Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: December 2015

2 - Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

Summary

INTRODUCTION

The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

Understanding why so many freshwater fish species are threatened requires some understanding of their biology, diversity, distribution, biogeography and ecology, but also some appreciation of the social, economic and political forces that are causing humans to destroy the natural ecosystems upon which we all ultimately depend. To begin to understand the diversity of freshwater fishes, we first need to consider the processes that generated and continue to sustain the diversity of species we see today. Based on an understanding of how freshwater fish diversity is generated and sustained, we consider how vulnerable or resilient various freshwater fishes are to the range of anthropogenic impacts that impinge on freshwater ecosystems. Finally, we discuss how social, political and economic drivers influence human impacts on natural systems, and the changes needed to current models of development that can lead to a sustainable future for humans and the diverse range of freshwater fish species with which we share our planet. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the key issues and threats driving the declines in freshwater fish diversity identified in Chapter 1; subsequent chapters provide more detail on the key issues and address our options for developing a sustainable future for freshwater fishes.

Abell, R., Thieme, M. L., Revenga, C., et al. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: a new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. Bioscience, 58, 403–414.
Agius, J. (2001). Biodiversity credits: creating missing markets for biodiversity. Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 18, 481–504.
Allan, J. D. (2004). Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35, 257–284.
Allan, J. D., Abell, R., Hogan, Z., et al. (2005). Overfishing of inland waters. BioScience, 55, 1041–1051.
Allen, G. R., Storey, A. W. & Yarrao, M. (2008). Freshwater Fishes of the Fly river Papua New Guinea. Tabubil, PNG: Ok Tedi Mining.
Andrews, C. (1990). The ornamental fish trade and fish conservation. Journal of Fish Biology, 37, 53–59.
Angermeier, P. L. (1995). Ecological attributes of extinction-prone species: loss of freshwater fishes of Virginia. Conservation Biology, 9, 143–158.
Angermeier, P. L. (2007). The role of fish biologists in helping society build ecological sustainability. Fisheries, 32, 9–20.
Angermeier, P. L. (2010). Preface: Conservation challenges for stream fish ecologists. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 73, 303–309.
Angermeier, P. L. & Winston, M. R. (1998). Local vs. regional influences on local diversity in stream fish communities of Virginia. Ecology, 79, 911–927.
Angermeier, P. L. & Winston, M. R. (1999). Characterizing fish community diversity across Virginia landscapes: prerequisite for conservation. Ecological Applications, 9, 335–349.
Arlinghaus, R., Mehner, T. & Cowx, I. G. (2002). Reconciling traditional inland fisheries management and sustainability in industrialized countries, with emphasis on Europe. Fish and Fisheries, 3, 261–316.
Battarbee, R. W., Shilland, E. M., Kernan, M., Monteith, D. T. & Curtis, C. J. (2014). Recovery of acidified surface waters from acidification in the United Kingdom after twenty years of chemical and biological monitoring (1988–2008). Ecological Indicators, 37, 267–273.
Beatty, S. J., Morgan, D. L., Rashnavadi, M. & Lymbery, A. J. (2011). Salinity tolerances of endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot. Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 91–100.
Bernhardt, E. S. & Palmer, M. A. (2007) Restoring streams in an urbanizing world. Freshwater Biology, 52, 738–751.
Berra, T. M. (2001). Freshwater Fish Distribution. San Diego, CA:Academic Press.
Brown, D. K., Echelle, A. A., Propst, D. L., Brooks, J. E. & Fisher, W. L. (2001). Catastrophic wildfire and number of populations as factors influencing risk of extinction for Gila trout (Oncorhynchus gilae). Western North American Naturalist, 61, 139–148.
Carpenter, S. R., Kitchell, J. F. & Hodgson, J. R. (1985) Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. Bioscience, 35, 634–639.
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. Boston, MA:Houghton Mifflin.
