Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

5 - Developmental Perspectives on the Role of Cultural Identity in Well-Being

from Part I - Cultural Perspectives on Developmental Risk and Well-Being


Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5–34.
Blacksmith, G. (2010). The intergenerational legacy of the Indian residential school system on the Cree communities of Mistissini, Oujebougamau and Waswanipi: An investigative research on the experiences of three generations of the James Bay Cree of northern Quebec. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. McGill University, Montreal.
Blackstock, C. (2003). First Nations child and family services: Restoring peace and harmony in First Nations communities. In K. Kufeldt & B. McKenzie (Eds.), Child welfare: Connecting research policy and practice (pp. 331–343). Waterloo, IA: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2011). The impact of stressors on second generation Indian residential school survivors. Transcultural Psychiatry, 48, 367–391.
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., (2013). The intergenerational effects of Indian Residential Schools: Implications for the concept of historical trauma. Transcultural Psychiatry. Advanced online publication. d.o.i. 10.1177/1363461513503380
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., (2014a). An exploratory investigation of student-to-student abuse in residential schools and the implications of this phenomenon. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., (2014b). Appraisals of discriminatory events among adult offspring of Indian Residential School Survivors: The influences of identity centrality and past perceptions of discrimination. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20, 75–86. Advanced online publication. d.o.i. 10.1037/a0033352
Bougie, E., & Senécal, S. (2010). Registered Indian children’s school success and intergenerational effects of residential schooling in Canada. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 1, 5.
Bryce, P. H. (1922). The story of a national crime: An appeal for justice to the Indians of Canada. Ottawa: James Hope & Sons, Limited.
Burack, J. A. (1997). The study of atypical and typical populations in developmental psychopathology: The quest for a common science. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Cicchetti, & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk and disorder (pp. 139–165). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Burack, J. A., Blidner, A., Flores, H., & Fitch, T. (2007). Constructions and deconstructions of risk, resilience and wellbeing: A model for understanding the development of Aboriginal adolescents. Australasian Psychiatry, 15, S18–S23.
Calarco, J. M. (2011). “I need help!” Social class and children’s help-seeking in elementary school. American Sociological Review, 76, 862–882.
Cameron, J. E. (2004). A three-factor model of social identity. Self and Identity, 3, 239–262.
Campbell, J. D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 538.
Chandler, M. J., & Lalonde, C. E. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada’s First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 191–219.
Chandler, M. J., (2009). Cultural continuity as a moderator of suicide risk among Canada’s First Nations. In L. Kirmayer & G. Valaskakis (Eds.), Healing traditions: The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (pp. 221–248). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Chandler, M. J., Lalonde, C. E., Sokol, B. W., Hallett, D., & Marcia, J. E. (2003). Personal persistence, identity development, and suicide: A study of native and non-native North American adolescents. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68.
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1–7.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental psychopathology. New York: Wiley.
Currie, C. L., Wild, T. C., Schopflocher, D. P., Laing, L., Veugelers, P. J., Parlee, B., & McKennitt, D. W. (2011). Enculturation and alcohol use problems among aboriginal university students. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de psychiatrie, 56, 735.
David, E. J. R., Okazaki, S., & Saw, A. (2009). Bicultural self-efficacy among college students: Initial scale development and mental health correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 211–226.
Elias, B., Mignone, J., Hall, M., Hong, S. P., Hart, L., & Sareen, J. (2012). Trauma and suicide behaviour histories among a Canadian indigenous population: An empirical exploration of the potential role of Canada’s residential school system. Social Science Medicine, 74, 1560–1569.
Ellemers, N., Kortekaas, P., & Ouwerkerk, J. W. (1999). Self-categorisation, commitment to the group and group self-esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 371–389.
Evans-Campbell, T., Lindhorst, T., Huang, B., & Walters, K. L. (2006). Interpersonal violence in the lives of urban American Indian and Alaska Native women: Implications for health, mental health, and help-seeking. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1416–1422.
Fisher, P. A., Storck, A., & Bacon, J. G. (1999). In the eye of the beholder: Risk and protective factors in rural American Indian and Caucasian adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 294–304.
Flanagan, T., Iarocci, G., D’Arrisso, A., Mandour, T., Tootoosis, C., Robinson, S., & Burack, J. A. (2011). Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: Evidence from the Naskapi people. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49, 155–159.
Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2007). Cultural models of education in American Indian, Asian American, and European American contexts. Social Psychology of Education, 10, 213–246.
Fryberg, S. A., Troop-Gordon, W., D’Arrisso, A., Flores, H., Ponizovsky, V., Ranney, J. D., Mandour, T., Tootoosis, C., Robinson, S., Russo, N., & Burack, J. A. (2013). Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youth: The interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings. Developmental Psychology, 49, 72–79.
