Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: September 2015

Section 5 - Behavioral/ neuropsychological approaches

References

Meier, M. J., Benton, A. L., & Diller, L. (1987). Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Edinburgh and New York: Churchill Livingston.

References

American Heart Association (2005). Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. http://www.Americanheart.org/statistics/stroke.htm.
Azrin, N. H., & Holz, W. C. (1996). Punishment. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application (pp. 380–447). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Bach-y-Rita, P. (1993). Recovery from brain damage. Journal of Neurological Rehabilitation, 6, 191–199.
Bach-y-Rita, P., & Bach-y-Rita, E. W. (1990). Biological and psychosocial factors in recovery from brain damage in humans. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 44, 148–165.
Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Taub, E., & Miltner, W. H. R. (1999). Effect of CI therapy on movement-related brain potentials. Psychophysiology, 36, S31.
Butefisch, C., Hummelsheim, H., Densler, P., & Mauritz, K.-H. (1995). Mauritz, K-H. Repetitive training of isolated movements improves the outcome of motor rehabilitation of the centrally paretic hand. Journal of Neurological Science, 130, 59–68.
Catania, A. C. (1998). Learning (4th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Health, United States. http.//www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm.
Dettmers, C., Teske, U., Hamzei, F. et al. (2005). Distributed form of constraint-induced movement therapy improves functional outcome and quality of life after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 204–209.
Dobkin, B. H. (1989). Focused stroke rehabilitation programs do not improve outcome. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 46, 701–703.
Duncan, P. W. (1997). Synthesis of intervention trials to improve motor recovery following stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 3, 1–20.
Duncan, P. W., Zorowitz, R., Bates, B. et al. (2005). Management of adult rehabilitation care: a clinical practice guideline. Stroke, 36, e100–e143.
Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. (1995). Increased use of the left hand in string players associated with increased cortical representation of the fingers. Science, 220, 21–23.
Estes, W. K. (1944). An experimental study of punishment. Psychological Monographs, 57, (Serial No. 263).
Flor, H., Elbert, T., Knecht, S. et al. (1995). Phantom limb pain as a perceptual correlate of massive reorganization in upper limb amputees. Nature, 375, 482–484.
Franz, S. I., Scheetz, M. E., & Wilson, A. A. (1915). The possibility of recovery of motor functioning in long-standing hemiplegia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 65, 2150–2154.
Halberstam, J. L., Zaretsky, H. H., Brucker, B. S., & Guttman, A. (1971). Avoidance conditioning of motor responses in elderly brain-damaged patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 52, 318–328.
Hesse, S., Bertelt, C., Schaffrin, A., Malezic, M. S., & Mauritz, K.-H. (1994). Restoration of gait in nonambulatory hemiparetic patients by treadmill training with partial body-weight support. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1087–1093.
Ince, L. P. (1969). Escape and avoidance conditioning of response in the plegic arm of stroke patients: a preliminary study. Psychonomic Science, 16, 49–50.
Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., Ochs, M. T., T., A., & Guic-Robles, E. (1990). Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 63, 82–104.
Knapp, H. D., Taub, E., & Berman, A. J. (1958). Effect of deafferentiation on a conditioned avoidance response. Science, 128, 842–843.
Kolb, B. (2003). Overview of cortical plasticity and recovery from brain injury. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 14, Suppl. 1, S7–S25.
Kopp, B., Kunkel, A., Flor, H. et al. (1997). The Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT): Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 615–620.
Kopp, B., Kunkel, A., Mühlnickel, W. et al. (1999). Plasticity in the motor system correlated with therapy-induced improvement of movement in human stroke patients. NeuroReport, 10, 807–810.
Kunkel, A., Kopp, B., Muller, G. et al. (1999). Constraint-induced movement therapy for motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 624–628.
Lashley, K. S. (1924). Studies of cerebral function in learning: V. The retention of motor areas in primates. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 12, 249–276.
Levy, C. E., Nichols, D. S., Schmalbrock, P. M., Keller, P., & Chakers, D. W. (2001). Functional MRI evidence of cortical reorganization in upper-limb stroke hemiplegia treated with constraint-induced movement therapy. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 4–12.
Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Sommer, M. et al. (1998). Motor cortex plasticity during constraint-induced movement therapy in chronic stroke patients. Neuroscience Letters, 250, 5–8.
Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Miltner, W. H. R., Taub, E., & Weiller, C. (2000). Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31, 1210–1216.
Lum, P. S., Taub, E., Schwandt, D. et al. (2004). Automated constraint-induced therapy extension (AutoCITE) for movement deficits after stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 41, 249–257.
Lum, P. S., Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Hardin, P., & Mark, V. W. (2006). A tele-rehabilitation approach to delivery of constraint-induced movement therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43, 391–399.
Mark, V. W., & Taub, E. (2004). Constraint-induced movement therapy for chronic stroke hemiparesis and other disabilities. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 22, 317–336.