Castello, L., Arantes, C. C., McGrath, D. G., Stewart, D. J. & de Sousa, F. S. (2014). Understanding fishing-induced extinctions in the Amazon. Aquatic Conservation: Maine and Freshwater Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2491
Closs, G. P. & Lake, P. S. (1996). Drought, differential mortality and the coexistence of a native and an introduced fish species in a south east Australian intermittent stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 47, 17–26.
Collier, K. J., Aldridge, B. M. T. A., Hicks, B. J., et al. (2009). Ecological values of Hamilton urban streams (North Island, New Zealand): constraints and opportunities for restoration. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 33, 177–189.
Coyle, K. (2005). Environmental Literacy in America: What Ten Years of NEETF/Roper Research and Related Studies Say about Environmental Literacy in the U.S. Washington, DC: The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation.
Czech, B. (2000). Economic growth as a limiting factor for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 4–14.
Czech, B., Krausman, P. R. & Borkhataria, R. (1998). Social construction, political power, and the allocation of benefits to endangered species. Conservation Biology, 12, 1103–1112.
Czech, B., Krausman, P. R. & Devers, P. K. (2000). Economic associations among causes of species endangerment in the United States. BioScience, 50, 593–601.
Daly, H. E. & Farley, J. (2011). Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications, second edition. Washington, DC:Island Press.
Dauvergne, P. & Lister, J. (2010). The prospects and limits of eco-consumerism: shopping our way to less deforestation?Organization & Environment, 23, 132–154.
David, B. O., Tonkin, J. D., Taipeti, K. W. T. & Hokianga, H. T. (2014). Learning the ropes: mussel spat ropes improve fish and shrimp passage through culverts. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 214–223.
DeHaven, J. E., Stouder, D. J., Ratajczak, R., Welch, T. J. & Grossman, G. D. (1992). Reproductive timing in three southern Appalachian stream fishes. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 1, 104–111.
Dudgeon, D. (2000). Conservation of freshwater biodiversity in Oriental Asia: constraints, conflicts, and challenges to science and sustainability. Limnology, 1, 237–243.
Dudgeon, D. (2010a). Requiem for a river: extinctions, climate change and the last of the Yangtze. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20, 127–131.
Dudgeon, D. (2010b). Prospects for sustaining freshwater biodiversity in the 21st century: linking ecosystem structure and function. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 422–430.
Dudgeon, D. (2011). Asian rivers fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change. Journal of Fish Biology, 79, 1487–1524.
Dudgeon, D., Arthington, A. H., Gessner, M. O., et al. (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews, 81, 163–182.
Dunham, J. B. & Rieman, B. E. (1999). Metapopulation structure of bull trout: influences of physical, biotic, and geometrical landscape characteristics. Ecological Applications, 9, 642–655.
Dunham, J., Baxter, C., Fausch, K., et al. (2008). Evolution, ecology, and conservation of dolly varden, white spotted char and bull trout. Fisheries, 33, 537–550.
Fagan, W. F. (2002). Connectivity, fragmentation, and extinction risk in dendritic metapopulations. Ecology, 83, 3243–3249.
Fagan, W. F., Unmack, P. J., Burgess, C. & Minckley, W. L. (2002). Rarity, fragmentation, and extinction risk in desert fishes. Ecology, 83, 3250–3256.
Fausch, K. D., Torgersen, C. E., Baxter, C. V. & Li, H. W. (2002). Landscapes to riverscapes: bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes. Bioscience, 52, 483–498.
Filipe, A. F., Magalhães, M. F. & Collares-Pereira, M. J. (2010). Native and introduced fish species richness in Mediterranean streams: the role of multiple landscape influences. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 773–785.
Frimpong, E. A. & Angermeier, P. L. (2010). Trait-based approaches in the analysis of stream fish communities. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 73, 109–136.
Genito, D., Gburek, W. J. & Sharpley, A. N. (2002). Response of stream macroinvertebrates to agricultural land cover in a small watershed. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 17, 109–119.
