1.Kump, L. R. & Barley, M. E. Increased subaerial volcanism and the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.5 billion years ago. Nature 448, 1033–1036 (2007).
2.Berner, R. A. The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2 (Oxford University Press, 2004).
3.Dasgupta, R. Ingassing, storage, and outgassing of terrestrial carbon through geologic time. In: Carbon in Earth, Vol. 75: Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry (eds. R. M. Hazen, A. P. Jones & J. A. Baross), 183–229 (Mineralogical Society of America, 2013).
4.Mason, E., Edmonds, M. & Turchyn, A. V. Remobilization of crustal carbon may dominate volcanic arc emissions. Science 357, 290–294 (2017).
5.Dasgupta, R. & Hirschmann, M. M. The deep carbon cycle and melting in Earth’s interior. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 298, 1–13 (2010).
6.Wood, B. J. Carbon in the core. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 117, 593–607 (1993).
7.Berner, R. A. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over Phanerozoic time. Science 249, 1382–1386 (1990).
8.Symonds, R. B., Rose, W. I., Bluth, G. S. & Gerlach, T. M. Volcanic gas studies: methods, results, and applications. In: Volatiles in Magmas, Vol. 30 (eds. M. R. Carroll and J. R. Holloway), 1–60 (Mineralogical Society of America, 1994).
9.McCormick, B. T., Edmonds, M., Mather, T. A. & Carn, S. A. First synoptic analysis of volcanic degassing in Papua New Guinea. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, 3 (2012).
10.Gal, F., Leconte, S. & Gadalia, A. The “Escarot” gas seep, French Massif Central: CO2 discharge from a quiescent volcanic system – characterization and quantification of gas emissions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 353, 68–82 (2018).
11.Gerlach, T. M., Doukas, M. P., McGee, K. A. & Kessler, R. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountains, California. Geophysical Research Letters 26, 3661–3664 (1999).
12.James, E. R., Manga, M. & Rose, T. P. CO2 degassing in the Oregon cascades. Geology 27, 823–826 (1999).
13.Caliro, S., Chiodini, G., Avino, R., Cardellini, C. & Frondini, F. Volcanic degassing at Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) inferred by chemical and isotopic signatures of groundwater. Applied Geochemistry 20, 1060–1076 (2005).
14.Fischer, T. P. DEep CArbon DEgassing: the Deep Carbon Observatory DECADE Initiative. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 1089 (2013).
15.Burton, M., Sawyer, G. M. & Granieri, D. Deep carbon emissions from volcanoes. In: Carbon in Earth. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry (eds. R. M. Hazen, A. P. Jones & J. A. Baross), 323–354 (Mineralogical Society of America, 2013).
16.Chiodini, G., Cioni, R., Guidi, M., Raco, B. & Marini, L. Soil CO2 flux measurements in volcanic and geothermal areas. Applied Geochemistry 13, 543–552 (1998).
17.Gerlach, T. M. et al. Application of the LI-COR CO2 analyzer to volcanic plumes: a case study, volcan Popocatepetl, Mexico, June 7 and 10, 1995. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 8005–8019 (1997).
18.Shinohara, H. Excess degassing from volcanoes and its role on eruptive and intrusive activity. Reviews of Geophysics 46, RG4005 (2008).
19.McGonigle, A. J. S., Oppenheimer, C., Galle, B., Mather, T. A. & Pyle, D. M. Walking traverse and scanning DOAS measurements of volcanic gas emission rates. Geophysical Research Letters 29, 1985 (2002).
20.Galle, B. et al. A miniaturised ultraviolet spectrometer for remote sensing of SO2 fluxes: a new tool for volcano surveillance. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 119, 241–254 (2003).
21.Allard, P. et al. Eruptive and diffuse emissions of CO2 from Mount Etna. Nature 351, 387–391 (1991).
22.Carn, S. A. & Bluth, G. J. S. Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, DR Congo. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 2211 (2003).
23.Allard, P., Burton, M., Sawyer, G. & Bani, P. Degassing dynamics of basaltic lava lake at a top-ranking volatile emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu arc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 448, 69–80 (2016).
24.Shinohara, H. A new technique to estimate volcanic gas composition; plume measurements with a portable multi-sensor system. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 143, 319–333 (2005).
25.Aiuppa, A., Federico, C., Giudice, G. & Gurrieri, S. Chemical mapping of a fumarolic field: La Fossa Crater, Vulcano Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Geophysical Research Letters 32, 4 (2005).
26.Kern, C., Werner, C., Elias, T., Sutton, A. J. & Lübcke, P. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 262, 80–89 (2013).
27.Mori, T. et al. Effect of UV scattering on SO2 emission rate measurements. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L17315 (2006).
28.Kelly, P. J. et al. Long-term autonomous volcanic gas monitoring with Multi-GAS at Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Augustine Volcano. Alaska AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, V23B-3095 (2015).
29.Kelly, P. J. et al. Rapid chemical evolution of tropospheric volcanic emissions from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, based on observations of ozone and halogen-containing gases. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 259, 317–333 (2013).
30.Moussallam, Y. et al. Hydrogen emissions from Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 2109–2120 (2012).
31.Gerlach, T. M., McGee, K. A., Elias, T., Sutton, A. J. & Doukas, M. P. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kilauea Volcano: implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 107, 2189 (2002).
32.Werner, C., Christenson, B. W., Hagerty, M. & Britten, K. Variability of volcanic gas emissions during a crater lake heating cycle at Ruapehu Volcano, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 154, 291–302 (2006).
33.Werner, C. et al. Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 113, B01204 (2008).
34.Werner, C., Evans, W. C., Poland, M., Tucker, D. S. & Doukas, M. P. Long-term changes in quiescent degassing at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA; evidence for a stalled intrusion in 1975 and connection to a deep magma source. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 186, 379–386 (2009).
35.McGonigle, A. J. S. et al. Unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of volcanic carbon dioxide fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L06303 (2008).
36.Mori, T. et al. Volcanic plume measurements using a UAV for the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption. Earth Planets and Space 68, 49 (2016).
37.Shinohara, H. Composition of volcanic gases emitted during repeating Vulcanian eruption stage of Shinmoedake, Kirishima volcano, Japan. Earth Planets and Space 65, 667–675 (2013).
38.Aiuppa, A. et al. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements. Scientific Reports 5, 13614 (2015).
39.Queisser, M., Granieri, D. & Burton, M. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system. Scientific Reports 6, 33834 (2016).
40.Werner, C., Brantley, S. L. & Boomer, K. CO2 Emissions related to the Yellowstone volcanic system 2. Statistical sampling, total degassing, and transport mechanisms. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 10831-10846 (2000).
41.Cardellini, C., Chiodini, G. & Frondini, F. Application of stochastic simulation to CO2 flux from soil: mapping and quantification of gas release. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 108, 2425 (2003).