McCulloch, K., Cook, E. W. I., Fleming, W. C. et al. (1988). A reliable test of upper extremity ADL function. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69, 755.
Miltner, W. H. R., Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Dettmers, C., & Taub, E. (1999). Effects of constraint-induced movement therapy on patients with chronic motor deficits after stroke: a replication. Stroke, 30, 586–592.
Miltner, W. H. R., Balzer, C., & Taub, E. (submitted). CI therapy treatment outcome tracked by substantial changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Morgan, W. G. (1974). The shaping game: a teaching technique. Behavior Therapy, 5, 271–272.
Morris, D., & Taub, E. (2001). The constraint-induced therapy approach to restoring function after neurological injury. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 8, 16–30.
Morris, D. M., Crago, J. E., DeLuca, S. C., Pidikiti, R. D., & Taub, E. (1997). Constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy for motor recovery after stroke. Neurorehabitation, 9, 29–43.
Morris, D. M., Uswatte, G., Crago, J. E., Cook, E. W. III., & Taub, E. (2001). The reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test for assessing upper extremity function after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 750–755.
Mott, F. W., & Sherrington, C. S. (1895). Experiments upon the influence of sensory nerves upon movement and nutrition of the limbs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 57, 481–488.
Nudo, R. J., Wise, B. M., SiFuentes, F., & Milliken, G. W. (1996). Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery following ischemic infarct. Science, 272, 1791–1794.
Ostendorf, C. G., & Wolf, S. L. (1981). Effect of forced use of the upper extremity of a hemiplegic patient on changes in function. Physical Therapy, 61, 1022–1028.
Panyan, M. V. (1980). How to use Shaping. Lawrence, KS: H & H Enterprises.
Pons, T. P., Garraghty, A. K., Ommaya, A. K. et al. (1991). Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentiation in adult macaques. Science, 252, 1857–1860.
Recanzone, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (1992a). Progressive improvement in discriminative abilities in adult owl monkeys performing a tactile frequency discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 1015–1030.
Recanzone, G. H., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1992b). Frequency discrimination training engaging a restricted skin surface results in an emergence of a cutaneous response zone in cortical area 3a. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 1057–1070.
Recanzone, G. H., Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Grajski, A., & Dinse, H. R. (1992c). Topographic reorganization of the hand representation in area 3b of owl monkeys trained in a frequency discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 1031–1056.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Skinner, B. F. (1968). The Technology of Teaching. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Sterr, A., Müller, M. M., Elbert, T. et al. (1998). Changed perceptions in Braille readers. Nature, 391, 134–135.
Sterr, A., Elbert, T., Berthold, I. et al. (2002). CI therapy in chronic hemiparesis: the more the better? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 1374–1377.
Taub, E. (1980). Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: implications for rehabilitation medicine. In L. P. Ince (Eds.), Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications (pp. 371–401). New York, NY: Williams & Wilkins.
Taub, E., Miller, N. E., Novack, T. A. et al. (1993). Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 347–354.
Taub, E., Crago, J. E., Burgio, L. D. et al. (1994). An operant approach to rehabilitation medicine: overcoming learned nonuse by shaping. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 61, 281–293.
Taub, E., Crago, J. E., & Uswatte, G. (1998). Constraint-induced movement therapy: a new approach to treatment in physical rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 43, 152–170.
Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Pidikiti, R. (1999). Constraint-induced movement therapy: a new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation – a clinical review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 36, 237–251.
Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Elbert, T. (2002). New treatments in neurorehabilitation founded on basic research. Neuroscience, 3, 226–236.
Taub, E., Lum, P. S., Hardin, P., Mark, V. W., & Uswatte, G. (2005). AutoCITE: automated delivery of CI therapy with reduced effort by therapists. Stroke, 36, 1301–1304.
Taub, E., Uswatte, G., King, D. K. et al. (2006). A placebo controlled trial of constraint-induced movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke, 37, 1045–1049.
Twitchell, T. E. (1954). Sensory factors in purposive movement. Journal of Neurophysiology, 17, 239–254.
Uswatte, G., & Taub, E. (1999). Constraint-induced movement therapy: new approaches to outcome measurement in rehabilitation. In D. T. Stuss, G. Winocur, & I. H. Robertson (Eds.), Cognitive Neurorehabilitation (pp. 214–229). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Uswatte, G., & Taub, E. (2005). Implications of the learned nonuse formulation for measuring rehabilitation outcomes: lessons from constraint-induced movement therapy. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50, 34–42.
Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D. M., Vignolo, M., & McCulloch, K. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Upper-extremity Motor Activity Log-14 for measuring real-world arm use. Stroke, 36, 2493–2496.
Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D. M., Barman, J., & Crago, J. (2006). Contribution of the shaping and restraint components of constraint-induced movement therapy to treatment outcome. Neurorehabilitation, 21, 147–156.