Gido, K. B. & Brown, J. H. (1999). Invasions of North American drainages by alien fish species. Freshwater Biology, 42, 387–399.
Grant, G. E. (2012). The geomorphic response of gravel-bed rivers to dams. In Perspectives and Prospects, in Gravel-Bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 165–181.
Gupta, J., Pahl-Wostl, C. & Zondervan, R. (2013). ‘Glocal’ water governance: a multi-level challenge in the anthropocene. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 573–580.
Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–1248.
Harris, J. H., Bond, N. R., Closs, G. P., et al. (2013). Dynamics of populations. In: Ecology of Australian Freshwater Fishes. Humphries, P. & Walker, K. (Eds). Collingwood:CSIRO Publishing, pp. 223–244.
Heino, J., Schmera, D. & Erős, T. (2013). A macroecological perspective of trait patterns in stream communities. Freshwater Biology, 58, 1539–1555.
Humphries, P. & Lake, P. S. (2000). Fish larvae and the mangement of regulated rivers. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management,16, 421–432.
Humphries, P. & Winemiller, K. O. (2009). Historical impacts on river fauna, shifting baselines, and challenges for restoration. Bioscience, 59, 673–684.
Humphries, P., King, A. J. & Koehn, J. D. (1999). Fish, flows and flood plains: links between freshwater fishes and their environment in the Murray–Darling River system, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56, 129–151.
Kaiser, M. J. & Edwards-Jones, G. (2006). The role of ecolabeling in fisheries management and conservation. Conservation Biology, 20, 392–398.
Keith, P. (2003). Biology and ecology of amphidromous Gobiidae of the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean regions. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 831–847.
King, A. J., Humphries, P. & Lake, P. S. (2003). Fish recruitment on floodplains: the roles of patterns of flooding and life history characteristics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60, 773–786.
Lamouroux, N., Poff, N. L. & Angermeier, P. L. (2002). Convergence of stream fish community traits in France and Virginia (USA) along geomorphic and hydraulic gradients. Ecology, 83, 1792–1807.
Lapointe, N. W. R., Pendleton, R. M. & Angermeier, P. L. (2012). A comparison of approaches for estimating relative impacts of nonnative fishes. Environmental Management, 49, 82–95.
Leprieur, F., Beauchard, O., Blanchet, S., Oberdorff, T. & Brosse, S. (2008). Fish invasions in the world's river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biology, 6, e28.
Lord, C., Lorion, J., Dettai, A., et al. (2012). From endemism to widespread distribution: phylogeography of three amphidromous Sicyopterus species (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Sicydiinae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 455, 269–285.
Lu, J. Y., Schroeder, W. H., Barrie, L. A., et al. (2001). Magnification of atmospheric mercury deposition to polar regions in springtime: the link to tropospheric ozone depletion chemistry. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3219–3222.
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. & Walters, C. (1993). Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: Lessons from history. Science, 260, 17, 36.
Ma, J., Hung, H., Tian, C. & Kallenborn, R. (2011). Revolatilization of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic induced by climate change. Nature Climate Change, 1, 255–260.
Mallen-Cooper, M. & Brand, D. A. (2007). Non-salmonids in a salmonid fishway: what do 50 years of data tell us about past and future fish passage?Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14, 319–332.
Malmqvist, B. & Rundle, S. (2002). Threats to the running water ecosystems of the world. Environmental Conservation, 29, 134–153.
Mant, R. C., Jones, D. L., Reynolds, B., Ormerod, S. J. & Pullin, A. S. (2013). A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate the impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates. Environmental Pollution, 179, 285–293.
Marks, J. C., Haden, G. A., O'Neill, M. & Pace, C. (2010). Effects of flow restoration and exotic species removal on recovery of native fish: lessons from a dam decommissioning. Restoration Ecology, 18, 934–943.
Maruyama, A., Yuma, M. & Onoda, Y. (2004). Egg size variation between the fluvial-lacustrine and lacustrine types of a landlocked Rhinogobius goby in the Lake Biwa water system. Ichthyological Research, 51, 172–175.
