Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

1 - Intracranial pressure monitoring in cerebrovascular disease

from Section 1 - Monitoring Techniques

References

1. Marmarou A. Traumatic brain edema: an overview. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1994;60:421–4.
2. Prabhakaran P, Reddy AT, Oakes WJ, et al. A pilot trial comparing cerebral perfusion pressure-targeted therapy to intracranial pressure-targeted therapy in children with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(5 Suppl Pediatrics):454–9.
3. Unterberg. Long term observations of ICP after severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1993;32:17–24.
4. Manz HJ. Pathophysiology and pathology of elevated intracranial pressure. Pathobiol Annu. 1979;9:359–81.
5. Wijdicks E. The Practice of Emergency and Critical Care Neurology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.
6. Doczi T. Volume regulation of the brain tissue – a survey. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1993;121(1–2):1–8.
7. McComb JG. Recent research into the nature of cerebrospinal fluid formation and absorption. J Neurosurg. 1983;59(3):369–83.
8. Gjerris F. Pathophysiology of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2000.
9. Lyons MK, Meyer FB. Cerebrospinal fluid physiology and the management of increased intracranial pressure. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990;65(5):684–707.
10. Cutler RW, Page L, Galicich J, Watters GV. Formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in man. Brain. 1968;91(4):707–20.
11. Potts DG, Deonarine V. Effect of positional changes and jugular vein compression on the pressure gradient across the arachnoid villi and granulations of the dog. J Neurosurg. 1973;38(6):722–8.
12. Wolfla CE, Luerssen TG. Brain tissue pressure gradients are dependent upon a normal spinal subarachnoid space. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 1998;71:310–12.
13. Magnaes B. Clinical studies of cranial and spinal compliance and the craniospinal flow of cerebrospinal fluid. Br J Neurosurg. 1989;3(6):659–68.
14. Apuzzo JL, Wiess MH, Petersons V, et al. Effect of positive end expiratory pressure ventilation on intracranial pressure in man. J Neurosurg. 1977;46(2):227–32.
15. Hauerberg J, Juhler M. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in acute intracranial hypertension. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994;14(3):519–25.
16. Lee K. Intracranial pressure. Neurol. Surg. 1996;1:491–518.
17. Hayashi M, Handa Y, Kobayashi H, Ishii H. Intracranial hypertension and pressure waves. No Shinkei Geka. 1985;13(3):245–53.
18. Bratton S. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(1):7.
19. Saul TG. Effect of ICP monitoring and aggressive treatment on mortality in severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 1982;56:498–503.
20. Narayan RK. ICP: To monitor or not to monitor? J Neurosurg. 1982;56:650–9.
21. Suarez J. Critical Care Neurology and Neurosurgery. New Jersey: Humana Press; 2004.
22. Teasdale E. CT scan in severe diffuse head injury: physiological and clinical correlations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1984;47:600–3.
23. Chan K. The effect of changes in cerebral perfusion pressure upon middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity and jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation after severe brain injury. J Neurosurg. 1992;77:55–61.
24. Bellner J. Transcranial Doppler sonography pulsatility index (PI) reflects intracranial pressure (ICP). Surg Neurol. 2004;62(1):45–51.
25. Behrens A. Transcranial Doppler pulsatility index: not an accurate method to assess intracranial pressure. Neurosurgery. 2010;66(6):1050–7.
26. Soldatos T. Optic nerve sonography a new window for the non-invasive evaluation of intracranial pressure in brain injury. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:630–4.
27. Speck V. Lumbar catheter for monitoring of intracranial pressure in patients with post-hemorrhagic communicating hydrocephalus. Neurocrit Care. 2010:208–15.
28. Brain Trauma Foundation. ICP monitoring technology. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:45–54.
29. Mendelow A. A clinical comparison of subdural screw pressure measurements with ventricular pressure. J Neurosurg. 1983;58(1):45–50.
30. Maniker. Hemorrhagic complications of external ventricular drainage. Operative Neurosurg. 2006;59:419–25.
31. Lang E. Intracranial pressure: Monitoring and management. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1994;5(4):573–605.