Wittenberg, G. F., Chen, R., Ishii, K. et al. (2003). Constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke: magnetic-stimulation motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17, 48–57.
Wolf, S. L., Lecraw, D. E., Barton, L. A., & Jann, B. B. (1989). Forced use of hemiplegic upper extremities to reverse the effect of learned nonuse among chronic stroke and head-injured patients. Experimental Neurology, 104, 104–132.
Wolf, S. L., Catlin, P. A., Ellis, M. et al. (2001). Assessing the Wolf Motor Function Test as an outcome measure for research with patients post-stroke. Stroke, 32, 1635–1639.
Wolf, S. L., Winstein, C., Miller, J. P. et al. (2006). The Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) trial for patients with sub-acute stroke. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 2095–2104.

References

Abourezk, T., & Toole, T. (1995). Effect of task complexity on the relationship between physical fitness and reaction time in older women Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 3, 251–260.
Adlard, P. A., Perreau, V. M., Engesser-Cesar, C., & Cotman, C. W. (2004). The time course of induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus following voluntary exercise. Neuroscience Letters, 363, 43–48.
Adlard, P. A., Perreau, V. M., & Cotman, C. W. (2005). The exercise-induced expression of BDNF within the hippocampus varies across life-span. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, 511–520.
Alaie, H., Borjeian, L., Azizi, M. et al. (2006). Treadmill running reverses retention deficit induced by morphine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 536, 138–141.
Albeck, D. S., Sano, K., Prewitt, G. E., & Dalton, L. (2006). Mild forced treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning in the aged rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 168, 345–348.
Albert, M. S., Jones, K., Savage, C. R. et al. (1995). Predictors of cognitive change in older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Psychology and Aging, 10, 578–589.
Anderson, B. J., Rapp, D. N., Baek, D. H. et al. (2000). Exercise influences spatial learning in the radial arm maze. Physiology and Behavior, 70, 425–429.
Anderson, M. F., Åberg, M. A. I., Nilsson, M., & Eriksson, P. S. (2002). Insulin-like growth factor-I and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Developmental Brain Research, 134, 115–122.
Barnes, D. E., Yaffe, K., Satariano, W. A., & Tager, I. B. (2003). A longitudinal study of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 459–465.
Bashore, T. R., & Goddard, P. H. (1993). Preservative and restorative effects of aerobic fitness on the age-related slowing of mental processing speed. In J. Cerella, J. M. Rybash, & W. Hoyer (Eds.), Adult Information Processing: Limits on Loss (pp. 205–228). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Baylor, A. M., & Spirduso, W. W. (1988). Systematic aerobic exercise and components of reaction time in older women. Journals of Gerontology; Series B; Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 43, 121–126.
Berchtold, N. C., Kesslak, J. P., Pike, C. J., Adlard, P. A., & Cotman, C. W. (2001). Estrogen and exercise interact to regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 1992–2002.
Berchtold, N. C., Kesslak, J. P., & Cotman, C. W. (2002). Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 68, 511–521.
Black, J. E., Isaacs, K. R., Anderson, B. J., Alcantara, A. A., & Greenough, W. T. (1990). Learning causes synaptogenesis, whereas motor activity causes angiogenesis, in cerebellar cortex of adult rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 87, 5568–5572.
Brown, J., Cooper-Kuhn, C. M., Kempermann, G. et al. (2003). Enriched environment and physical activity stimulate hippocampal but not olfactory bulb neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 2042–2046.
Bunce, D. J., Barrowclough, A., & Morris, I. (1996). The moderating influence of physical fitness on age gradients in vigilance and serial choice responding tasks. Psychology and Aging, 11, 671–682.
Carro, E., Nunez, A., Busiguina, S., & Torres-Alemán, I. (2000). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates effects of exercise on the brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 2926–2933.
Clarkson-Smith, L., & Hartley, A. (1989). Relationships between physical exercise and cognitive abilities in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 4, 183–189.
Colcombe, S., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Science, 14, 125–130.
Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F., Erickson, K. I. et al. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 3316–3321.
Cotman, C. W., & Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neuroscience, 25, 295–301.
Daniels, K., Toth, J., & Jacoby, L. (2006). The aging of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change (pp. 96–111). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Dik, M. G., Deeg, D. J. H., Visser, M., & Jonker, C. (2003). Early life physical activity and cognition at old age. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 643–653.
Ding, Y., Li, J., Luan, X. et al. (2004a). Exercise pre-conditioning reduces brain damage in ischemic rats that may be associated with regional angiogenesis and cellular overexpression of neurotrophin. Neuroscience, 124, 583–591.
Ding, Y. H., Luan, X. D., Li, J. et al. (2004b). Exercise-induced overexpression of angiogenic factors and reduction of ischemia/reperfusion injury in stroke. Current Neuro-vascular Research, 1, 411–120.