Matthews, W. J. (1998). Patterns in Freshwater Fish Ecology. New York, NY:Chapman & Hall.
McDowall, R. M. (2006). Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes?Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 16, 233–422.
Mensing, D. M., Galatowitsch, S. M. & Tester, J. R. (1998). Anthropogenic effects on the biodiversity of riparian wetlands of a northern temperate landscape. Journal of Environmental Management, 53, 349–377.
Mims, M. C., Olden, J. D., Shattuck, Z. R. & Poff, N. L. (2010). Life history trait diversity of native freshwater fishes in North America. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 19, 390–400.
Morgan, D. L., Gill, H. S., Maddern, M. G. & Beatty, S. J. (2004). Distribution and impacts of introduced freshwater fishes in Western Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 38, 511–523.
Morita, K. & Yamamoto, S. (2002). Effects of habitat fragmentation by damming on the persistence of stream-dwelling charr populations. Conservation Biology, 16, 1318–1323.
Moyle, P. B. & Mount, J. F. (2007). Homogenous rivers, homogenous faunas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 5711–5712.
Myers, G. S. (1938). Fresh-water fishes and West Indian zoogeography. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 92 (1938, for the year 1937), 339–364.
Naiman, R. J. (2013). Socio-ecological complexity and the restoration of river ecosystems. Inland Waters, 3, 391–410.
Naiman, R. J. & Dudgeon, D. (2011). Global alteration of freshwaters: influences on human and environmental well-being. Ecological Research, 26, 865–873.
Nakano, S., Kitano, F. & Maekawa, K. (1996). Potential fragmentation and loss of thermal habitats for charrs in the Japanese archipelago due to climatic warming. Freshwater Biology, 36, 711–722.
Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., et al. (2000). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405, 1017–1024.
Novak, M., Moore, J. W. & Leidy, R. A. (2011). Nestedness patterns and the dual nature of community reassembly in California streams: a multivariate permutation-based approach. Global Change Biology, 17, 3714–3723.
Novinger, D. C. & Rahel, F. J. (2003). Isolation management with artificial barriers as a conservation strategy for cutthroat trout in headwater streams. Conservation Biology, 17, 772–781.
Oberdorff, T., Tedesco, P. A., Hugueny, B., et al. (2011). Global and regional patterns in riverine fish species richness: a review. International Journal of Ecology, 2011, Article ID 967631.
O'Grady, J. J., Reed, D. H., Brook, B. W. & Frankham, R. (2004). What are the best correlates of predicted extinction risk?Biological Conservation, 118, 513–520.
Olden, J. D. & Naiman, R. J. (2010). Incorporating thermal regimes into environmental flows assessments: modifying dam operations to restore freshwater ecosystem integrity. Freshwater Biology, 55, 86–107.
Olden, J. D., Hogan, Z. S. & Zanden, M. (2007). Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 694–701.
Olden, J. D., Poff, N. L. & Bestgen, K. R. (2008). Trait synergisms and the rarity, extirpation, and extinction risk of desert fishes. Ecology, 89, 847–856.
Olden, J. D., Kennard, M. J., Leprieur, F., et al. (2010). Conservation biogeography of freshwater fishes: recent progress and future challenges. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 496–513.
Ouboter, P. E., Landburg, G. A., Quik, J. H. M., Mol, J. H. A. & van der Lugt, F. (2012). Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America. Ambio, 41, 873–882.
Palmer, M. A., Bernhardt, E. S., Schlesinger, W. H., et al. (2010). Mountaintop mining consequences. Science, 327, 148–149.
Pauly, D., Christenson, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. & Torres, F. Jr. (1998). Fishing down marine food webs. Science, 279, 860–863.
Perkin, J. S. & Gido, K. B. (2011). Stream fragmentation thresholds for a reproductive guild of Great Plains fishes. Fisheries, 36, 371–383.