42.Mazot, A. & Bernard, A. CO2 degassing from volcanic lakes. In: Volcanic Lakes (eds. D. Rouwet, B. Christenson, F. Tassi & J. Vandemeulebrouck), 341–354 (Springer, 2015).
43.Pérez, N. M. et al. Global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes. Geology 39, 235–238 (2011).
44.Werner, C. et al. Monitoring volcanic hazard using eddy covariance at Solfatara volcano, Naples, Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 210, 561–577 (2003).
45.Werner, C., Wyngaard, J. C. & Brantley, S. Eddy-correlation measurement of hydrothermal gases. Geophysical Research Letters 27, 2925–2929 (2000).
46.Lewicki, J., Fischer, M. L. & Hilley, G. E. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 171, 178–190 (2008).
47.Lewicki, J. L., Hilley, G. E., Dobeck, L. & Marino, B. D. V. Eddy covariance imaging of diffuse volcanic CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA. Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 135–141 (2012).
48.Lewicki, J. L., Kelly, P. J., Bergfeld, D., Vaughan, R. G. & Lowenstern, J. B. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 347, 312–326 (2017).
49.Lewicki, J. L. & Hilley, G. E. Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 284, 1–15 (2014).
50.Rose, T. P., Lee Davisson, M. & Criss, R. E. Isotope hydrology of voluminous cold springs in fractured rock from an active volcanic region, northeastern California. Journal of Hydrology 179, 207–236 (1996).
51.Aiuppa, A. et al. Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas composition. Geology 35, 1115–1118 (2007).
52.Galle, B. et al. Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) – a global network for volcanic gas monitoring: network layout and instrument description. Journal of Geophysical Research –Atmospheres 115, D05304 (2010).
53.Aiuppa, A. et al. Unusually large magmatic CO2 gas emissions prior to a basaltic paroxysm. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L17303 (2010).
54.Aiuppa, A. et al. Total volatile flux from Mount Etna. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L24302 (2008).
55.de Moor, J. M. et al. Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 442, 218–227 (2016).
56.de Moor, J. M. et al. A new sulfur and carbon degassing inventory for the Southern Central American volcanic arc: the importance of accurate time-series datasets and possible tectonic processes responsible for temporal variations in arc-scale volatile emissions. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 4437–4468 (2017).
57.Shinohara, H. Volatile flux from subduction zone volcanoes: Insights from a detailed evaluation of the fluxes from volcanoes in Japan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 268, 46–63 (2013).
58.Ilyinskaya, E. et al. Degassing regime of Hekla volcano 2012–2013. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 159, 80–99 (2015).
59.Werner, C. et al. Magmatic degassing, lava dome extrusion, and explosions from Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska, 2011–2015: insight into the continuous nature of volcanic activity over multi-year timescales. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 337, 98–110 (2017).
60.Pedone, M. et al. Volcanic CO2 flux measurement at Campi Flegrei by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Bulletin of Volcanology 76, 13 (2014).
61.Pedone, M. et al. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget. Solid Earth 5, 1209–1221 (2014).
62.Pedone, M. et al. Total (fumarolic plus diffuse soil) CO2 output from Furnas volcano. Earth Planets and Space 67, 12 (2015).
63.Fiorani, L. et al. Early detection of volcanic hazard by lidar measurement of carbon dioxide. Natural Hazards 83, S21–S29 (2016).
64.Queisser, M., Burton, M., Allan, G. R. & Chiarugi, A. Portable laser spectrometer for airborne and ground-based remote sensing of geological CO2 emissions. Optics Letters 42, 2782–2785 (2017).
65.Werner, C. et al. Degassing of CO2, SO2, and H2S associated with the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 259, 270–284 (2013).
66.Schwandner, F. M. et al. Spaceborne detection of localized carbon dioxide sources. Science 358, eaam5782 (2017).
67.Gerlach, T. M. Present-day carbon dioxide emissions from volcanos. Earth in Space 4, 5 (1991).
68.Brantley, S. L. & Koepenick, K. W. Measured carbon dioxide emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai and the skewed distribution of passive volcanic fluxes. Geology 23, 933–936 (1995).
69.Williams, S. N., Schaefer, S. J., Calvache, V. M. L. & Lopez, D. Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 1765–1770 (1992).
70.Hilton, D. R., Fischer, T. & Marty, B. Noble gases and volatile recycling at subduction zones. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 47, 319–370 (2002).
71.Andres, R. J. et al. A summary of sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements from Guatemalan volcanos. Bulletin of Volcanology 55, 379–388 (1993).
72.Stoiber, R. E., Williams, S. N. & Huebert, B. Annual contribution of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 33, 1–8 (1987).
73.Aiuppa, A., Fischer, T. P., Plank, T., Robidoux, P. & Di Napoli, R. Along-arc, inter-arc and arc-to-arc variations in volcanic gas CO2/S-T ratios reveal dual source of carbon in arc volcanism. Earth Science Reviews 168, 24–47 (2017).
74.Fischer, T. P. Fluxes of volatiles (H2O, CO2, N2, Cl, F) from arc volcanoes. Geochemical Journal 42, 21–38 (2008).
75.Carn, S. A., Fioletov, V. E., McLinden, C. A., Li, C. & Krotkov, N. A. A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space. Scientific Reports 7, 44095 (2017).
77.Carn, S. A., Clarisse, L. & Prata, A. J. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 311, 99–134 (2016).
78.Torgersen, T. Terrestrial helium degassing fluxes and the atmospheric helium budget: Implications with respect to the degassing processes of continental crust. Chemical Geology: Isotope Geoscience Section 79, 1–14 (1989).
79.Sano, Y. & Williams, S. N. Fluxes of mantle and subducted carbon along convergent plate boundaries. Geophysical Research Letters 23, 2749–2752 (1996).
80.Crisp, J. A. Rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 20, 177–211 (1984).
81.Dimalanta, C., Taira, A., Yumul, G. P., Tokuyama, H. & Mochizuki, K. New rates of western Pacific island arc magmatism from seismic and gravity data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 202, 105–115 (2002).
82.Reymer, A. & Schubert, G. Phanerozoic addition rates to the continental crust and crustal growth. Tectonics 3, 63–77 (1984).
83.Bianchi, D. et al. Low helium flux from the mantle inferred from simulations of oceanic helium isotope data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297, 379–386 (2010).
84.Kagoshima, T. et al. Sulphur geodynamic cycle. Scientific Reports 5, 8330 (2015).
85.Siebert, L. & Simkin, T. Volcanoes of the world: an illustrated catalog of holocene volcanoes and their eruptions. Smithsonian Institution. Global volcanism program digital information series, GVP-3 (https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013) (2002).
86.Bobrowski, N. et al. Multi-component gas emission measurements of the active lava lake of Nyiragongo, DR Congo. Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 856–865 (2017).