32. Saladino A. Malplacement of ventricular catheters by neurosurgeons: a single institution experience. Neurocrit Care. 2009;10(2):248–52.
33. Lozien AP. Ventriculostomy-related infection: A critical review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:170–82.
34. Brain Trauma Foundation: Infection prophylaxis. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:526–31.
35. Mayhall CG. Ventriculostomy-related infections: A prospective epidemiologic study. N Eng J Med. 1984;310:553–9.
36. Lyke KE. Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:2028–33.
37. Paramore CG. Relative risks of ventriculostomy infection and morbidity. Acta Neurochir. 1994;127:79–84.
38. Vespa P. What is the optimal threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure following traumatic brain injury? Neurosurg Focus. 2003;15(6):1–5.
39. Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH. Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results. J Neurosurg. 1995;83(6):949–62.
40. Juul N, Morris GF, Marshall SB, Marshall LF. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral perfusion pressure: influence on neurological deterioration and outcome in severe head injury. The Executive Committee of the International Selfotel Trial. J Neurosurg. 2000;92(1):1–6.
41. Hacke W, Schwab S, Horn M, et al. ‘Malignant’ middle cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical course and prognostic signs. Arch Neurol. 1996;53(4):309–15.
42. Hacke W, Kaste M, Fieschi C, et al. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). JAMA. 1995;274(13):1017–25.
43. Schwab S, Aschoff A, Spranger M, Albert F, Hacke W. The value of intracranial pressure monitoring in acute hemispheric stroke. Neurology. 1996;47(2):393–8.
44. Frank, JI. Large hemispheric infarction, deterioration, and intracranial pressure. Neurology. 1995;45(7):1286–90.
45. Cho D. Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Surg Neurol. 2003;60(3):227–32.
46. Jaeger M, Soehle M, Meixensberger J. Improvement of brain tissue oxygen and intracranial pressure during and after surgical decompression for diffuse brain oedema and space occupying infarction. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;95:117–18.
47. Ho CL, Wang CM, Lee KK, Ng I, Ang BT. Cerebral oxygenation, vascular reactivity, and neurochemistry following decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2008;108(5):943–9.
48. Olivecrona M, Rodling-Wahlstrom M, Naredi S, Koskinen LO. Effective ICP reduction by decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated by an ICP-targeted therapy. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(6):927–35.
49. Pompucci A, De Bonis P, Pettorini B, et al. Decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury: patient age and outcome. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(7):1182–8.
50. Stiefel MF, Heuer GG, Smith MJ, et al. Cerebral oxygenation following decompressive hemicraniectomy for the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg. 2004;101(2):241–7.
51. Taylor A, Butt W, Rosenfeld J, et al. A randomized trial of very early decompressive craniectomy in children with traumatic brain injury and sustained intracranial hypertension. Childs Nerv Syst. 2001;17(3):154–62.
52. Vahedi K. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analyis of three randomized controlled trials. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:215–22.
53. Soustiel J. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism following decompressive craniectomy for control of increased intracranial pressure. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:65–72.
54. Davenport A. Early changes in intracranial pressure during haemofiltration treatment in patients with grade 4 hepatic encephalopathy and acute oliguric renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1990;5:192–8.
55. Davenport A. Continuous vs. intermittent forms of haemofiltration and/or dialysis in the management of acute renal failure in patients with defective cerebral autoregulation at risk of cerebral oedema. Contrib Nephrol. 1991;93:225–33.
56. Bertrand Y. Intracranial pressure changes in patients with head trauma during hemodialysis. Intensive Care Med. 1983;9:321–3.
57. Davenport A, Will EJ, Losowsky MS, Swindells S. Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration in patients with hepatic encephalopathy and renal failure. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;295(6605):1028.
58. Fletcher J. Continuous renal replacement therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension? J Trauma. 2010;68(6):1506–9.
59. De Vriese AS, Colardyn FA, Philippe JJ, et al. Cytokine removal during continuous hemofiltration in septic patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10(4):846–53.
60. Bellomo R, Tipping P, Boyce N. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with dialysis removes cytokines from the circulation of septic patients. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(4):522–6.
61. Diringer M. Intracerebral hemorrhage: pathophysiology and management. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(10):1591–603.