Poff, N. L., Allan, J. D, Bain, M. B., et al. (1997). The natural flow regime: a new paradigm for riverine conservation and restorationBioscience, 47, 769–784.
Poff, N. L., Allan, J. D., Palmer, M. A., et al. (2003). River flows and waters wars: emerging science for environmental decision making. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 1, 298–306.
Poff, N. L, Olden, J. D., Merritt, D. M. & Pepin, D. M. (2007). Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 5732–5737.
Pompeu, P. S., Agostinho, A. A. & Pelicice, F. M. (2012). Existing and future challenges: the concept of successful fish passage in South America. River Research and Applications, 28, 504–512.
Rahel, F. J. (2007). Biogeographic barriers, connectivity and homogenization of freshwater faunas: it's a small world after all. Freshwater Biology, 52, 696–710.
Reid, B. L., Hernandez, K. L., Frangopulos, M., et al. (2012). The invasion of the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata in Patagonia: prospects, strategies, and implications for biosecurity of invasive microorganisms in continental waters. Conservation Letters, 5, 432–440.
Reyes-Gavilán, F. G., Garrido, R., Nicieza, A. G., Toledo, M. M. & Brana, F. (1996). Fish community variation along physical gradients in short streams of northern Spain and the disruptive effect of dams. Hydrobiologia, 321, 155–163.
Reynolds, J. D., Webb, T. J. & Hawkins, L. A. (2005). Life history and ecological correlates of extinction risk in European freshwater fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 854–862.
Richter, B. D., Postel, S., Revenga, C., et al. (2010). Lost in development's shadow: the downstream human consequences of dams. Water Alternatives, 3, 14–42.
Rieman, B. E. & Dunham, J. B. (2000). Metapopulations and salmonids: a synthesis of life history patterns and empirical observations. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 9, 51–64.
Shellenberger, M. & Nordhaus, T. (2005). The death of environmentalism: Global warming politics in a post-environmental world. www.grist.org/cgi-bin/printthis.pl.
Schindler, D. E., Armstrong, J. B., Bentley, K. T., et al. (2013). Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish. Biology Letters, 9, Article Number 20130048.
Schlosser, I. J. & Angermeier, P. L. (1995). Spatial variation in demographic processes of lotic fishes: conceptual models, empirical evidence, and implications for conservation. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 17, 392–401.
Smith, S. S. & Bermingham, E. (2005). The biogeography of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 32, 1835–1854.
Snoeks, J. (2000). How well known is the ichthyodiversity of the large East African lakes?Advances in Ecological Research, 31, 17–38.
Stone, R. (2007). The last of the leviathans. Science, 316, 1684–1688.
Storey, A. E., Yarrao, M., Tenakanai, C., Figa, B. & Lynas, J. (2008). Use of changes in fish assemblages in the Fly River System, Papua New Guinea, to assess effects of the OK Tedi Copper Mine. Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences, 9, 427–462.
Strayer, D. L. (2010). Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects for the future. Freshwater Biology, 55 (Suppl. 1), 152–174.
Strayer, D. L. & Dudgeon, D. (2010). Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 344–358.
Strayer, D. L., Caraco, N. F., Cole, J. J., Findlay, S. & Pace, M. L. (1999). Transformation of freshwater ecosystems by bivalves. A case study of the zebra mussles in the Hudson River. Bioscience, 49, 19–27.
Taillebois, L., Maeda, K., Vigne, S. & Keith, P. (2012). Pelagic duration of three amphidromous Sicydiinae obies (Teleostei: Gobiodei) including widespread and endemic species. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 21, 552–559.
Taylor, B. W., Flecker, A. S. & Hall, R. O. (2006). Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river. Science, 313, 833–836.
Tisseuil, C., Cornu, J., Beauchard, O., et al. (2013). Global diversity patterns and cross-taxa convergence in freshwater systems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 365–376.