87.Sawyer, G. M., Carn, S. A., Tsanev, V. I., Oppenheimer, C. & Burton, M. Investigation into magma degassing at Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, Q02017 (2008).
88.Le Guern, F. Mechanism of energy-transfer in the lava lake of Niragongo (Zaire), 1959–1977. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 31, 17–31 (1987).
89.Kazahaya, K. et al. Gigantic SO2 emission from Miyakejima volcano, Japan, caused by caldera collapse. Geology 32, 425–428 (2004).
90.Shinohara, H., Kazahaya, K., Saito, G., Fukui, K. & Odai, M. Variation of CO2–SO2 ratio in volcanic plumes of Miyakejima; stable degassing deduced from heliborne measurements. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 4 (2003).
91.Doukas, M. P. & McGee, K. A. A Compilation of Gas Emission-Rate Data from Volcanoes of Cook Inlet (Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Fourpeaked, Griggs, Mageik, Martin, Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Veniaminof), Alaska, from 1995–2006. Open File Report, report number 2007-1400 (US Geological Survey, 2007).
92.Werner, C. A., Doukas, M. P. & Kelly, P. J. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989–2006. Bulletin of Volcanology 73, 155–173 (2011).
93.Kelly, P., Werner, C., Kem, C., Clor, L. E. & Doukas, M. A compilation of airborne gas emissions data from Alaskan volcanoes. USGS Data Release (2019).
94.Christenson, B. W. et al. Cyclic processes and factors leading to phreatic eruption events: insights from the 25 September 2007 eruption through Ruapehu Crater Lake, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 191, 15–32 (2010).
95.Kilgour, G. N. et al. Timescales of magmatic processes at Ruapehu volcano from diffusion chronometry and their comparison to monitoring data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 288, 62–75 (2014).
96.Elias, T. & Sutton, A. J. Volcanic Air Pollution Hazards in Hawaii. Fact Sheet No. 2017-3017 (US Geological Survey, 2017).
98.Passarelli, L. & Brodsky, E. E. The correlation between run-up and repose times of volcanic eruptions. Geophysical Journal International 188, 1025–1045 (2012).
99.Allard, P., Burton, M., Oskarsson, N., Michel, A. & Polacci, M. Chemistry and fluxes of magmatic gases driving the explosive trachyandesitic phase of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption: constraints on degassing magma volumes and processes. In: AGU Fall Meeting, V53F-07 (AGU, 2010).
100.Gerlach, T. M., Westrich, H. R. & Symonds, R. B. Preeruption vapor in magma of the climactic Mount Pinatubo eruption: source of the giant stratospheric sulfur dioxide cloud. In: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (eds. C. G. Newhall & R. S. Punongbayan), 415–434 (University of Washington Press, 1996).
101.Hobbs, P. V., Tuell, J. P., Hegg, D. A., Radke, L. F. & Eltgroth, M. W. Particles and gases in the emissions from the 1980–1981 volcanic eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Journal of Geophysical Research 87, 11062–11086 (1982).
102.Scaillet, B. & Pichavant, M. Experimental constraints on volatile abundances in arc magmas and their implications for degassing processes. Geological Society Special Publications 213, 23–52 (2003).
103.Gerlach, T. M. Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide. EOS Transactions 92, 201–208 (2011).
104.Holloway, J. R. Fluids in the evolution of granitic magma: consequences of finite CO2 solubility. Geological Society of America Bulletin 87, 1513–1518 (1976).
105.Christopher, T. E. et al. Crustal-scale degassing due to magma system destabilization and magma-gas decoupling at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16, 2797–2811 (2015).
106.Parmigiani, A., Faroughi, S., Huber, C., Bachmann, O. & Su, Y. Bubble accumulation and its role in the evolution of magma reservoirs in the upper crust. Nature 532, 492–495 (2016).
107.Burgisser, A., Alletti, M. & Scaillet, B. Simulating the behavior of volatiles belonging to the C–O–H–S system in silicate melts under magmatic conditions with the software D-Compress. Computers & Geosciences 79, 1–14 (2015).
108.Kilbride, B. M., Edmonds, M. & Biggs, J. Observing eruptions of gas-rich compressible magmas from space. Nature Communications 7, 13744 (2016).
109.Wallace, P. J. Volcanic SO2 emissions and the abundance and distribution of exsolved gas in magma bodies. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 108, 85–106 (2001).
110.Kerrick, D. M. Present and past non-anthropogenic CO2 degassing from the solid Earth. Reviews of Geophysics 39, 565–585 (2001).
111.Morner, N. A. & Etiope, G. Carbon degassing from the lithosphere. Global and Planetary Change 33, 185–203 (2002).
112.Mori, T. et al. Time-averaged SO2 fluxes of subduction-zone volcanoes: example of a 32-year exhaustive survey for Japanese volcanoes. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 118, 8662–8674 (2013).
113.Stimac, J., Goff, F. & Goff, C. J. Intrusion-related geothermal systems. In: The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, 2nd edn. (eds. H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix), 799–822 (Academic Press, 2015).
114.Cardellini, C. et al. MAGA, a new database of gas natural emissions: a collaborative webenvironment for collecting data. Geophysical Research Abstracts 16, EGU2014-13715 (2014).
115.Casadevall, T. J., Doukas, M. P., Neal, C. A., McGimsey, R. G. & Gardner, C. A. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 519–530 (1994).
116.Werner, C. et al. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 289, 51–63 (2014).
117.Cardellini, C. et al. Monitoring diffuse volcanic degassing during volcanic unrests: the case of Campi Flegrei (Italy). Scientific Reports 7, 15 (2017).
118.Aiuppa, A. et al. Volcanic gas plume data from Stromboli Volcano (Italy). Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA). doi:10.1594/IEDA/100643.
119.Christenson, B. W., White, S., Britten, K. & Scott, B. J. Hydrological evolution and chemical structure of a hyper-acidic spring-lake system on Whakaari/White Island, NZ. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 346, 180–211 (2017).
120.Bloomberg, S. et al. Soil CO2 emissions as a proxy for heat and mass flow assessment, Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, 4885–4904 (2014).
121.Mazot, A. et al. CO2 discharge from the bottom of volcanic Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, 577–588 (2014).
122.Rissmann, C. et al. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Applied Geochemistry 27, 223–239 (2012).
123.Werner, C. & Cardellini, C. Comparison of carbon dioxide emissions with fluid upflow, chemistry, and geologic structures at the Rotorua geothermal system, New Zealand. Geothermics 35, 221–238 (2006).
124.Acocella, V., Di Lorenzo, R., Newhall, C. & Scandone, R. An overview of recent (1988 to 2014) caldera unrest: knowledge and perspectives. Reviews of Geophysics 53, 896–955 (2015).
125.Newhall, C. G. & Dzurisin, D. Historical Unrest at Large Calderas of the World. USGS Bulletin No. 1855 (USGS, 1988).
