Skip to main content Accessibility help
Discourse Analysis and Media Attitudes
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 114
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Is the British press prejudiced against Muslims? In what ways can prejudice be explicit or subtle? This book uses a detailed analysis of over 140 million words of newspaper articles on Muslims and Islam, combining corpus linguistics and discourse analysis methods to produce an objective picture of media attitudes. The authors analyse representations around frequently cited topics such as Muslim women who wear the veil and 'hate preachers'. The analysis is self-reflexive and multidisciplinary, incorporating research on journalistic practices, readership patterns and attitude surveys to answer questions which include: what do journalists mean when they use phrases like 'devout Muslim' and how did the 9/11 and 7/7 attacks affect press reporting? This is a stimulating and unique book for those working in fields of discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, while clear explanations of linguistic terminology make it valuable to those in the fields of politics, media studies, journalism and Islamic studies.


‘This book investigates the ways in which the lives and actions of Muslims and Islam are represented in the British press. The authors use the corpus method of analysing vast amounts of data to weigh the overall impact of the media coverage. This approach offers stimulating new insights which offer useful suggestions as to the ways in which the current situation might be improved.’

Rt Hon Charles Clarke - Former UK Home Secretary

‘This study is destined to become a classic. It provides detailed evidence of how press influence works, and elegantly demonstrates the strength of corpus linguistics as a research tool.’

Susan Hunston - University of Birmingham

’Understanding the representation of Islam in the Western media is a major challenge that demands a balanced approach supported by real data. The methods that enhance this book throughout are rich in insight, comprehensive in vision and evidential at their core. Integrating large corpus-linguistic-informed databases with the qualitative accents of critical discourse analysis the book underlines the centrality of language use to the way we read media discourses and results in humanities scholarship at its very best.’

Ronald Carter - University of Nottingham

‘This excellent and very accessible book not only provides key insights into a topic of major social and political importance, it also clearly demonstrates the power of corpus linguistics to provide hard factual evidence for critical discourse analysis. This is a major contribution, not only to understanding of Islamophobia in the UK press, but also to the social sciences and discourse analysis as a whole.’

Guy Cook - King’s College London

‘[This book] uses corpus linguistic analysis to show how selective linguistic patterning in newspapers creates an overwhelmingly negative point of view in contemporary press coverage of Islam. Research approach and method are precisely defined, analytic techniques clearly explained and illustrated, and inferences from data weighed up in meticulous and even-handed exposition. The book demonstrates in exemplary fashion how linguistics can contribute to wider social debates; it will be of value not only to scholars and students in corpus linguistics and discourse analysis but also in other fields concerned with public representations of Islam or with problems of media responsibility.’

Alan Durant - Middlesex University

'What sets this discourse analysis apart from its predecessors is its completeness: the authors’ sample is not a selection of newspapers, accommodating the political stance of the outlet (left-leaning, right-leaning), the format (tabloid, broadsheet), or a narrow period; neither, having aggregated all the articles that mention the topic, do they thin the sample by random or purposive selection. Their corpus includes all the major daily newspapers and all the articles published therein that refer to Islam and Muslims between 1998 and 2009. Although the authors allow that some articles may have slipped through their net, the corpus they compiled contains 200,037 articles.'