Dustman, R. E., Ruhling, R. O., Russell, E. M. et al. (1984). Aerobic exercise training and improved neuropsychological function of older individuals. Neurobiology of Aging, 5, 35–42.
Dustman, R. E., Emmerson, R. Y., Ruhling, R. O. et al. (1990). Age and fitness effects on EEG, ERPs, visual sensitivity, and cognition. Neurobiology of Aging, 11, 193–200.
Dustman, R., Emmerson, R., & Shearer, D. E. (1994). Physical activity, age, and cognitive neuropsychological function. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 2, 143–181.
Eadie, B. D., Redilla, V. A., & Christie, B. R. (2005). Voluntary exercise alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult dentate gyrus by increasing cellular proliferation, dendritic complexity, and spine density. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 486, 39–47.
Etnier, J. L., Salazar, W., Landers, D. M. et al. (1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, 249–277.
Fabel, K., Fabel, K., Tam, B. et al. (2003). VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2803–2812.
Fabre, C., Massé-Biron, J., Charmari, K. et al. (1999). Evaluation of quality of life in elderly healthy subjects after aerobic and/or mental training. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 28, 9–22.
Fabre, C., Charmari, K., Mucci, P., Massé-Biron, J., & Préfaut, C. (2002). Improvement of cognitive function and/or individualized aerobic training in healthy elderly subjects. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 415–421.
Farmer, J., Zhao, X., van Praag, H. et al. (2004). Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. Neuroscience, 124, 71–79.
Fordyce, D. E., & Wehner, J. M. (1993). Physical activity enhances spatial learning performance with an associated alteration in hippocampal protein kinase C activity in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Brain Research, 619, 111–119.
Garza, A. A., Ha, T. G., Garcia, C., Chen, M. J., & Russo-Neustadt, A. A. (2004). Exercise, antidepressant treatment, and BDNF mRNA expression in the aging brain. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 77, 209–220.
Ginés, S., Bosch, M., Marco, S. et al. (2006). Reduced expression of the TrkB receptor in Huntington’s disease mouse models and in human brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 649–658.
Gokhale, J., & Smetters, K. (2006). Measuring social security’s financial outlook within an aging society. Daedalus, 135, 91–104.
Gómez-Pinilla, F., So, V., & Kesslak, J. P. (1998). Spatial learning and physical activity contribute to the induction of fibroblast growth factor: neural substrates for increased cognition associated with exercise. Neuroscience, 85, 53–61.
Gómez-Pinilla, F., Ying, Z., Roy, R. R., Molteni, R., & Edgerton, V. R. (2002). Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88, 2187–2195.
Heine, V. M., Maslan, S., Joëls, M., & Lucassen, P. J. (2004). Prominent decline of newborn cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the aging dentate gyrus, in absence of an age-related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Neurobiology of Aging, 25, 361–375.
Hillman, C. H., Kramer, A. F., Belopolsky, A. V., & Smith, D. P. (2006). A cross-sectional examination of age and physical activity on performance and event-related brain potentials in a task switching paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59, 30–39.
Isaacs, K. R., Anderson, B. J., Alcantara, A. A., Black, J. E., & Greenough, W. T. (1992). Exercise and the brain: angiogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after vigorous physical activity and motor skill learning. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow Metabolism, 12, 110–119.
Johansson, B. B., & Ohlsson, A. L. (1996). Environment, social interaction, and physical activity as determinants of functional outcome after cerebral infarction in the rat. Experimental Neurology, 139, 322–327.
Katoh-Semba, R., Asano, T., Ueda, H. et al. (2002). Riluzole enhances expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with consequent proliferation of granule precursor cells in the rat hippocampus. FASEB Journal, 16, 1328–1330.
Kleim, J. A., Cooper, N. R., & VandenBerg, P. M. (2002). Exercise induces angiogenesis but does not alter movement representations within rat motor cortex. Brain Research, 934, 1–6.
Klintsova, A. Y., Dickson, E., Yoshida, R., & Greenough, W. T. (2004). Altered expression of BDNF and its high-affinity receptor TrkB in response to complex motor learning and moderate exercise. Brain Research, 1028, 92–104.
Kramer, A. F., Colcombe, S. J., Erickson, K. I., & Paige, P. (2006). Fitness training and the brain: From molecules to minds. Proceedings from the 2006 Cognitive Aging Conference. Atlanta, Georgia.
Kronenberg, G., Bick-Sander, A., Bunk, E. et al. (2006). Physical exercise prevents age-related decline in precursor cell activity in the mouse dentate gyrus. Neurobiology of Aging, 27, 1505–1513.
Larson, E. B., Wang, L., Bowen, J. D. et al. (2006). Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144, 73–81.
Lichtenwalner, R. J., Forbes, M. E., Bennet, S. A. et al. (2001). Intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin-like growth factor-I ameliorates the age-related decline in hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuroscience, 107, 603–613.