Gfellner, B. M., & Armstrong, H. D. (2012a). Ego development, ego strengths, and ethnic identity among First Nation adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 225–234.
Gfellner, B. M., (2012b). Racial-ethnic identity and adjustment in Canadian indigenous adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33, 635–662.
Gone, J. P. (2010). Psychotherapy and traditional healing for American Indians: Exploring the prospects for therapeutic integration. The Counselling Psychologist, 38, 166–235.
Greaves, L., Poole, N., Okoli, C. T. C., Hemsing, N., Qu, A., Bialystok, L., & O’Leary, R. (2011). Expecting to quit: A best practices review of smoking cessation interventions for pregnant and post-partum women (2nd ed.). Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Womens Health.
Gross, D. & Richards, J. (2012). Breaking the stereotype: Why urban Aboriginals score highly on “happiness” measures. CD Howe Institute Commentary, 354.
Harper, S. (2008). Statement of apology – to former students of Indian Residential Schools. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Retrieved December 29, 2013, from
Iarocci, G., Root, R., & Burack, J. A. (2009). Social competence and mental health among Aboriginal youth: An integrative developmental perspective. In L. Kirmayer & G. Valaskakis (Eds.), Healing traditions: The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (pp. 80–106). Vancouver: UBC Press.
Jackson, J. W., & Smith, E. (1999). Conceptualizing social identity: A new framework and evidence for the impact of different dimensions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 120–135.
Kirkness, V. J. (1999). Aboriginal education in Canada: A retrospective and a prospective. Journal of American Indian Education, 39, 14–30.
Kirmayer, L. J., Dandeneau, S., Marshall, E., Phillips, M. K., & Williamson, K. J. (2011). Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 84–91.
LaFromboise, T. D., Albright, K., & Harris, A. (2010). Patterns of hopelessness among American Indian adolescents: Relationships by levels of acculturation and residence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 68–76.
LaFromboise, T. D., Coleman, H. L. K., & Gerton, J. (1993). The psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412.
Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego development: Conceptions and theories. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 739–795). New York: Wiley.
Luthar, S. S., & Burack, J. A. (2000). Adolescent wellness: In the eye of the beholder? In D. Cicchetti, J. Rappaport, I. Sandler, & R. P. Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents (pp. 29–57). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
Markstrom, C. A. (2011). Identity formation of American Indian adolescents: Local, national, and global considerations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 19–35.
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.
Milloy, J. S. (1999). A national crime: The Canadian government and the residential school system. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1991). Orthogonal cultural identification theory: The cultural identification of minority adolescents. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 655–685.
Perry, S. W. (2004). American Indians and crime: A BJS statistical profile, 1992–2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34–49.
Richards, J. G., Vining, A. R., & Weimer, D. L. (2010). Aboriginal performance on standardized tests: Evidence and analysis from provincial schools in British Columbia. Policy Studies Journal, 38, 47–67.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) (1996). Looking Forward, Looking Back: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 1. Ottawa, ON: Communication Group Publishing.
Sellers, R. M., Caldwell, C. H., Schmeelk-Cone, K. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2003). Racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress among African American young adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 302–317.
Sroufe, A. L., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17–29.
Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C. S., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0027143.
Stout, R., & Peters, S. (2011). Kiskinohamâtôtâpânâsk: Inter-generational effects on professional First Nations women whose mothers are residential school survivors. Winnipeg, MB: Prairie Womens Centre for Research.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Taylor, D. M. (1997). The quest for collective identity: The plight of disadvantaged ethnic minorities. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 38, 174.
Taylor, D. M. (2002). The quest for identity: From minority groups to generation Xers. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Troniak, S. (2011). Addressing the legacy of residential schools. Background paper 76-E, Social Affairs Division, Parliament of Canada. Retrieved from
Usborne, E., & Taylor, D. M. (2010). The role of cultural identity clarity for self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 883–897.
Wei, M., Liao, K. Y., Chao, R. C., Mallinckrodt, B., Tsai, P., & Botellow-Zammarron, R. (2010). Minority stress, perceived bicultural competence and depressive symptoms among ethnic minority college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 411–422.
Wilson, K., Rosenberg, M. W., & Abonyi, S. (2010). Aboriginal peoples, health and healing approaches: The effects of age and place on health. Social Science Medicine, 72, 355–364.
Wright, R. (1992). Stolen continents: The “New World” through Indian eyes. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
Yoon, E., Chang, C., Kim, S., Clawson, A., Cleary, S. A., Hansen, M., Bruner, J. P., et al. (2013). A meta-analysis of acculturation/enculturation and mental health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 15–30.