford: Blackwell.
Dion, K. L. (1975). Women's reactions to discrimination from members of the same or opposite sex. Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 294–306.
Dion, K. L. and Earn, B. M. (1975). The phenomenology of being a target of prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 944–50.
Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 829–849.
Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., and Klonsky, B. G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 3–22.
Eccleston, C. P. and Major, B. (2006). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: The role of group identification and appraisals. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9, 147–162.
Ellemers, N. (1993a). The influence of socio-structural variables on identity enhancement strategies. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 27–57.
Ellemers, N. (1993b). Sociale identiteit en sekse: Het dilemma van succesvolle vrouwen [Social identity and gender: The dilemma of successful women]. Tijdschrift voor vrouwenstudies, 14, 322–336.
Ellemers, N. (2001). Individual upward mobility and the perceived legitimacy of intergroup relations. In Jost, J. T. and Major, B. (eds.), The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations (pp. 205–222). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ellemers, N. and Barreto, M. (2000). The impact of relative group status: Affective, perceptual and behavioral consequences. In Brown, R. and Gaertner, S. (eds.), The Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume 4: Intergroup Processes (pp. 324–343). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Ellemers, N. and Barreto, M. (in press). Maintaining the illusion of meritocracy. In Demoulin, S., Leyens, J. P., and Dovidio, J. F. (eds.). Intergroup Misunderstandings: Impact of Divergent Social Realities. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Ellemers, N., Barreto, M., and Spears, R. (1999). Commitment and strategic responses to social context. In Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (eds.), Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content (pp. 127–46). Oxford: Blackwell.
Ellemers, N., Gilder, D., and Haslam, S. A. (2004). Motivating individuals and groups at work: A social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review, 29, 459–478.
Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161–186.
Ellemers, N., Heuvel, H., Gilder, D., Maass, A., and Bonvini, A. (2004). The underrepresentation of women in science: Differential commitment or the queen-bee syndrome?British Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 315–338.
Ellemers, N., Dyck, C., Hinkle, S., and Jacobs, A. (2000). Intergroup differentiation in social context: Identity needs versus audience constraints. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63, 60–74.
Ellemers, N. and Rijswijk, W. (1997). Identity needs versus social opportunities: The use of group-level and individual-level identity management strategies. Social Psychology Quarterly, 60, 52–65.
Ellemers, N., Rijswijk, W., Roefs, M., and Simons, C. (1997). Bias in intergroup perceptions: Balancing group identity with social reality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 186–198.
Elsbach, K. D. and Kramer, R. D. (1996). Members' responses to organizational identity threats: Encountering and countering the Business Week rankings. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 442–476.
Ethier, K. and Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 243–251.
Farina, A., Gliha, D., Boudreau, L. A., Allen, J. G., and Sherman, M. (1971). Mental illness and the impact of believing others know about it. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 1–5.
Feagin, J. R. and Sikes, M. P. (1994). Living with Racism: The Black Middle-class Experience. Boston: Beacon Press.
Feldman-Barrett, L. and Swim, J. K. (1998). Appraisals of prejudice and discrimination. In Swim, J. K. and Stangor, C. (eds.), Prejudice: The Target's Perspective (pp. 12–37). San Diego: Academic Press.
Fiske, S. T., Bersoff, D. N., Borgida, E., Deaux, K., and Heilman, M. E. (1991). Social science research on trial: Use of sex stereotyping research in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins. American Psychologist, 46, 1049–1060.
Foster, M. D., Jackson, L. C., Hartmann, R., and Woulfe, S. (2004). Minimizing the pervasiveness of women's personal experiences of gender discrimination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 224–232.
Frable, D. E. S. (1993). Being and feeling unique: Statistical deviance and psychological marginality. Journal of Personality, 61, 85–110.
Garcia, D. M., Reser, A. H., Amo, R. B., Redersdorff, S., and Branscombe, N. R. (2005). Perceivers responses to in-group and out-group members who blame a negative outcome on discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 769–780.
Gibson, D. C. and Cordova, D. I. (1999). Women's and men's role models: The importance of exemplars. In Ely, R. J., Murrell, A. J., and Crosby, F. J. (eds.), Mentoring Dilemmas: Developmental Relationships within Multicultural Organizations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Glick, P. and Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512.