126.Chiodini, G. et al. Magmas near the critical degassing pressure drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state. Nature Communications 7, 13712 (2016).
127.Seward, T. M. & Kerrick, D. M. Hydrothermal CO2 emission from the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 139, 105–113 (1996).
128.Werner, C. & Brantley, S. CO2 emissions from the Yellowstone volcanic system. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 4, 1061 (2003).
129.Hurwitz, S. & Lowenstern, J. B. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system. Reviews of Geophysics 52, 375–411 (2014).
130.Chiodini, G. et al. CO2 degassing and energy release at Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei, Italy. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 106, 16213–16221 (2001).
131.Chiodini, G. et al. Carbon dioxide Earth degassing and seismogenesis in central and southern Italy. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L07615 (2004).
132.Frondini, F. et al. Measurement of CO2 fluxes at regional scale: the case of Apennines, Italy. Journal of the Geological Society 176, 408–416 (2019).
133.Lee, H. et al. Massive and prolonged deep carbon emissions associated with continental rifting. Nature Geoscience 9, 145–149 (2016).
134.Hunt, J. A., Zafu, A., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M. & Barry, P. H. Spatially variable CO2 degassing in the Main Ethiopian Rift: implications for magma storage, volatile transport, and rift-related emissions. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 3714–3737 (2017).
136.Bibby, H., Caldwell, T. G., Davey, F. J. & Webb, T. H. Geophysical evidence on the structure of the Taupo Volcanic Zone and its hydrothermal circulation. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 68, 29–58 (1995).
137.Chiodini, G. et al. Carbon dioxide diffuse emission and thermal energy release from hydrothermal systems at Copahue–Caviahue Volcanic Complex (Argentina). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 304, 294–303 (2015).
139.Moran, S. C. et al. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report No. 2008-5114 (USGS, 2008).
140.Poland, M. P., Miklius, A., Jeff Sutton, A. & Thornber, C. R. A mantle-driven surge in magma supply to Kīlauea Volcano during 2003–2007. Nature Geoscience 5, 295 (2012).
141.Werner, C. et al. Deep magmatic degassing versus scrubbing: elevated CO2 emissions and C/S in the lead-up to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q03015 (2012).
142.Ilyinskaya, E. et al. Globally significant CO2 emissions From Katla, a subglacial volcano in Iceland. Geophysical Research Letters 45, 10332–10341 (2018).
143.Carn, S. A. Multi-Satellite Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide L4 Long-Term Global Database V2. doi:10.5067/MEASURES/SO2/DATA402.
144.Marty, B. & Tolstikhin, I. N. CO2 fluxes from mid-ocean ridges, arcs and plumes. Chemical Geology 145, 233–248 (1998).
145.Aiuppa, A. et al. The 2007 eruption of Stromboli volcano: Insights from real-time measurement of the volcanic gas plume CO2/SO2 ratio. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 182, 221–230 (2009).
146.Aiuppa, A. et al. A model of degassing for Stromboli Volcano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295, 195–204 (2010).
147.Kazahaya, K., Shinohara, H. & Saito, G. Excessive degassing of Izu-Oshima Volcano; magma convection in a conduit. Bulletin of Volcanology 56, 207–216 (1994).
148.Aiuppa, A. et al. Volcanic gas plume data from Etna Volcano (Italy). Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA). doi:10.1594/IEDA/100643.
149.McGee, K. A. The structure, dynamics, and chemical composition of noneruptive plumes from Mount St. Helens, 1980–1988. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 51, 269–282 (1992).
150.Chiodini, G. et al. Magma degassing as a trigger of bradyseismic events: the case of Phlegrean Fields (Italy). Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1434 (2003).
151.Giggenbach, W. Variations in the carbon, sulfur and chlorine contents of volcanic gas discharges from White Island, New Zealand. Bulletin of Volcanology 39, 15–27 (1975).
152.Fischer, T. P., Arehart, G. B., Sturchio, N. C. & Williams, S. N. The relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras volcano, Colombia. Geology 24, 531–534 (1996).
153.Dixon, J. E. & Stolper, E. M. An experimental study of water and carbon dioxide solubilities in mid-ocean ridge basaltic liquids. 2. Applications to degassing. Journal of Petrology 36, 1633–1646 (1995).
154.Aiuppa, A. et al. Tracking Formation of a Lava Lake From Ground and Space: Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua), 2014–2017. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 19, 496–515 (2018).
155.Aiuppa, A. et al. A CO2‐gas precursor to the March 2015 Villarrica volcano eruption. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 2120–2132 (2017).
156.de Moor, J. M. et al. Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121, 5761–5775 (2016).
157.Pfeffer, M. et al. Ground-Based Measurements of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Volcanic Cloud (Iceland). Geosciences 8, 29 (2018).
158.Allard, P. Composition isotopique du carbonne dans les gas d’un volcan d’arc: le Momotombo (Nicaragua). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 290, 1525–1528 (1980).
159.Allard, P. Stable isotope composition of hydrogen, carbon and sulphur in magmatic gases from rift and island arc volcanoes. Bulletin of Volcanology 45, 269–271 (1982).
160.Allard, P. The origin of hydrogen, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and rare gases in volcanic exhalations: evidence from isotope geochemistry. In: Forecasting Volcanic Events, Vol. 1 (eds. H. Tazieff & J. Sabroux), 337–386 (Elsevier, 1983).
161.Marty, B. & Jambon, A. C/3He in volatile fluxes from the solid Earth; implications for carbon geodynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 83, 16–26 (1987).
162.Marty, B., Jambon, A. & Sano, Y. Helium isotopes and CO2 in volcanic gases of Japan. Chemical Geology 76, 25-40 (1989).
163.Cartigny, P., Jendrzejewski, N., Pineau, F., Petit, E. & Javoy, M. Volatile (C, N, Ar) variability in MORB and the respective roles of mantle source heterogeneity and degassing: the case of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 194, 241–257 (2001).
164.Marty, B. & Zimmermann, L. Volatiles (He, C, N, Ar) in mid-ocean ridge basalts: assesment of shallow-level fractionation and characterization of source composition. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63, 3619–3633 (1999).
165.Barry, P. H., Hilton, D. R., Füri, E., Halldórsson, S. A. & Grönvold, K. Carbon isotope and abundance systematics of Icelandic geothermal gases, fluids and subglacial basalts with implications for mantle plume-related CO2 fluxes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 134, 74–99 (2014).
166.Gerlach, T. M. & Taylor, B. E. Carbon isotope constraints on degassing of carbon dioxide from Kilauea Volcano. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 54, 2051–2058 (1990).
167.Fischer, T. P. et al. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites. Nature 459, 77–80 (2009).
168.Barry, P. H. et al. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of cold “mazuku” CO2 vents and hydrothermal gases and fluids from Rungwe Volcanic Province, southern Tanzania. Chemical Geology 339, 141–156 (2013).