Tonn, W. M., Magnuson, J. J., Rask, M. & Toivonen, J. (1990). Intercontinental comparison of small-lake fish assemblages: the balance between local and regional processes. American Naturalist, 136, 345–375.
Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K. & Freeman, E. C. (2012). Generational differences in young adults’ life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966–2009. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1045–1062.
Unmack, P. J. (2001a). Biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 1053–1089.
Unmack, P. J. (2001b). Fish persistence and fluvial geomorphology in central Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 49, 653–669.
Unmack, P. J. (2013). Biogeography. In: Ecology of Australian Freshwater Fishes. Humphries, P. & Walker, K. (Eds). Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing, pp. 25–48.
Van Allen, B. G., Dunham, A. E., Asquith, C. M. & Rudolf, V. H. W. (2012). Life history predicts risk of species decline in a stochastic world. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 2691–2697.
Verburg, P., Horrox, J., Chaney, E., et al. (2013). Effects of nutrient loading on the trophic state of Lake Brunner. Marine and Freshwater Research, 64, 436–446.
Villamagna, A. M., Angermeier, P. L. & Bennett, E. M. (2013). Capacity, pressure, demand, and flow: a conceptual framework for analyzing ecosystem service provision and delivery. Ecological Complexity, 15, 114–121.
Vörösmarty, C. J., Pahl-Wostl, C., Bunn, S. E. & Lawford, R. (2013). Global water, the anthropocene and the transformation of a science. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 539–550.
Wagenhoff, A., Townsend, C. R. & Matthaei, C. D. (2012). Macroinvertebrate responses along broad stressor gradients of deposited fine sediment and dissolved nutrients: a stream mesocosm experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 892–902.
Walsh, C. J., Fletcher, T. D. & Ladson, A. R. (2005). Stream restoration in urban catchments through redesigning stormwater systems: looking to the catchment to save the stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, 690–705.
Wedderburn, S. D., Hammer, M. P. & Bice, C. M. (2012). Shifts in small-bodied fish assemblages resulting from drought-induced water level recession in terminating lakes of the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Hydrobiologia, 691, 35–46.
Welcomme, R. L., Cowx, I. G., Coates, D., et al. (2010). Inland capture fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365, 2881–2896.
Wells, B. K., Rieman, B. E., Clayton, J. L., Horan, D. L. & Jones, C. M. (2003). Relationships between water, otolith and scale chemistries of westslope cutthroat trout from the Coeur d'Alene River Idaho: the potential application of hard part chemistry to describe movements in freshwater. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132, 409–424.
Whitton, B. A., Ellwood, N. T. W. & Kawecka, B. (2009). Biology of the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia: a review. Hydrobiologia, 630, 1–37.
Wilcock, R. J., Monaghan, R. M., Quinn, J. M., et al. (2013). Trends in water quality of five dairy farming streams in response to adoption of best practice and benefits of long term monitoring at the catchment scale. Marine and Freshwater Research, 64, 401–412.
Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Life history strategies, population regulation, and implications for fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 62, 872–885.
Winemiller, K. O. & Rose, K. A. (1992). Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: implications for population regulation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49, 2196–2218.
Winston, M. R., Taylor, C. M. & Pigg, J. (1991). Upstream extirpation of four minnow species due to damming of a prairie stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 120, 98–105.
Witte, F., Seehausen, O., Wanink, J. H., et al. (2013). Cichlid species diversity in naturally and anthropogenically turbid habitats of Lake Victoria, East Africa. Aquatic Sciences, 75, 169–183.
Woodford, D. J. & McIntosh, A. R. (2010). Evidence of source-sink metapopulations in a vulnerable native galaxiid fish driven by introduced trout. Ecological Applications, 20, 967–977.
Woodford, D. J. & McIntosh, A. R. (2011). Location of demographic sources affects the distributions of a vulnerable native fish in invaded river networks. Freshwater Biology, 56, 311–324.
Wright, J. (2013). On a Pathway to Extinction? Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. Wellington, New Zealand.