Glick, P., and Fiske, S. T. (2001). Ambivalent sexism. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego: Academic Press.
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Graves, L. M. (1999). Gender bias in interviewers' evaluations of applicants: When and how does it occur? In Powell, G. N. (ed.), Handbook of Gender and Work (pp. 145–165). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Greenwood, D. and Isbell, L. M. (2002). Ambivalent sexism and the dumb blonde: Men's and women's reactions to sexist jokes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 341–350.
Gurin, P., Miller, A. H., and Gurin, G. (1980). Stratum identification and consciousness. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43, 30–47.
Hafer, C. L. and Olson, J. M. (1989). Beliefs in a just world and reactions to personal deprivation. Journal of Personality, 57, 799–823.
Harris, C. (2001). Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 886–897.
Haslam, S. A. and Ellemers, N. (2005). Social identity in industrial and organizational psychology. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 20, 39–118.
Hawkins, A. and Noordenbos, G. (1991). The “Matthew Effect” in the relative position of women in academe. Universiteit en Hogeschool, 38, 124–135.
Heilman, M. E. and Herlihy, J. M. (1984). Affirmative action, negative reaction? Some moderating conditions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 204–213.
Hilton, J. L. and Darley, J. M. (1985). Constructing other persons: A limit on the effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 1–18.
Hitt, M., Zikmund, W., and Pickens, B. (1982). Discrimination in industrial employment: An investigation of race and sex bias among professionals. Work and Occupations, 9, 217–231.
Hogg, M. A. and Abrams, D. A. (1988). Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
Hopkins, A. B. (1996). So Ordered: Making Partner the Hard Way. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Ibarra, H. (1992). Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 422–447.
Inman, M. L. (2001). Do you see what I see? Similarities and differences in victims' and observers' perceptions of discrimination. Social Cognition, 19, 521–546.
Inman, M. L. and Baron, R. S. (1996). Influence of prototypes on perceptions of prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 727–739.
Inman, M. L., Huerta, J., and Oh, S. (1998). Perceiving discrimination: The role of prototypes and norm violation. Social Cognition, 16, 418–450.
Jackman, M. R. (1994). The Velvet Glove: Paternalism and Conflict in Gender, Class, and Race Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jetten, J., Postmes, T., and McAuliffe, B. (2002). We're all individuals: Group norms of individualism and collectivism, levels of identification, and identity threat. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 189–207.
Jetten, J., Spears, R., and Manstead, A. S. R. (1999). Group distinctiveness and intergroup discrimination. In Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (eds.), Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content (pp. 107–126). Oxford: Blackwell.
Jetten, J., Spears, R., and Manstead, A. S. R. (2000). Similarity as a source of differentiation: The role of group identification. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 621–640.
Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., and Scott, R. A. (1984). Social Stigma: The Psychology of Marked Relationships. New York: Freeman.
Jost, J. T. and Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system-justification and the production of false consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 1–27.
Jost, J. T. and Elsbach, K. D. (2001). How status and power differences erode personal and social identities at work: A system justification critique of organizational applications of social identity theory. In Hogg, M. A. and Terry, D. J. (eds.), Social Identity Processes in Organizational Contexts (pp. 181–196). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Jost, J. T. and Major, B. (eds.) (2001). The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jussim, L. and Fleming, C. (1996). Self-fulfilling prophecies and the maintenance of social stereotypes: The role of dyadic interactions and social forces. In Macrae, C. N., Stangor, C., and Hewstone, M. (eds.), Foundations of Stereotypes and Stereotyping (pp. 161–193). New York: The Guilford Press.
Jussim, L., Palumbo, P., Chatman, C., Madon, S., and Smith, A. (2000). Stigma and self-fulfilling prophecies. In Heatherton, T. F. and Kleck, R. E. (eds.), The Social Psychology of Stigma (pp. 374–418). New York: The Guildford Press.
Kaiser, C. R. and Miller, C. T. (2001). Stop complaining! The social costs of making attributions to discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 254–263.