169.de Leeuw, G. A. M., Hilton, D. R., Fischer, T. P. & Walker, J. A. The He–CO2 isotope and relative abundance characteristics of geothermal fluids in El Salvador and Honduras: new constraints on volatile mass balance of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 258, 132–146 (2007).
170.Shaw, A. M., Hilton, D. R., Fischer, T. P., Walker, J. A. & Alvarado, G. E. Contrasting He–C relationships in Nicaragua and Costa Rica: insights into C cycling through subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 214, 499–513 (2003).
171.Kelemen, P. B. & Manning, C. E. Reevaluating carbon fluxes in subduction zones, what goes down, mostly comes up. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, E3997–E4006 (2015).
172.Lee, C. T. A. et al. Continental arc-island arc fluctuations, growth of crustal carbonates, and long-term climate change. Geosphere 9, 21–36 (2013).
173.Troll, V. R. et al. Crustal CO2 liberation during the 2006 eruption and earthquake events at Merapi volcano, Indonesia. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L11302 (2012).
174.Carter, L. B. & Dasgupta, R. Effect of melt composition on crustal carbonate assimilation: implications for the transition from calcite consumption to skarnification and associated CO2 degassing. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 3893–3916 (2016).
175.Deegan, F. M. et al. Magma-carbonate interaction processes and associated CO2 release at Merapi volcano, Indonesia: insights from experimental petrology. Journal of Petrology 51, 1027–1051 (2010).
176.Sano, Y. & Fischer, T. P. The analysis and interpretation of noble gases in modern hydrothermal systems. In: Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers (ed. P. Burnard), 249–317 (Springer Verlag, 2013).
177.Ray, M. C., Hilton, D. R., Munoz, J., Fischer, T. P. & Shaw, A. M. The effects of volatile recycling, degassing and crustal contamination on the helium and carbon geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. Chemical Geology 266, 38–49 (2009).
178.van Soest, M. C., Hilton, D. R. & Kreulen, R. Tracing crustal and slab contributions to arc magmatism in the Lesser Antilles island arc using helium and carbon relationships in geothermal fluids. Geochim.Cosmochim. Acta 62, 3323–3335 (1998).
179.Evans, W. C. et al. Aleutian Arc Geothermal Fluids: Chemical Analyses of Waters and Gases. US Geological Survey Data release (USGS, 2015).
180.Motyka, R. J., Liss, S. A., Nye, C. J. & Moorman, M. A. Geothermal Resources of the Aleutian Arc (Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 1994).
181.Oppenheimer, C., Fischer, T. P. & Scaillet, B. Volcanic degassing: process and impact. In: Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd edn. (ed. K. K. Turekian), 111–179 (Elsevier, 2014).
182.Symonds, R. B. et al. Scrubbing Masks Magmatic Degassing during Repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc Volcanoes. Open-File Report 2003-435 (USGS, 2003).
183.Foley, S. F. & Fischer, T. P. An essential role for continental rifts and lithosphere in the deep carbon cycle. Nature Geoscience 10, 897–902 (2017).
184.McKenzie, N. R. et al. Continental arc volcanism as the principal driver of icehouse-greenhouse variability. Science 352, 444–447 (2016).
185.Lee, C. T. A., Thurner, S., Paterson, S. & Cao, W. R. The rise and fall of continental arcs: interplays between magmatism, uplift, weathering, and climate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 425, 105–119 (2015).
186.Allard, P. et al. Prodigious emission rates and magma degassing budget of major, trace and radioactive volatile species from Ambrym basaltic volcano, Vanuatu island Arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 322, 119–143 (2016).
187.Mailik, N. Temperature and gas composition of the Avachinsky volcano fumaroles (Kamchatka) in 2013–2017. In: 13th CCVG-IAVCEI Gas Workshop (CCVG-IAVCEI, 2017).
188.Burton, M. et al. New constraints on volcanic CO2 emissions from Java, Indonesia. Geophysical Research Abstracts 20, EGU2018-15195 (2018).
189.Taran, Y. et al. Gas emissions from volcanoes of the Kuril Island Arc (NW Pacific): geochemistry and fluxes. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 19, 1859–1880 (2018).
190.Aiuppa, A. et al. First determination of magma-derived gas emissions from Bromo volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 304, 206–213 (2015).
191.Tamburello, G. et al. Intense magmatic degassing through the lake of Copahue volcano, 2013–2014. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 120, 6071–6084 (2015).
192.Bani, P. et al. Dukono, the predominant source of volcanic degassing in Indonesia, sustained by a depleted Indian-MORB. Bulletin of Volcanology 80, 5 (2017).
193.Battaglia, A. et al. The magmatic gas signature of Pacaya volcano, with implications for the volcanic CO2 flux from Guatemala. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 19, 667–692 (2018).
194.Gerlach, T. M., McGee, K. A. & Doukas, M. P. Emission rates of CO2, SO2, and H2S, scrubbing, and preeruption excess volatiles at Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005. In: A Volcano Rekindled: The Renewed Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006 (eds. W. E. Scott, D. R. Sherrod & P. H. Stauffer), 554–571 (2008).
195.Aiuppa, A. et al. First volatile inventory for Gorely volcano, Kamchatka. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L06307 (2012).
196.Gunawan, H. et al. New insights into Kawah Ijen’s volcanic system from the wet volcano workshop experiment. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 437, 35 (2016).
197.Sutton, A. J. & Elias, T. One hundred volatile years of volcanic gas studies at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. In: Characteristics of Hawaiian Volcanoes. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1801 (eds. M. P. Poland, T. J. Takahashi & C. M. Landowski), 295–320 (USGS, 2014).
198.Allard, P. Isotope Geochemistry and Origins of Water, Carbon and Sulfur in Volcanic Gases: Rift Zones, Continental Margins and Island Arcs (Paris VII University, 1986).
199.Bani, P. et al. First measurement of the volcanic gas output from Anak Krakatau, Indonesia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 302, 237–241 (2015).
200.Lopez, T. et al. Geochemical constraints on volatile sources and subsurface conditions at Mount Martin, Mount Mageik, and Trident Volcanoes, Katmai Volcanic Cluster, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 347, 64–81 (2017).
201.Burton, M. R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L. A. & Francis, P. W. Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Geology 28, 915–918 (2000).
202.Martin, R. S. et al. A total volatile inventory for Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, 1–12 (2010).
203.Allard, P., Metrich, N. & Sabroux, J. C. Volatile and magma supply to standard eruptive activity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia. In: EGU General Assembly 2011, Vol. 13, EGU2011-13522 (EGU, 2011).
204.Dzurisin, D. et al. The 2004–2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington: epilogue. Bulletin of Volcanology 77, 17 (2015).
205.Taran, Y. A. Geochemistry of volcanic and hydrothermal fluids and volatile budget of the Kamchatka–Kuril subduction zone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 1067–1094 (2009).