Llorens-Martín, M., Torres-Alemán, I., & Trejo, J. L. (2006). Pronounced individual variation in the response to the stimulatory action of exercise on immature hippocampal neurons. Hippocampus, 16, 480–490.
Lopez-Lopez, C., LeRoith, D., & Torres-Alemán, I. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor I is required for vessel remodeling in the adult brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 9833–9838.
Lu, B., Pang, P. T., & Woo, N. H. (2005). The yin and yang of neurotrophin action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 603–614.
McCloskey, D. P., Adamo, D. S., & Anderson, B. J. (2001). Exercise increases metabolic capacity in the motor cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus. Brain Research, 891, 168–175.
Milgram, N. W., Head, E., Zicker, S. C. et al. (2005). Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, 77–90.
Mohapel, P., Frielingsdorf, H., Häggblad, J., Zachrisson, O., & Brundin, P. (2005). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induce striatal neurogenesis in adult rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Neuroscience, 132, 767–776.
Molteni, R., Wu, A., Vaynman, S. et al. (2004). Exercise reverses the harmful effects of consumption of a high-fat diet on synaptic and behavioral plasticity associated to the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neuroscience, 123, 429–440.
Murer, M. G., Yan, Q., & Raisman-Vozari, R. (2001). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the control human brain, and in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Progress in Neurobiology, 63, 71–124.
Neeper, S. A., Gómez-Pinilla, F., Choi, J., & Cotman, C. W. (1995). Exercise and brain neurotrophins. Nature, 373, 109.
Neeper, S. A., Gómez-Pinilla, F., Choi, J., & Cotman, C. W. (1996). Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain. Brain Research, 726, 49–56.
O’Sullivan, M., Jones, D. K., Summers, P. E. et al. (2001). Evidence for cortical “disconnection” as a mechanism of age-related cognitive decline. Neurology, 57, 632–638.
Pang, P. T., Teng, H. K., Zaitsev, E. et al. (2004). Cleavage of proBDNF by tPA/plasmin is essential for long-term hippocampal plasticity. Science, 306, 487–491.
Pang, T. Y. C., Stam, N. C., Nithianantharajah, J., Howard, M. L., & Hannan, A. J. (2006). Differential effects of voluntary physical exercise on behavioral and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression deficits in Huntington’s disease transgenic mice. Neuroscience, 141, 569–584.
Podewils, L. J., Guallar, E., Kuller, L. H. et al. (2005). Physical activity, apoe genotype, and dementia risk: findings from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161, 639–351.
Poulton, N. P., & Muir, G. D. (2005). Treadmill training ameliorates dopamine loss but not behavioral deficits in hemi-Parkinsonian rats. Experimental Neurology, 193, 181–197.
Ramsden, M., Berchtold, N. C., Kesslak, J. P., Cotman, C. W., & Pike, C. J. (2003). Exercise increases the vulnerability of rat hippocampal neurons to kainate lesion. Brain Research, 971, 239–244.
Raz, N. (2000). Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: integration of structural and functional findings. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (2nd Edition) (pp. 1–90). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rebok, G. (2006). Paper presented on the Experience Corps project in the Cognitive Activity from Bedside to Bench symposium. American Geriatrics Society Annual Scientific Meeting. Chicago, Illinois.
Rhodes, J. S., van Praag, H., Jeffrey, S. et al. (2003). Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 1006–1016.
Richards, M., Hardy, R., & Wadsworth, M. E. J. (2003). Does active leisure protect cognition? Evidence from a national birth cohort. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 785–792.
Rovio, S., Kåreholt, I., Helkala, E.-L. et al. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 4, 705–711.
Russo-Neustadt, A., Ha, T., Ramirez, R., & Kesslak, J. P. (2001). Physical activity-antidepressant treatment combination: impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and behavior in an animal model. Behavioural Brain Research, 120, 87–95.
Samorajski, T., Delaney, C., Durham, L. et al. (1985). Effect of exercise on longevity, body weight, locomotor performance, and passive-avoidance memory of C57BL/6J mice. Neurobiology of Aging, 6, 17–24.
Schaaf, M. J. M., Workel, J. O., Lesscher, H. M. et al. (2001). Correlation between hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression and memory performance in senescent rats. Brain Research, 915, 227–233.
Silhol, M., Bonnichon, V., Rage, F., & Tapia-Arancibia, L. (2005). Age-related changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor isoforms in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in male rats. Neuroscience, 132, 613–624.
Small, G. W., Silverman, D. H. S., Siddarth, P. et al. (2006). Effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and brain function. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 538–545.
Spirduso, W. W., & Clifford, P. (1978). Replication of age and physical activity effects on reaction and movement time. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 26–30.
Stones, M. I., & Kozma, A. (1989). Age, exercise, and coding performance. Psychology and Aging, 4, 190–194.