Katz, I. (1981). Stigma: A Social Psychological Analysis. Hillsdale: Erlbaum Associates.
Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., and Leisse, U. K. (2000). The personal group discrepancy: Is there a common information basis for personal and group judgment?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 95–109.
Kirchmeyer, C. (1998). Determinants of managerial career success: Evidence and explanation of male/female differences. Journal of Management, 24, 673–692.
Klein, O. and Snyder, M. (2003). Stereotypes and behavioral confirmation: From interpersonal to intergroup perspectives. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 35). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kluegal, J. R. and Smith, E. R. (1986). Beliefs about Inequality: American's View of What Is and What Ought to Be. Hawthorne: Aldine de Gruyer.
Kobrynowicz, D. and Branscombe, N. R. (1997). Who considers themselves victims of discrimination? Individual difference predictors of perceived gender discrimination in women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 347–363.
Konrad, A. M. and Linnehan, F. (1999). Affirmative action: History, effects and attitudes. In Powell, G. N. (ed.), Handbook of Gender and Work (pp. 429–452). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Kray, L. J., Thompson, L., and Galinsky, A. (2001). Battle of the sexes: Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 942–958.
LaFrance, M. and Woodzicka, J. A. (1998). No laughing matter: Women's verbal and nonverbal reactions to sexist humor. In. Swim, J. and Stangor, C. (eds.), Prejudice: The Target's Perspective (pp. 62–79). San Diego: Academic Press.
Landrine, H. and Klonoff, E. A. (1997). Discrimination against Women: Prevalence, Consequences, Remedies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lawler, A. (1999). Tenured women battle to make it less lonely at the top. Science, 286, 1272–1278.
Lerner, M. J. and Miller, D. T. (1978). Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1030–1051.
Link, B. G. (1982). Mental patient status, work, and income: An examination of the effects of a psychiatric label. American Sociological Review, 47, 202–215.
Lupton, B. (2006). Explaining men's entry into female-concentrated occupations: Issues of masculinity and social class. Gender, Work, and Organization, 13, 103–128.
Magley, V. J., Hulin, C. L., Fitzgerald, L. F., and DeNardo, M. (1999). Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 390–402.
Major, B. (1994). From social inequality to personal entitlement: The role of social comparisons, legitimacy appraisals, and group membership. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 26, pp. 293–348). San Diego: Academic Press.
Major, B. and Forcey, B. (1985). Social comparisons and pay evaluations: Preference for same-sex and same-job wage comparisons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 393–405.
Major, B. and Gramzow, R. H. (1999). Abortion as stigma: Cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 735–745.
Major, B., Gramzow, R. H., McCoy, S. K., Levin, S., Schmader, T., and Sidanius, J. (2002). Perceiving personal discrimination: The role of group status and legitimizing ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 269–282.
Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., and McCoy, S. K. (2003). It's not my fault: When and why attributions to prejudice protect self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 772–781.
Major, B., McFarlin, D. B., and Gagnon, D. (1984). Overworked and underpaid: On the nature of gender differences in personal entitlement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1399–1412.
Major, B. and O'Brien, L. (2005). The social psychology of stigma. Annual Review of Psychology (Vol. 56). Chippewa Falls, WI: Annual Reviews.
Major, B., Quinton, W. J., and McCoy, S. K. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of attributions to discrimination: Theoretical and empirical advances. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 251–329). San Diego: Academic Press.
Major, B., Quinton, W. J., and Schmader, T. (2003). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: Impact of group identification and situational ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 220–231.
Major, B. and Schmader, T. (2001). Legitimacy and the construal of social disadvantage. In Jost, J. and Major, B. (eds.), The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations (pp. 176–204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Major, B., Spencer, S., Schmader, T., Wolfe, C., and Crocker, J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about academic performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34–50.
Major, B. and Testa, M. (1989). Social comparison processes and judgments of entitlement and satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 101–120.
Marques, J. M. and Paez, D. (1994). The “black sheep effect”: Social categorization, rejection of ingroup deviates, and perception of group variability. In Stroebe, W. and Hewstone, M. (eds.), European Review of Social Psychology, 5, 38–68.