206.Lages J. et al. Volcanic CO2 and SO2 emissions along the Colombia Arc Segment (Northern Volcanic Zone). In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 20, EGU2018-1301 (2018).
207.Bobrowski, N. et al. Plume composition and volatile flux of Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, during birth and evolution of the lava lake, 2014–2015. Bulletin of Volcanology 79, 90 (2017).
208.Lyons, J. J. et al. Long period seismicity and very long period infrasound driven by shallow magmatic degassing at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121, 188–209 (2016).
209.Tulet, P. et al. First results of the Piton de la Fournaise STRAP 2015 experiment: multidisciplinary tracking of a volcanic gas and aerosol plume. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 5355–5378 (2017).
210.Aiuppa, A. et al. Gas measurements from the Costa Rica–Nicaragua volcanic segment suggest possible along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 407, 134-147 (2014).
211.Maldonado, L. F. M., Inguaggiato, S., Jaramillo, M. T., Valencia, G. G. & Mazot, A. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology 79, 84 (2017).
212.D’Aleo, R. et al. Preliminary results of a multi-parametric characterization of gas manifestations from volcanoes in west Papua New Guinea. Presented at: Conferenze Nationale Rittmann Giovani Ricercatori, Bari, Italy, 2016.
213.Moussallam, Y. et al. Volcanic gas emissions and degassing dynamics at Ubinas and Sabancaya volcanoes; implications for the volatile budget of the central volcanic zone. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 343, 181–191 (2017).
214.Granieri, D. et al. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America). Geophysical Research Letters 42, 5847–5854 (2015).
215.Bani, P. et al. First study of the heat and gas budget for Sirung volcano, Indonesia. Bulletin of Volcanology 79, 60 (2017).
216.Edmonds, M. et al. Excess volatiles supplied by mingling of mafic magma at an andesite arc volcano. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 11, Q04005 (2010).
217.Allard, P. et al. Steam and gas emission rate from La Soufriere volcano, Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): implications for the magmatic supply during degassing unrest. Chemical Geology 384, 76–93 (2014).
219.Campion, R. et al. Space- and ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions from Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica). Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 1757–1770 (2012).
220.Conde, V. et al. SO2 degassing from Turrialba Volcano linked to seismic signatures during the period 2008–2012. International Journal of Earth Sciences 103, 1983–1998 (2014).
221.Epiard, M. et al. Relationship between diffuse CO2 degassing and volcanic activity. Case study of the Poás, Irazú, and Turrialba Volcanoes, Costa Rica. Frontiers in Earth Science 5 (2017).
222.Martini, F. et al. Geophysical, geochemical and geodetical signals of reawakening at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) after almost 150 years of quiescence. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 198, 416–432 (2010).
223.Vaselli, O. et al. Evolution of fluid geochemistry at the Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) from 1998 to 2008. Bulletin of Volcanology 72, 397–410 (2010).
224.McGee, K. A., Doukas, M. P., McGimsey, R. G., Wessels, R. L. & Neal, C. A. Gas emissions from Augustine Volcano, Alaska 1995–2006. EOS Transactions 87, 1687 (2006).
225.López, T. et al. Constraints on magma processes, subsurface conditions, and total volatile flux at Bezymianny Volcano in 2007–2010 from direct and remote volcanic gas measurements. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 263, 92–107 (2013).
226.Varley, N. R. & Taran, Y. Degassing processes of Popocatepetl and Volcan de Colima, Mexico. Geological Society Special Publications 213, 263–280 (2003).
227.Hidalgo, S. et al. Evolution of the 2015 Cotopaxi eruption revealed by combined geochemical and seismic observations. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 19, 2087-2108 (2018).
228.Fischer, T. P. et al. The chemical and isotopic composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from Galeras Volcano, Colombia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 77, 229–253 (1997).
229.Tamburello, G., Hansteen, T. H., Bredemeyer, S., Aiuppa, A. & Tassi, F. Gas emissions from five volcanoes in northern Chile and implications for the volatiles budget of the Central Volcanic Zone. Geophysical Research Letters 41, 4961–4969 (2014).
230.Menyailov, I. A., Nikitina, L. P., Shapar, V. N. & Pilipenko, V. P. Temperature increase and chemical change of fumarolic gases at Momotombo Volcano, Nicaragua, in 1982–1985 – are these indicators of possible eruption Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth and Planets 91, 2199–2214 (1986).
231.Hammouya, G. et al. Pre- and syn-eruptive geochemistry of volcanic gases from Soufriere Hills of Montserrat, West Indies. Geophysical Research Letters 25, 3685–3688 (1998).
232.Kusakabe, M. et al. Evolution of CO2 in Lakes Monoun and Nyos, Cameroon, before and during controlled degassing. Geochemical Journal 42, 93–118 (2008).
233.Dionis, S. M. et al. Diffuse CO2 degassing and volcanic activity at Cape Verde islands, West Africa. Earth, Planets and Space 67, 48 (2015).
234.Zhang, L., Guo, Z., Zhang, M. & Cheng, Z. Study on soil micro-seepage gas flux in the high temperature geothermal area: an example from the Yangbajing geothermal field, South Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica 30, 3612–3626 (2014).
235.Zhang, M. L. et al. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 127, 76–90 (2016).
236.Cheng, Z., Guo, Z., Zhang, M. & Zhang, L. CO2 flux estimations of hot springs in the Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field, Yunnan Province, SW China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 28, 1217–1224 (2012).
237.Cheng, Z., Guo, Z., Zhang, M. & Zhang, L. Carbon dioxide emissions from Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field, Yunnan Province, SW China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 30, 3657–3670 (2014).
238.Guo, Z., Zhang, M., Cheng, Z., Zhang, L. & Liu, J. Fluxes and genesis of greenhouse gases emissions from typical volcanic fields in China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 30, 3467-3480 (2014).
239.Zhang, M. et al. Greenhouse gases flux estimation of hot springs in Changbaishan volcanic field, NE China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 24, 2898–2904 (2011).
240.Sun, Y. & Guo, Z. CO2 diffuse emission from maar lake: an example in Changbai volcanic field, NE China. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 349, 146–162 (2017).
241.Galindo, I. et al. Emision difusa de dioxido de carbono en el volcan Irazu, Costa Rica. Carbon dioxide emissions at Irazu Volcano, Costa Rica. Revista Geologica de America Central 30, 157–165 (2004).
242.Liegler, A. Diffuse CO2 Degassing and the Origin of Volcabic Gas Variability from Rincon de la Vieja, Miravalles and Tenorio Volcanoes, Master of Science in Geology thesis, Michigan Technological University (2016).
243.Melián, G. V. et al. Emisión difusa de CO2 y actividad volcánica en el volcán Poás, Costa Rica. Revista Geológica de América Central 43, 147–170 (2010).