Stranahan, A. M., Kahalil, D., & Gould, E. (2006). Social isolation delays the positive effects of running on adult neurogenesis. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 526–533.
Stummer, W., Weber, K., Tranmer, B., Baethmann, A., & Kempski, O. (1994). Reduced mortality and brain damage after locomotor activity in gerbil forebrain ischemia. Stroke, 25, 1862–1868.
Stummer, W., Baethmann, A., Murr, R., Schurer, L., & Kempski, O. S. (1995). Cerebral protection against ischemia by locomotor activity in gerbils: underlying mechanisms. Stroke, 26, 1423–1430.
Swain, R. A., Harris, A. B., Wiener, E. C. et al. (2003). Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. Neuroscience, 117, 1037–1046.
Tillerson, J. L., Caudle, W. M., Reverón, M. E., & Miller, G. W. (2003). Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attenuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience, 119, 899–911.
Trejo, J. L., Carro, E., & Torres-Alemán, I. (2001). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1628–1634.
van Praag, H., Kempermann, G., & Gage, F. H. (1999a). Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 266–270.
van Praag, H., Christie, B. R., Sejnowski, T. J., & Gage, F. H. (1999b). Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96, 13427–13431.
van Praag, H., Shubert, T., Zhao, C., & Gage, F. H. (2005). Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 8680–8685.
Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., & Gómez-Pinilla, F. (2003). Interplay between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and signal transduction modulators in the regulation of the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity. Neuroscience, 122, 647–657.
Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., & Gómez-Pinilla, F. (2004). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 2580–2590.
Verghese, J., Lipton, R. B., Katz, M. J. et al. (2003). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 2508–2516.
Watanabe, T., Miyazaki, A., Katagiri, T. et al. (2005). Relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 1748–1753.
Weuve, J., Kang, J. H., Manson, J. E. et al. (2004). Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, 1454–1461.
Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Bienias, J. L. et al. (2002). Cognitive activity and incident AD in a population-based sample of older persons. Neurology, 59, 1910–1914.
Yaffe, K., Barnes, D., Nevitt, M., Lui, L.-Y., & Covinsky, K. (2001). A prospective study of physical activity and cognitive decline in elderly women: women who walk. Archives in Internal Medicine, 161, 1703–1708.
Yamada, M., Kasagi, F., Sasaki, H. et al. (2003). Association between dementia and midlife risk factors: the radiation effects research foundation adult health study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 410–414.
Zigova, T., Pencea, V., Wiegand, S. J., & Luskin, M. B. (1998). Intraventricular administration of BDNF increases the number of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 11, 234–245.

References

Albert, M. L., Sparks, R. W., & Helm, N. A. (1973). Melodic Intonation Therapy for aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 29, 130–131.
Baddeley, A. D., & Longman, D. J. (1978). The influence of length and frequency of training session on the rate of learning to type. Ergonomics, 21, 627–635.
Basso, A., Capitani, E., & Vignolo, L. A. (1979). Influence of rehabilitation on language skills in aphasic patients. A controlled study. Archives of Neurology, 36, 190–196.
Belin, P., van Eckhout, P., Zilbovicus, M. et al. (1996). Recovery from nonfluent aphasia after Melodic Intonation Therapy: a PET study. Neurology, 47, 1504–1511.
Berthier, M. L. (2005). Poststroke aphasia: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Drugs and Aging, 22, 163–182.
Bhogal, S. K., Teasell, R., & Speechley, M. (2003). Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. Stroke, 34, 987–993.
Boake, C. (1991). History of cognitive rehabilitation following head injury. In J. S. Kreutzer & P. H. Wehman (Eds.), Cognitive Rehabilitation for Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Functional Approach. New York, NY: Paul Brookes Publishing.
Boyle, M. (2004). Semantic Feature Analysis treatment for anomia in two fluent aphasia syndromes. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13, 236–249.
Boyle, M., & Coelho, C. (1995). Application of Semantic Feature analysis as a treatment for aphasic dysnomia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 4, 94–98.
Brush, J. A., & Camp, C. J. (1998). Using Spaced Retrieval as an intervention during speech-language therapy. Clinical Gerontologist, 19, 51–64.
Byng, S. (1988). Sentence processing deficits: theory and therapy. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 629–676.
Byng, S., Nickels, L., & Black, M. (1994). Replicating therapy for mapping deficits in agrammatism: remapping the deficit? Aphasiology, 8, 315–341.
Caramazza, A., Capasso, R., Capitani, E., & Miceli, G. (2005). Patterns of comprehension performance in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia: a test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis. Brain and Language, 94, 43–53.
Chatterjee, A., & Maher, L. (2000). Grammar and agrammatism. In S. E. Nadeau, L. J. G. Rothi, & B. Crosson (Eds.), Aphasia and Language: Theory to Practice. (pp. 133–156). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Chatterjee, A., Maher, L. M., & Rothi, L. J. G. (1995). Asyntactic thematic role assignment: the use of a temporal-spatial strategy. Brain and Language, 49, 125–139.