McConahay, J. B. (1983). Modern racism and modern discrimination: The effects of race, racial attitudes, and context on simulated hiring decisions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 551–558.
McIntrye, S., Moberg, D., and Posner, B. (1980). Preferential treatment in preselection decisions according to sex and race. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 738–749.
Miller, D. T. and Turnbull, W. (1986). Expectancies and interpersonal processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 233–256.
Mlicki, P. and Ellemers, N. (1996). Being different or being better? National stereotypes and identifications of Polish and Dutch students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 97–114.
Mullen, B., Brown, R., and Smith, C. (1992). Ingroup bias as a function of salience, relevance, and status: An integration. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 103–122.
Mullin, B. and Hogg, M. A. (1989). Dimensions of subjective uncertainty in social identification and minimal group discrimination. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 345–365.
Mummendey, A. and Schreiber, H. J. (1983). Better or just different? Positive social identity by discrimination against or differentiation from outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 389–397.
Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A., and Turner, J. C. (1994) Stereotyping and Social Reality. Oxford: Blackwell.
Olson, J. M., Roese, N. J., and Zanna, M. P. (1996). Expectancies. In Higgins, E. T. and Kruglanski, A. W. (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (pp. 211–238). New York: The Guilford Press.
Operario, D. and Fiske, S. T. (2001). Ethnic identity moderates perceptions of prejudice: Judgments of personal versus group discrimination and subtle versus blatant bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 550–561.
Ostfield, M. L. and Jehn, K. A. (1999). Personal revelation and conflict in organizational settings: The gay individual as social perceiver of power and safety. Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 7, 179–202.
Ouwerkerk, J. W. and Ellemers, N. (2002). The benefits of being disadvantaged: Performance-related circumstances and consequences of intergroup comparisons. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 73–91.
Paxton, S. (2002). The paradox of public HIV disclosure. AIDS-Care, 14, 559–567.
Pennebaker, J. W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 239–245.
Pettigrew, T. F. and Martin, J. (1987). Shaping the organizational context for black American inclusion. Journal of Social Issues, 43, 41–78.
Pettigrew, T. F. and Meertens, R. W. (1995). Subtle and blatant prejudice in Western Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 57–75.
Pinel, E. C. (1999). Stigma consciousness: The psychological legacy of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 114–128.
Pinel, E. C. (2004). You're just saying that because I'm a woman: Stigma consciousness and attributions to discrimination. Self and Identity, 3, 39–51.
Postmes, T., Branscombe, N. R., Spears, R., and Young, H. (1999). Comparative processes in personal and group judgments: Resolving the discrepancy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 320–338.
Postmes, T. and Spears, R. (1998). Deindividuation and anti-normative behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 238–259.
Pryor, J. B. and Whalen, N. J. (1996). A typology of sexual harassment: Characteristics of harassers and social circumstances under which sexual harassment occurs. In O'Donohue, W. (ed.), Sexual Harassment: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.
Quinn, D. M., Kahng, S. K., and Crocker, J. (2004). Discreditable: Stigma effects of revealing a mental illness history on test performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 803–815.
Ravaud, J. R., Madiot, B., and Ville, I. (1992). Discrimination towards disabled people seeking employment. Social Science and Medicine, 35, 951–958.
Redersdorff, S., Martinot, D., and Branscombe, N. R. (2004). The impact of thinking about group based disadvantages or advantages on women's well-being: An experimental test of the rejection-identification model. Current Psychology of Cognition, 22, 203–222.
Riach, P. and Rich, J. (2002). Field experiments of discrimination in the market place. The Economic Journal, 112, 480–518.
Rodin, M. J., Price, J. M., Bryson, J. B., and Sanchez, F. J. (1990). Asymmetry in prejudice attribution. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 481–504.
Ruggiero, K. M. and Taylor, D. M. (1995). Coping with discrimination: How disadvantaged group members perceive the discrimination that confronts them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 826–838.
Ruggiero, K. M., and Taylor, D. M. (1997). Why minority group members perceive or do not perceive the discrimination that confronts them: The role of self-esteem and perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 373–389.