244.Padron, E. et al. Diffuse CO2 emission rate from Pululahua and the lake-filled Cuicocha calderas, Ecuador. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176, 163–169 (2008).
245.Padron, E. et al. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra caldera, Galapagos archipelago. Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 1509–1519 (2012).
246.Salazar, J. M. L. et al. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at the Santa Ana-Izalco-Coatepeque volcanic complex, El Salvador, Central America. Special Paper – Geological Society of America 375, 135–146 (2004).
247.López, D. L., Ransom, L., Pérez, N. M., Hernández, P. A. & Monterrosa, J. Dynamics of diffuse degassing at Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador. In: Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 375 (eds. W. I. Rose et al.), 191–202 (Geological Society of America, 2004).
248.Hutchison, W., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M., Biggs, J. & Yirgu, G. Structural controls on fluid pathways in an active rift system: a case study of the Aluto volcanic complex. Geosphere 11, 542–562 (2015).
249.Brombach, T., Hunziker, J. C., Chiodini, G., Cardellini, C. & Marini, L. Soil diffuse degassing and thermal energy fluxes from the southern Lakki plain, Nisyros (Greece). Geophysical Research Letters 28, 69–72 (2001).
250.Caliro, S. et al. Recent activity of Nisyros volcano (Greece) inferred from structural, geochemical and seismological data. Bulletin of Volcanology 67, 358–369 (2005).
251.D’Alessandro, W. et al. Diffuse and focused carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Sousaki geothermal system, Greece. Geophysical Research Letters 33, 5 (2006).
252.Parks, M. M. et al. Distinguishing contributions to diffuse CO2 emissions in volcanic areas from magmatic degassing and thermal decarbonation using soil gas Rn-222-delta C-13 systematics: application to Santorini volcano, Greece. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 377, 180–190 (2013).
253.D’Alessandro, W., Brusca, L., Kyriakopouios, K., Michas, G. & Papadakis, G. Methana, the westernmost active volcanic system of the south Aegean arc (Greece): insight from fluids geochemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178, 818–828 (2008).
254.Fridriksson, T. et al. CO2 emissions and heat flow through soil, fumaroles, and steam heated mud pools at the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland. Applied Geochemistry 21, 1551–1569 (2006).
255.Hernandez, P. et al. Diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release from Hengill volcanic system, Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 2435–2448 (2012).
256.Toutain, J. P. et al. Structure and CO2 budget of Merapi volcano during inter-eruptive periods. Bulletin of Volcanology 71, 815–826 (2009).
257.Carapezza, M. L. et al. Diffuse CO2 soil degassing and CO2 and H2S concentrations in air and related hazards at Vulcano Island (Aeolian arc, Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 207, 130–144 (2011).
258.Chiodini, G., Frondini, F. & Raco, B. Diffuse emission of CO2 from the Fossa Crater, Vulcano Island (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology 58, 41–50 (1996).
259.Inguaggiato, S. et al. Total CO2 output from Vulcano island (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q02012 (2012).
260.Granieri, D. et al. Correlated increase in CO2 fumarolic content and diffuse emission from La Fossa crater (Vulcano, Italy): evidence of volcanic unrest or increasing gas release from a stationary deep magma body? Geophysical Research Letters 33, L13316 (2006).
261.D’ Alessandro, W. et al. Chemical and isotopic characterization of the gases of Mount Etna (Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 78, 65–76 (1997).
262.Giammanco, S., Bellotti, F., Groppelli, G. & Pinton, A. Statistical analysis reveals spatial and temporal anomalies of soil CO2 efflux on Mount Etna volcano (Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 194, 1–14 (2010).
263.Camarda, M., De Gregorio, S. & Gurrieri, S. Magma-ascent processes during 2005–2009 at Mt Etna inferred by soil CO2 emissions in peripheral areas of the volcano. Chemical Geology 330, 218–227 (2012).
264.De Gregorio, S. & Camarda, M. A novel approach to estimate the eruptive potential and probability in open conduit volcanoes. Scientific Reports 6, 30471 (2016).
265.Melian, G. et al. Diffuse and visible emission of CO2 from Etna Volcano, Italy. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting #V21D-202 (2009).
266.Inguaggiato, S. et al. CO2 output discharged from Stromboli Island (Italy). Chemical Geology 339, 52–60 (2013).
267.Granieri, D., Chiodini, G., Avino, R. & Caliro, S. Carbon dioxide emission and heat release estimation for Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 275, 22–33 (2014).
268.Favara, R., Giammanco, S., Inguaggiato, S. & Pecoraino, G. Preliminary estimate of CO2 output from Pantelleria Island volcano (Sicily, Italy): evidence of active mantle degassing. Applied Geochemistry 16, 883–894 (2001).
269.Frondini, F. et al. Diffuse CO2 degassing at Vesuvio, Italy. Bulletin of Volcanology 66, 642–651 (2004).
270.Granieri, D. et al. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source. Annals of Geophysics 56, doi:10.4401/ag-6455 (2013).
271.Aiuppa, A. et al. First observations of the fumarolic gas output from a restless caldera: implications for the current period of unrest (2005–2013) at Campi Flegrei. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 14, 4153–4169 (2013).
272.Pecoraino, G. et al. Total CO2 output from Ischia Island volcano (Italy). Geochemical Journal 39, 451–458 (2005).
273.Chiodini, G. et al. Fumarolic and diffuse soil degassing west of Mount Epomeo, Ischia, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 133, 291–309 (2004).
274.Rogie, J. D., Kerrick, D. M., Chiodini, G. & Frondini, F. Flux measurements of non-volcanic CO2 emission from some vents in central Italy. Journal of Geohysical Research: Solid Earth 105, 8435–8445 (2000).
275.Chiodini, G. et al. Geochemical evidence for and characterization of CO2 rich gas sources in the epicentral area of the Abruzzo 2009 earthquakes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 304, 389–398 (2011).
276.Frondini, F., Caliro, S., Cardellini, C., Chiodini, G. & Morgantini, N. Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release in the Monte Amiata volcanic-geothermal area (Italy). Applied Geochemistry 24, 860–875 (2009).
277.Costa, A. et al. A shallow-layer model for heavy gas dispersion from natural sources: application and hazard assessment at Caldara di Manziana, Italy. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, Q03002 (2008).
278.Quattrocchi, F. et al. Continuous/discrete geochemical monitoring of CO2 natural analogues and of diffuse degassing structures (DDS): hints for CO2 storage sites geochemical monitoring protocol. In: Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 9, Vol. 1 Energy Procedia (eds. J. Gale, H. Herzog & J. Braitsch), 2135–2142 (Elsevier, 2009).
279.Hernandez, P. A. et al. Diffuse emission of CO2 from Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Chemical Geology 177, 175–185 (2001).