Coelho, C. A., Mchugh, R. E., & Boyle, M. (2000). Semantic Feature Analysis as a treatment for aphasic dysnomia: a replication. Aphasiology, 14, 133–142.
Conley, A., & Coelho, C. A. (2003). Treatment of word retrieval impairment in chronic Broca’s aphasia. Aphasiology, 17, 203–211.
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.
Crosson, B., Moore, A. B., Gopinath, K. et al. (2005). Role of the right and left hemispheres in recovery of function during treatment of intention in aphasia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 392–406.
Crosson, B., Fabrizio, K. S., Singletary, F. et al. (2007). Treatment of naming in nonfluent aphasia through manipulation of intention and attention: a phase 1 comparison of two novel treatments. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 582–594.
Czvik, P. S. (1976). A preliminary investigation into the application of an auditory approach using non-variable materials in the treatment of aphasia: Two case studies. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceeding (pp. 291–301). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Darley, F. L. (1972). The efficacy of language rehabilitation in aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 37, 3–21.
Davidoff, M., & Katz, R. (1985). Automated telephone therapy for improving auditory comprehension in aphasic adults. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 3, 26–28.
Davis, G. A., & Wilcox, M. J. (1985). Adult Aphasia Rehabilitation: Applied Pragmatics. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.
de Renzi, E., & Vignolo, L. (1962). The Token Test: a sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasia. Brain, 65, 665–678.
Dennis, M., O’Rourke, S., Lewis, S., Sharpe, M., & Warlow, C. (1998). A quantitative study of the emotional outcome of people caring for stroke survivors. Stroke, 29, 1867–1872.
Doyle, P. J., Oleyar, K. S., & Goldstein, H. (1991). Facilitating functional conversational skills in aphasia: an experimental analysis of a generalization training procedure. In T. E. Prescott (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology (pp. 229–241). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Ferro, J. M., Mariano, G., & Madureira, S. (1999). Recovery from aphasia and neglect. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 9, Suppl. 5, 6–22.
Freed, D. B., & Marshall, R. C. (1995). The effect of personalized cueing on long-term naming of realistic visual stimuli. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 4, 105–108.
Freed, D. B., Marshall, R. C., & Nippold, M. A. (1995). Comparison of personalized cueing and provided cueing on the facilitation of verbal labeling by aphasic subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1081–1090.
Fridriksson, J., Holland, A. L., Beeson, P., & Morrow, L. (2005). Spaced Retrieval treatment of anomia. Aphasiology, 19, 99–109.
Galski, T., Bruno, R. L., Zorowitz, R., & Walker, J. (1993). Predicting length of stay, functional outcome, and aftercare in the rehabilitation of stroke patients: the dominant role of higher-order cognition. Stroke, 24, 1794–1800.
Glenberg, A. M. (1979). Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition. Memory and Cognition, 7, 95–112.
Glenberg, A. M., & Lehmann, T. S. (1980). Spacing repetitions over 1 week. Memory and Cognition, 8, 528–538.
Goldstein, K. (1942). After-Effects of Brain Injuries in War. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton.
Goldstein, K. (1948). Language and Language Disturbances. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton.
Greener, J., Enderby, P., & Whurr, R. (2005). Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration, Volume 3.
Greenwald, M. L., Raymer, A. M., Richardson, M. E., & Rothi, L. J. G. (1995). Contrasting treatments for severe impairments of picture naming. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 5, 17–49.
Helm-Estabrooks, N., & Ramsberger, G. (1986). Treatment of agrammatism in long-term Broca’s aphasia. British Journal of Communication Disorders, 21, 39–45.
Helm-Estabrooks, N., Emory, P., & Albert, M. L. (1987). Treatment of aphasic perseveration (TAP) program. Archives of Neurology, 44, 1253–1255.
Hillis, A. E. (1989). Efficacy and generalization of treatment for aphasic naming errors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70, 632–636.
Holland, A. L., & Sonderman, J. C. (1974). Effects of a program based on the Token-Test for teaching comprehension skills to aphasics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 17, 589–598.
Hough, M. S. (1993). Treatment of Wernicke’s aphasia with jargon: a case study. Journal of Communication Disorders, 26, 101–111.
Kearns, K. P. (1985). Response Elaboration Training for patient initiated utterances. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings (pp. 196–204). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Kearns, K. P., & Potechin Scher, G. (1989). The generalization of Response Elaboration Training. In T. E. Prescott (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology (pp. 223–245). Boston, MA: College-Hill.
Kertesz, A. (1979). Aphasia and Associated Disorders: Taxonomy, Localization and Recovery. New York, NY: Grune and Stratton.
Kunkle, A., Kopp, B., Muller, G. et al. (1999). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 624–628.