Michael B. Munnik Source: Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Akbarzadeh, S., and Smith, B. 2005. The Representation of Islam and Muslims in the Media (The Age and Herald Sun Newspapers). Melbourne: Monash University.
Al-Hejin, B. 2009. ‘What matters about Muslim women? A comparison of BBC News and Arab News 1997–2008’. Paper presented at the 30th conference of the International Computer Archive for Modern and Medieval English, Lancaster, 29 May.
Anderson, B. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Ansari, H. 2004. ‘The Infidel Within’: Muslims in Britain since 1800. London: C. Hurst.
Awass, O. 1996. ‘The representation of Islam in the American media’. Hamdard Islamicus 19: 87–102.
Baker, P. 2005. Public Discourses of Gay Men. London: Routledge.
Baker, P. 2006. Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.
Baker, P. 2009. ‘The BE06 Corpus of British English and recent language change’. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14: 312–37.
Baker, P. 2010. ‘Representations of Islam in British broadsheet and tabloid newspapers 1999–2005’. Language and Politics 9: 310–38.
Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., Khosravinik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., McEnery, T., and Wodak, R. 2008. ‘A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press’. Discourse and Society 19: 273–306.
Baker, P., Hardie, A., and McEnery, T. 2006. A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.
Baker, P., and McEnery, T. 2005. ‘A corpus-based approach to discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in UN and newspaper texts’. Language and Politics 4: 197–226.
Ballaster, R., Beetham, E., Fraser, E., and Hebron, S. 1991. Women’s Worlds: Ideology, Femininity and the Women’s Magazine. London: Macmillan.
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., and Vohs, K. 2001. ‘Bad is stronger than good’. Review of General Psychology 5: 323–70.
Biber, D., Conrad, S., and Reppen, R. 1998. Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use. Cambridge University Press.
Billig, M., Deacon, D., Downey, J., Richardson, J. E., and Golding, P. 2006. ‘Britishness’ in the Last Three General Elections: From Ethnic Nationalism to Civil Nationalism. London: Commission for Racial Equality.
Brescoll, V., and LaFrance, M. 2004. ‘The correlates and consequences of newspaper reports of research on sex differences’. Psychological Science 15: 515–20.
Burr, V. 1995. An Introduction to Social Constructionism. London: Routledge.
Byng, M. D. 2010. ‘Symbolically Muslim: media, hijab, and the West’. Critical Sociology, 36: 109–29.
Caldas-Coulthard, C. R. 1995. ‘Man in the news: the misrepresentation of women speaking in news-as-narrative-discourse’, in S. Mills (ed.) Language and Gender: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Harlow: Longman, 226–39.
Cantle, T. 2001. Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review Team. London: Home Office; available at
Carpenter, S., and Cagaptay, S. 2009. ‘What Muslim world?’. Foreign Policy, 2 June; available at
Cole, P. 2006. ‘Mixed communities: mixed newsrooms’, in E. Poole and J. E. Richardson (eds.) Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris, 63–73.
Commins, D. 2006. The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. London: I. B. Tauris.
Conboy, M. 2010. The Language of Newspapers: Socio-Historical Perspectives. London: Continuum.
Cranfield, G. A. 1978. The Press and Society: From Caxton to Northcliffe. Harlow: Longman.
Crown Prosecution Service 2008. Hate Crime Report 2007–2008. London: CPS.
Department for Communities and Local Government 2009. 2007–08 Citizenship Survey: Race, Religion and Equalities Topic Report. London: Department for Communities and Local Government.
Dietrich, S., Heider, D., Matschinger, H., and Angermeyer, M. C. 2006. ‘Influence of newspaper reporting on adolescents’ attitudes towards people with mental illness’. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41: 318–22.
Downing, J. 1980. The Media Machine. London: Pluto Press.
Dunn, K. 2001. ‘Representations of Islam in the politics of mosque development in Sydney’. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 92: 291–308.
Durrant, P., and Doherty, A. 2010. ‘Are high-frequency collocations psychologically real? Investigating the thesis of collocational priming’. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 6: 125–56.
Eatwell, R., and Goodwin, M. J. (eds.) 2010. The New Extremism in 21st Century Britain. London: Routledge.
Engage 2010. ‘Engage briefing note for MPs’. Ilford: Engage.
Epstein, S. 1998. ‘Gay politics, ethnic identity: the limits of social constructionism’, in P. M. Nardi and B. E. Schneider (eds.) Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies. London: Routledge, 134–59 [reprinted from Socialist Review 93/94 (1987): 9–54].
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 2009. ‘Muslims’, Data in Focus Report no. 2. Vienna: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.
Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power. London: Longman.
Fairclough, N. 1995. Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.
Fischhoff, B. 1975. ‘Hindsight ≠ foresight: the effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty’. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1: 288–99.
Ford, R. 2008. ‘Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?’. British Journal of Sociology 59: 609–36.
Foucault, M. 1972. The Archaeology of Knowledge (trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith). London: Tavistock.
Fowler, R., Hodge, G., Kress, G., and Trew, T. (eds.) 1979. Language and Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Gabrielatos, C. 2007. ‘Selecting query terms to build a specialised corpus from a restricted-access database’. ICAME Journal 31: 5–43.
Gabrielatos, C., and Baker, P. 2008. ‘Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: a corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press 1996–2005’. Journal of English Linguistics 36: 5–38.
Gavin, N., and Sanders, D. 2002. ‘The press and its influence on British political attitudes under New Labour’. Paper presented at the Political Studies Association annual conference, Aberdeen, 5 April; available at
Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., and Signorielli, N. 1986. ‘Living with television: the dynamics of the cultivation process’, in J. Bryant and D. Zillman (eds.) Perspectives on Media Effects. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 17–40.
Gibson, O. 2003. ‘Sales dip may push Mirror under 2m: Morgan accepts war stance could reduce circulation to 70-year low’. Guardian, 2 April.
Goffman, E. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
GoldingP. 1994. ‘Telling stories: sociology, journalism and the informed citizen’. European Journal of Communication 9: 461–84.
Gregory, I., and Hardie, A. 2011. ‘Visual GISting: bringing together corpus linguistics and geographical information systems’. Literary and Linguistic Computing 26: 297–314.
Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., and Roberts, B. 1978. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan.
Halliday, F. 2006. ‘Anti-Arab prejudice in the UK: the Kilroy-Silk affair and the BBC response’, in E. Poole and J. E. Richardson (eds.) Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris, 24–34.
Hardie, A., and McEnery, T. 2010. ‘Corpus linguistics and historical contexts: text reuse and the expression of bias in early modern English journalism’, in R. Bowen, M. Mobärg and S. Ohlander (eds.) Corpora and Discourse – and Stuff: Papers in Honour of Karin Aijmer. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 59–92.
Hardt-Mautner, G. 1995. ‘Only connect: critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics’, UCREL Technical Paper no. 6. Lancaster University; available at
Harré, R., Brockmeier, J., and Mühlhäusler, P. 1999. Greenspeak: A Study of Environmental Discourse. London: Sage.
Kabbani, R. 1994. Imperial Fictions: Europe’s Myths of the Orient. London: Pandora.
Karim, K. H. 2006. ‘American media’s coverage of Muslims: the historical roots of contemporary portrayals’, in E. Poole and J. E. Richardson (eds.) Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris, 116–27.
Kilgarriff, A., Rychly, P., Smrz, P., and Tugwell, D. 2004. ‘The Sketch Engine’, in G. Williams and S. Vessier (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh EURALEX International Congress: EURALEX 2004. Lorient: Université de Bretagne-Sud, 105–16.
Krishnamurthy, R. 1996. ‘Ethnic, racial and tribal: the language of racism?’, in C. R. Caldas-Coulthard and M. Coulthard (eds.) Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge, 129–49.
Leech, G., Rayson, P., and Wilson, A. 2001. Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English: Based on the British National Corpus. London: Longman.
Lido, C. 2006. Effects of the Media Priming Asylum-Seeker Stereotypes on Thoughts and Behaviour. London: Economic and Social Research Council; available at
Linton, M. 1995. ‘Was it The Sun wot won it?’. Seventh Guardian lecture, Nuffield College, Oxford, 30 October.
Martin, J. 2004. ‘Positive discourse analysis: power, solidarity and change’. Revista 49: 179–200.
Martin, J., and Rose, D. 2003. Working with Discourse: Meaning beyond the Clause. London: Continuum.
McEnery, T. 2006. Swearing in English: Bad Language, Purity and Power from 1586 to the Present. London: Routledge.
McEnery, T., and Wilson, A. 1996. Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh University Press.
McIlvennyP. 1996. ‘Heckling in Hyde Park: verbal audience participation in popular public discourse’. Language in Society 25: 27–60.
McKee, D. 1995. ‘Fact is free but comment is sacred; or was it The Sun wot won it?’, in I. Crewe and B. Gosschalk (eds.) Political Communications: The General Election Campaign of 1992. Cambridge University Press, 121–36.