62. Fernandes H. Continuous monitoring of ICP and CPP following ICH and its relationship to clinical, radiological and surgical parameters. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2000;76:463–6.
63. Mayer S. Neurologic deterioration in noncomatose patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 1994;44:1379–84.
64. Carhuapoma R. Intracerebral Hemorrhage. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
65. Lewis B. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (American Stroke Association). Stroke. 2010;41:2108.
66. Broderick J. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1999;30:905–15.
67. Naff N. Treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage with urokinase; effects on 30-day survival. Stroke. 2000;31:81–847.
68. Steinke W. Thalamic stroke: Presentation and prognosis of infarcts and hemorrhages. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:703–10.
69. Mayfrank L. Effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator on clot lysis and ventricular dilatation in the treatment of severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir. 1993;122:32–8.
70. Tuhrim S. Volume of ventricular blood is an important determinant of outcome in supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:617–21.
71. Adams R. Response to external ventricular drainage in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage with hydrocephalus. Neurology. 1998;50:519–23.
72. Diringer M. Hydrocephalus: a previously unrecognized predictor of poor outcome from supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1998;29:1352–7.
73. Coplin W. A cohort study of the safety and feasibiity of intraventricular urokinase for nonaneurysmal spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage. Stroke. 1998;29:1573–9.
74. Ziai W. Frequency of sustained intracranial pressure elevation during treatment of severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;27:403–10.
75. Nieuwkamp D. Treatment and outcome of severe intraventricular extension in patients with subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review of the literature. J Neurol. 2000;247(2):117–21.
76. Hutter B. Cognitive deficits in the acute stage after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1998;43:1054–65.
77. Lath R. Decompressive surgery for severe cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurol India. 2010;58(3):392–7.
78. Einhdupi K. EFNS guidelines on the treatment of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:553–9.
79. Torbey M. Neurocritical Care. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
80. Milhorat T. Acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1987;20:15–20.
81. Dorai Z. Factors related to hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(4):1031.
82. Eisenberg H. Initial CT findings in 753 patients with severe head injury. A report from the NIH traumatic coma data bank. J Neurosurg. 1990;73:688–98.
83. Czosnyka M. Cerebral autoregulation following head injury. J Neurosurg. 2001;95:756–63.
84. O’Phelan KH, Park D, Efird JT, et al. Patterns of increased intracranial pressure after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2009;10(3):280–6.
85. Guidelines for the management of severe head injury. Introduction. J Neurotrauma. 1996;13(11):643–5.
86. Schwartz ML, Tator CH, Rowed DW, et al. The University of Toronto head injury treatment study: a prospective, randomized comparison of pentobarbital and mannitol. Can J Neurol Sci. 1984;11(4):434–40.
87. Oken DE. Renal and extrarenal considerations in high-dose mannitol therapy. Ren Fail. 1994;16(1):147–59.
88. Bentsen G, Breivik H, Lundar T, Stubhaug A. Hypertonic saline (7.2%) in 6% hydroxyethyl starch reduces intracranial pressure and improves hemodynamics in a placebo-controlled study involving stable patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(12):2912–17.
89. Schwarz S, Schwab S, Bertram M, Aschoff A, Hacke W. Effects of hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch solution and mannitol in patients with increased intracranial pressure after stroke. Stroke. 1998;29(8):1550–5.
90. Battison C, Andrews PJ, Graham C, Petty T. Randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a 20% mannitol solution and a 7.5% saline/6% dextran solution on increased intracranial pressure after brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(1):196–202; discussion 57–8.
91. Vialet R, Albanese J, Thomachot L, et al. Isovolume hypertonic solutes (sodium chloride or mannitol) in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension: 2 mL/kg 7.5% saline is more effective than 2 mL/kg 20% mannitol. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(6):1683–7.
92. Harutjunyan L, Holz C, Rieger A, et al. Efficiency of 7.2% hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 versus mannitol 15% in the treatment of increased intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients – a randomized clinical trial [ISRCTN62699180]. Crit Care. 2005;9(5):R530–40.