Ruggiero, K. M., Taylor, D. M., and Lydon, J. E. (1997). How disadvantaged group members cope with discrimination when they perceive that social support is available. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1581–1600.
Rutte, C. G., Diekmann, K. A., Polzer, J. T., Crosby, F., and Messick, D. M. (1994). Organization of information and detection of gender discrimination. Psychological Science, 5, 226–231.
Scheepers, D. and Ellemers, N. (2005). When the pressure is up: The assessment of social identity threat in low and high status groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 192–200.
Schmader, T. and Johns, M. (2003). Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440–452.
Schmader, T. and Major, B. (1999). The impact of ingroup vs. outgroup performance on personal values. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 47–67.
Schmader, T., Major, B., and Gramzow, R. H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93–111.
Schmitt, M. T. and Branscombe, N. R. (2002a). The internal and external causal loci of attributions to prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 484–492.
Schmitt, M. T. and Branscombe, N. R. (2002b). The meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups. European Review of Social Psychology, 12, 167–199.
Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., Kobrynowicz, D., and Owen, S. (2002). Perceiving discrimination against one's gender group has different implications for well-being in women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 197–210.
Schmitt, M. T., Ellemers, N., and Branscombe, N. (2003). Perceiving and responding to gender discrimination at work. In Haslam, A., Knippenberg, D., Platow, M., and Ellemers, N., Social Identity at Work: Developing Theory for Organizational Practice (pp. 277–292). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Sechrist, G., Swim, J. K., and Stangor, C. (2004). When do the stigmatized make attributions to discrimination occurring to self and others? The roles of self-presentation and need for control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 111–122.
Sellers, R. M. and Shelton, J. N. (2003). The role of racial identity in perceived racial discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1079–1092.
Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., and Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 10, 80–83.
Simon, B., Loewy, M., Stuermer, S., Weber, U., Freytag, P., Habig, C., Kampmeier, C., and Spahlinger, P. (1998). Collective identification and social movement participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 646–658.
Smart, L. and Wegner, D. M. (1999). Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 474–486.
Snyder, M. (1992). Motivational foundations of behavioral confirmation. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 67–114). San Diego: Academic Press.
Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., and Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 656–666.
Spears, R., Doosje, B., and Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538–553.
Spears, R., Jetten, J., and Scheepers, D. (2000). Distinctiveness and the definition of collective self: A tripartite model. In Tesser, A., Wood, J. V., and Stapel, D. A. (eds.), Psychological Perspectives on Self and Identity, Vol. 2. Lexington: APA.
Spears, R. and Manstead, A. S. R. (1989). The social context of stereotyping and differentiation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 101–121.
Spears, R., Oakes, P. J., Ellemers, N., and Haslam, S. A. (eds.) (1997). The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
Spencer, S. J., Iserman, E., Davies, P. G., and Quinn, D. M. (2001). Suppression of Doubts, Anxiety, and Stereotypes as a Mediator of the Effect of Stereotype Threat on Women's Math Performance. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo.
Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., and Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4–28.
Stangor, C., Carr, C., and Kiang, L. (1998). Activating stereotypes undermines task performance expectations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 613–629.
Stangor, C., Swim, J. K., Allen, K., and Sechrist, G. (2001). Reporting discrimination in public and private contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 69–74.
Steele, C. M. and Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.
Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., and Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In Zanna, M. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379–440). San Diego: Academic Press.
Stone, J., Lynch, C. I., Sjomeling, M., and Darley, J. M. (1998). Stereotype threat effects on black and white athletic performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1213–1227.
Swann, W. B. (1990). To be adored or to be known: The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In Sorrentino, R. M. and Higgins, E. T. (eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 408–448). New York: The Guildford Press.
Swann, W. B. Jr. and Ely, R. J. (1984). A battle of wills: Self-verification versus behavioral confirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1287–1302.
Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., and Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 199–214.
Swim, J. K., Borgida, E., Maruyama, G., and Myers, D. G. (1989). Joan McKay versus John McKay: Do gender stereotypes bias evaluations?Psychological Bulletin, 105, 409–429.
Swim, J. K. and Cohen, L. L. (1997). Overt, covert and subtle sexism: A comparison between the Attitudes Toward Women and Modern Sexism scales. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 103–118.