280.Hernandez, P. A. et al. Diffuse emission of CO2 from Showa-Shinzan, Hokkaido, Japan; a sign of volcanic dome degassing. Pure and Applied Geophysics 163, 869–881 (2006).
281.Hernandez, P. A. et al. Carbon dioxide degassing by advective flow from Usu volcano, Japan. Science 292, 83–86 (2001).
282.Hirabayashi, J. & Mizuhashi, M. The discharge rate of volatiles from Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan. Report of 4th Joint Observation of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, 167–174 (2004).
283.Shimoike, Y., Kazahaya, K. & Shinohara, H. Soil gas emission of volcanic CO2 at Satsuma-Iwojima Volcano, Japan. Earth, Planets and Space 54, 239–247 (2002).
284.Saito, M., Matsushima, T., Matsuwo, N. & Shimizu, H. Observation SO2 and CO2 fluxes in and around the active crater of Aso Nakadake Volcano. In: Science Reports of the Kyushu University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 22 (2007).
285.Notsu, K., Mori, T., Do Vale, S. C., Kagi, H. & Ito, T. Monitoring quiescent volcanoes by diffuse CO2 degassing; case study of Mt. Fuji, Japan. Pure and Applied Geophysics 163, 825–835 (2006).
286.Hernandez, P. A., Mori, T., Padron, E., Sumino, H. & Perez, N. Carbon dioxide emission from Katanuma volcanic lake, Japan. Earth, Planets and Space 63, 1151–1156 (2011).
287.Notsu, K. et al. Diffuse CO2 efflux from Iwojima Volcano, Izu-Ogasawara Arc, Japan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 139, 147–161 (2005).
288.Robertson, E. et al. Diffuse degassing at Longonot volcano, Kenya: implications for CO2 flux in continental rifts. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 327, 208–222 (2016).
289.Werner, C., Christenson, B., Scott, B., Britten, K. & Kilgour, G. Monitoring CO2 emissions at White Island volcano, New Zealand: evidence for total decreases in magmatic mass and heat output. In: Water Rock Interaction, Eleventh Symposium (eds. R. Wanty, & R. R. Seal), 223–226 (A.A. Balkema Publishers, 2004).
290.Harvey, M. C. et al. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 302, 225–236 (2015).
291.Salazar, J. M. L. et al. Diffuse emission of carbon dioxide from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, Central America. Geophysical Research Letters 28, 4275–4278 (2001).
292.Harvey, M. C., White, P. J., Kenzie, K. M. & Lovelock, B. G. Results from soil CO2 flux and shallow temeperature survey at the San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal power project. In: Nicaragua in New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, 1–8 (University of Auckland, 2011).
293.Lewicki, J. L. et al. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology 68, 76–90 (2005).
294.Arpa, M. C. et al. Geochemical evidence of magma intrusion inferred from diffuse CO2 emissions and fumarole plume chemistry: the 2010-2011 volcanic unrest at Taal Volcano, Philippines. Bulletin of Volcanology 75, 747 (2013).
295.Viveiros, F. et al. Soil CO2 emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel Island, Azores archipelago: Volcano monitoring perspectives, geomorphologic studies, and land use planning application. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 115, B12208 (2010).
296.Andrade, C., Viveiros, F., Cruz, J. V., Coutinho, R. & Silva, C. Estimation of the CO2 flux from Furnas volcanic Lake (São Miguel, Azores). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 315, 51–64 (2016).
297.Frunzeti, N. Geogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the Southern Part of the Eastern Carpathians. PhD thesis (Babeș-Bolyai University, 2013).
298.Frunzeti, N. & Baciu, C. Diffuse CO2 emission at Santa Ana lake-filled crater (Eastern Carpathians, Romania). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 14, 188–194 (2012).
299.Inguaggiato, S., Cardellini, C., Taran, Y. & Kalacheva, E. The CO2 flux from hydrothermal systems of the Karymsky volcanic Centre, Kamchatka. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 346, 1–9 (2017).
300.Hernandez, P. A. et al. Analysis of long- and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Applied Geochemistry 27, 2486–2499 (2012).
301.Perez, P. H. et al. Carbon dioxide emissions from soils at Hakkoda, north Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 9 (2003).
302.Melian, G. et al. A magmatic source for fumaroles and diffuse degassing from the summit crater of Teide Volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands): a geochemical evidence for the 2004–2005 seismic-volcanic crisis. Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 1465–1483 (2012).
303.Hernandez, P. A. et al. Geochemical evidences of seismo-volcanic unrests at the NW rift zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands, inferred from diffuse CO2 emission. Bulletin of Volcanology 79, 30 (2017).
304.Melian, G. et al. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 119, 6976–6991 (2014).
305.Padron, E. et al. Dynamics of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions from Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands. Bulletin of Volcanology 77, 28 (2015).
306.Lan, T. F. et al. Compositions and flux of soil gas in Liu-Huang-Ku hydrothermal area, northern Taiwan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 165, 32–45 (2007).
307.Wen, H.-Y. et al. Soil CO2 flux in hydrothermal areas of the Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 114-124 (2016).
308.Nisi, B., Vaselli, O., Marchev, P. & Tassi, F. Diffuse CO2 soil flux measurements at the youngest volcanic system in Bulgaria: the 12.2 Ma old Kozhuh cryptodome. Acta Vulcanologica 25, 169–178 (2013).
309.Bergfeld, D., Goff, F. & Janik, C. J. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada; relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir. Chemical Geology 177, 43–66 (2001).
310.Bergfeld, D., Evans, W. C., Howle, J. F. & Farrar, C. D. Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 152, 140–156 (2006).
311.Bergfeld, D., Evans, W. C., Howle, J. F. & Hunt, A. G. Magmatic gas emissions at Holocene volcanic features near Mono Lake, California, and their relation to regional magmatism. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 292, 70–83 (2015).
312.Evans, W. C., Bergfeld, D., McGimsey, R. G. & Hunt, A. G. Diffuse gas emissions at the Ukinrek Maars, Alaska: implications for magmatic degassing and volcanic monitoring. Applied Geochemistry 24, 527–535 (2009).
313.Sorey, M. L., Werner, C., McGimsey, R. G. & Evans, W. C. Hydrothermal Activity and Carbon Dioxide Discharge at Shrub and Upper Klawasi Mud Volcanoes, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4207 (USGS, 2000).
314.Werner, C. et al. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178, 751–762 (2008).
315.Bergfeld, D., Evans, W. C., Lowenstern, J. B. & Hurwitz, S. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Chemical Geology 330, 233–243 (2012).
316.Lin, P., Deering, C. D., Werner, C. & Torres, C. Origin and quantification of diffuse CO2 and H2S emissions at Crater Hills, Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 377, 117–130 (2019).
317.Marty, B., Alexander, C. M. O. & Raymond, S. N. Primordial origins of Earth’s carbon. In: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 75, 149–181 (Mineralogical Society of America, 2013).