McLaren, L., and Johnson, M. 2007. ‘Resources, group conflict and symbols: explaining anti-immigration hostility in Britain’. Political Studies 55: 709–32.
Michelsen, E. H. 1854. The Ottoman Empire and Its Resources with Statistical Tables of the Army, Navy, Trade, Navigation, Institutions, etc., etc. London: Spooner.
Mogahed, D. 2007. Beyond Multiculturalism versus Assimilation: Gallup World Poll. Princeton, NJ: Gallup Organization.
Moore, K., Mason, P., and Lewis, J. 2008. Images of Islam in the UK: The Representation of British Muslims in the National Print News Media 2000–2008. Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies.
Norris, P., Curtice, J., Sanders, D., Scammell, M., and Semetko, H. 1999. On Message: Communicating the Campaign. London: Sage.
Partington, A. 1998. Patterns and Meanings: Using Corpora for English Language Research and Teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Partington, A. 2004. ‘Corpora and discourse: a most congruous beast’, in A. Partington, J. Morley and L. Haarman (eds.) Corpora and Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang, 11–20.
Petley, J. 2006. ‘Still no redress from the PCC’, in E. Poole and J. E. Richardson (eds.) Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris, 53–62.
Pew Research Center (2009) Mapping the Global Muslim Population. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Plous, S. 1993. The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Poole, E. 2002. Reporting Islam: Media Presentations of British Muslims. London. I. B. Tauris.
Poole, E., and Richardson, J. E. (eds.) 2006. Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris.
Reisigl, M., and Wodak, R. 2001. Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism. London: Routledge.
Richardson, J. E. 2004. (Mis)Representing Islam: The Racism and Rhetoric of British Broadsheet Newspapers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Richardson, J. E. 2006. ‘Who gets to speak? A study of sources in the broadsheet press’, in E. Poole and J. E. Richardson (eds.) Muslims and the News Media. London: I. B. Tauris, 103–15.
Richardson, R. (ed.) 2004. Islamophobia: Issues, Challenges and Action. A Report by the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
Rodogno, D. 2012. Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire 1815–1914. Princeton University Press.
Runnymede Trust 1997. Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All. A Report by the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia. London: Runnymede Trust.
Said, E. W. 1997. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We Should See the Rest of the World, rev. edn. London: Vintage.
Sanders, D., Marsh, D., and Ward, H. 1993. ‘The electoral impact of press coverage of the British economy, 1979–87’. British Journal of Political Science 23: 175–210.
Sebba, M. 2007. Spelling and Society: The Culture and Politics of Orthography around the World. Cambridge University Press.
Sparks, C. 1999. ‘The press’, in J. Stokes and A. Reading (eds.) The Media in Britain: Current Debates and Developments. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 41–60.
Stibbe, A. 2006. ‘Deep ecology and language: the curtailed journey of the Atlantic salmon’. Society and Animals 14: 61–77.
Stubbs, M. 1996. Texts and Corpus Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
Stubbs, M. 2001. Words and Phrases: Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Taira, T., Poole, E., and Knott, K. (forthcoming). ‘Religion in the British media today’, in J. Mitchell and O. Gower (eds.) Religion and the News. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Tajfel, H. 1970. ‘Experiments in intergroup discrimination’. Scientific American 223: 96–102.
Tajfel, H. 1982. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge University Press.
Thomas, J. 2005. Popular Newspapers, the Labour Party and British Politics. London: Routledge.
Tognini-Bonelli, E. 2001. Corpus Linguistics at Work. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van Dijk, T. 1987. Communicating Racism: Ethnic Prejudice in Thought and Talk. London: Sage.
van Dijk, T. 1991. Racism and the Press. London: Routledge.
Van Leeuwen, T. 2007. ‘Legitimation in discourse and communications’. Discourse and Communication 1: 91–112.
von Restorff, H. 1933. ‘Über die Wirkung von Bereichsbildungen im Spurenfeld [The effects of field formation in the trace field]’. Psychologie Forschung 18: 299–342.
Widdowson, H. G. 2004. Text, Context, Pretext: Critical Issues in Critical Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wilmshurst, J., and MacKay, A. 1999. The Fundamentals of Advertising, 2nd edn. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wodak, R., and Meyer, M. 2009. ‘Critical discourse analysis: history, agenda, theory and methodology’, in R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, 2nd edn. London: Sage, 1–33.
Zajonc, R. B. 1968. ‘Attitudinal effects of mere exposure’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9: 1–27.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.