Swim, J. K. and Hyers, L. L., (1999). Excuse me – what did you just say?! Women's public and private responses to sexist remarks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 68–88.
Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., and Ferguson, M. J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 31–53.
Swim, J. K., Mallet, R., and Stangor, C. (2004). Understanding subtle sexism: Detection and use of sexist language. Sex Roles, 51, 117–128.
Tajfel, H. (ed.) (1978). Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In Austin, W. G. and Worchel, S. (eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.
Taylor, D. M. and McKirnan, D. J. (1984). A five-stage model of intergroup relations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 23, 291–300.
Taylor, D. M., Wright, S. C., Moghaddam, F. M., and Lalonde, R. N. (1990). The personal/group discrimination discrepancy: Perceiving my group, but not myself, to be a target of discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 254–262.
Taylor, D. M., Wright, S. C., and Porter, L. E. (1994). Dimensions of perceived discrimination: The personal/group discrimination discrepancy. In Zanna, M. and Olson, J. M. (eds.), The Psychology of Prejudice: The Ontario Symposium. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Taylor, S. E. and Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.
Terry, D. J. (2003). A social identity perspective on organizational mergers: The role of group status, permeability, and similarity. In Haslam, S. A., Knippenberg, D., Platow, M. J., and Ellemers, N. (eds.), Social Identity at Work: Developing Theory for Organizational Practice (pp. 223–240). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Tomaka, J. and Blascovich, J. (1994). Effects of justice beliefs on cognitive appraisal of and subjective physiological and behavioral responses to potential stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 732–740.
Turner, J. C. (1999). Some current issues in research on social identity and self-categorization theories. In Ellemers, N., Spears, R., and Doosje, B. (eds.), Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content (pp. 6–34). Oxford: Blackwell.
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S., and Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-categorisation theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Knippenberg, A. and Ellemers, N. (1990). Social identity and intergroup differentiation processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 137–169.
Knippenberg, A. and Oers, H. (1984). Social identity and equity concerns in intergroup perceptions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 23, 351–361.
Rijswijk, W. and Ellemers, N. (2002). Context effects on the application of stereotype content to multiple categorizable targets. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 90–101.
Rijswijk, W., Haslam, S. A., and Ellemers, N. (2006). Who do we think we are? The effects of social context and social identification on ingroup stereotyping. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 161–174.
Baeyer, , Sherk, C. L., , D. L., and Zanna, M. (1981). Impression management in the job interview: When the female applicant meets the male (chauvinist) interviewer. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 45–51.
Vorauer, J. D., Hunter, A. J., Main, K. J., and Roy, S. A. (2000). Meta-stereotype activation: Evidence from indirect measures for specific evaluative concerns experienced by members of dominant groups in intergroup interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 690–707.
Vorauer, J. and Kumhyr, S. M. (2001). Is this about you or me? Self- versus other-directed judgments and feelings in response to intergroup interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 706–719.
Waldo, C. R. (1999). Working in a majority context: A structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 218–232.
Weber, R. and Crocker, J. (1983). Cognitive processes in the revision of stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 961–977.
Weichselbaumer, D. (2003). Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring. Labour Economics, 10, 629–642.
Wilder, D. A. (1984). Intergroup contact: The typical member and the exception to the rule. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 177–194.
Wills, T. A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 245–271.
Wright, S. C. (2000). Strategic collective action: Social psychology and social change. In Brown, R. and Gaertner, S. (eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processses. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wright, S. C. (2001). Restricted intergroup boundaries: Tokenism, ambiguity, and the tolerance of injustive. In Jost, J. T. and Major, B. (eds.), The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations (pp. 223–256.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wright, S. C. and Taylor, D. M. (1999). Success under tokenism: Co-option of the newcomer and the prevention of collective protest. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 369–396.
Wright, S. C., Taylor, D. M., and Moghaddam, F. M. (1990). Responding to membership in a disadvantaged group: From acceptance to collective protest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 994–1003.
Zanna, M. P. and Pack, S. J. (1975). On the self-fulfilling nature of apparent sex differences in behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 583–591.