93. Ichai C, Armando G, Orban JC, et al. Sodium lactate versus mannitol in the treatment of intracranial hypertensive episodes in severe traumatic brain-injured patients. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35(3):471–9.
94. Kamel H, Navi BB, Nakagawa K, Hemphill JC, Ko NU. Hypertonic saline versus mannitol for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(3):554–9.
95. Grady MS. Lumbar drainage for increased intracranial pressure. J Neurosurg. 2009;110(6):1198–9.
96. Akil H. The treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension and its control by means of external lumbar drainage (ELD). J Trauma. 2007;63(3):720–1.
97. Tuettenberg J, Czabanka M, Horn P, et al. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage for the treatment of refractory increased intracranial pressure. J Neurosurg. 2009;110(6):1200–8.
98. Munch EC, Bauhuf C, Horn P, et al. Therapy of malignant intracranial hypertension by controlled lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(5):976–81.
99. Abadal-Centellas JM, Llompart-Pou JA, Homar-Ramirez J, et al. Neurologic outcome of post-traumatic refractory intracranial hypertension treated with external lumbar drainage. J Trauma. 2007;62(2):282–6; discussion 6.
100. Llompart-Pou JA, Abadal JM, Perez-Barcena J, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with post-traumatic refractory high intracranial pressure treated with lumbar drainage. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2011;39(1):79–83.
101. Sahuquillo J, Arikan F. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; 1:CD003983.
102. Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray L, et al. Decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(16):1493–502.
103. Vahedi K, Vicaut E, Mateo J, et al. Sequential-design, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of early decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL Trial). Stroke. 2007;38(9):2506–17.
104. Cooper PR, Hagler H, Clark WK, Barnett P. Enhancement of experimental cerebral edema after decompressive craniectomy: implications for the management of severe head injuries. Neurosurgery. 1979;4(4):296–300.
105. Stiver SI. Complications of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;26(6):E7.
106. Chung RS, Staal JA, McCormack GH, et al. Mild axonal stretch injury in vitro induces a progressive series of neurofilament alterations ultimately leading to delayed axotomy. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22(10):1081–91.
107. Staal JA, Dickson TC, Gasperini R, et al. Initial calcium release from intracellular stores followed by calcium dysregulation is linked to secondary axotomy following transient axonal stretch injury. J Neurochem. 2010;112(5):1147–55.
108. Tang-Schomer MD, Patel AR, Baas PW, Smith DH. Mechanical breaking of microtubules in axons during dynamic stretch injury underlies delayed elasticity, microtubule disassembly, and axon degeneration. FASEB J. 2010;24(5):1401–10.
109. Clifton G. Lack of effect of induction of hypothermia after acute brain injury. N Eng J Med. 2001;344:556–63.
110. Marion D. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. N Eng J Med. 1997;336:540–6.
111. Schreckinger M. Contemporary management of traumatic intracranial hypertension: Is there a role for therapeutic hypothermia? Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(3):427–36.
112. Teasdale GM, Graham DI. Craniocerebral trauma: protection and retrieval of the neuronal population after injury. Neurosurgery. 1998;43(4):723–37; discussion 37–8.
113. Siesjo BK. Mechanisms of ischemic brain damage. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(10):954–63.
114. Schmidt OI, Heyde CE, Ertel W, Stahel PF. Closed head injury – an inflammatory disease? Brain Res Rev. 2005;48(2):388–99.
115. Perez-Barcena J, Ibanez J, Brell M, et al. Lack of correlation among intracerebral cytokines, intracranial pressure, and brain tissue oxygenation in patients with traumatic brain injury and diffuse lesions. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(3):533–40.
116. Narotam P. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring in traumatic brain injury and major trauma: outcome analysis of a brain tissue oxygen-directed therapy. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:672–82.
117. Bulger E. Management of severe head injury: institutional variations in care and effect on outcome. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:1870–6.
118. Kiening K. Brain tissue pO2-monitoring in comatose patients: implications for therapy. Neurol Res. 1997;19:233–40.
119. Martini R. Management guided by brain tissue oxygen monitoring and outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:644–9.
120. Haitsma I. Advanced monitoring in the intensive care unit: brain tissue oxygen tension. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002;8:115–20.