Kushner, D., & Winitz, H. (1977). Extended comprehension practice applied to an aphasic patient. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 42, 296–306.
Li, E. C., Kitselman, K., Dusatko, D., & Spinelli, C. (1988). The efficacy of PACE in the remediation of naming deficits. Journal of Communication Disorders, 21, 111–123.
Lincoln, N. B., & Blackburn, M. (1989). An investigation of factors affecting progress of patients on a stroke unit. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 52, 493–496.
Lincoln, N. B., McGuirk, E., Mulley, G. P. et al. (1984). Effectiveness of speech therapy for aphasic stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 2, 1197–1200.
Linebaugh, C. W., & Lehner, L. H. (1977). Cueing hierarchies and word retrieval: a therapy program. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings (pp. 19–31). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Loverso, F. L., Prescott, T. E., & Selinger, M. (1988). Cueing verbs: a treatment strategy for aphasic adults. Journal of Rehabilitation and Research Development, 25, 47–60.
Lowell, S., Beeson, P. M., & Holland, A. L. (1995). The efficacy of semantic cueing procedures on naming performance of adults with aphasia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 4, 109–114.
Lubinski, R. (2001). Environmental systems approach to adult aphasia. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders (pp. 269–296). Philadelphia, PA: Lippin-cott Williams & Wilkins.
Luria, A. R. (1947). Traumatic Aphasia: Its Syndromes, Psychology and Treatment. (Translation by D. Bowden, 1947). Den Haag, Holland: Mouton Publishers.
Luria, A. R. (1948). Restoration of Function after Brain Injury. (Translation by B. Haigh, 1963). London, UK: Pergamon Press.
Maher, L. M., Chatterjee, A., & Rothi, L. J. G. (1995). Agrammatic sentence production: the use of a temporal-spatial strategy. Brain and Language, 49, 105–124.
Maher, L. M., Kendall, D., Swearengin, J. A. et al. (2006). A pilot study of use-dependent learning in the context of Constraint Induced Language Therapy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 843–852.
Marshall, R. C., & Neuburger, S. I. (1984). Extended comprehension training reconsidered. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings (pp. 181–187). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Marshall, J., Pring, T., & Chiat, S. (1998). Verb retrieval and sentence production in aphasia. Brain and Language, 63, 159–183.
Marshall, R. C., Karow, C. M., Freed, D. B., & Babcock, P. (2002). Effects of personalized cue form on the learning of subordinate category names by aphasic and non-brain damaged subjects. Aphasiology, 16, 763–771.
Meinzer, M., Djundaja, D., Barthel, G., Elbert, T., & Rockstroh, B. (2005). Long-term stability of improved language functions in chronic aphasia after Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy. Stroke, 36, 1462–1466.
Mills, R. H. (1982). Microcomputerized auditory comprehension training. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings (pp. 147–152). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Miltner, W., Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Dettmers, C., & Taub, E. (1999). Effects of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy on patients with chronic motor deficits after stroke: a replication. Stroke, 30, 586–592.
Mitchum, C. C., & Berndt, R. S. (1992). Verb retrieval and sentence construction: Effects of a targeted intervention. In M. J. Riddoch & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Cognitive Neuropsychology and Cognitive Rehabilitation (pp. 317–348). London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Morrow, K. L., & Fridriksson, J. (2006). Comparing fixed- and randomized-interval spaced retrieval in anomia treatment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 39, 2–11.
Nadeau, S., Rothi, L. J. G., & Rosenbek, J. (in press). Language rehabilitation from a neural perspective. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language Intervention Strategies in Adult Aphasia. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
Naeser, M. A., Haas, G., Mazurski, P., & Laughlin, S. (1986). Sentence level auditory comprehension treatment program for aphasic adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 393–399.
Nickels, L., Byng, S., & Black, M. (1991). Sentence processing deficits: a replication of therapy. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 26, 175–199.
Orange, J. B., & Kertesz, A. (1998). Efficacy of language therapy for aphasia. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 12, 501–517.
Paolucci, S., Matano, A., Bragoni, M. et al. (2005). Rehabilitation of left brain-damaged ischemic stroke patients: the role of comprehension language deficits. A matched comparison. Cerebrovascular Disease, 20, 400–406.
Penn, C., Jones, D., & Joffe, V. (1997). Hierarchical discourse therapy: a method for the mild patient. Aphasiology, 11, 601–632.
Power, A. E. (2004). Slow-wave sleep, acetylcholine, and memory consolidation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 1795–1796.
Pulvermuller, F., & Roth, V. M. (1991). Communicative aphasia treatment as a further development of PACE therapy. Aphasiology, 5, 39–50.
Pulvermuller, F., Neininger, B., Elbert, T. et al. (2001). Constraint-induced therapy of chronic aphasia after stroke. Stroke, 32, 1621–1626.
Pyle, W. H. (1913). Standards of mental efficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 4, 61–70.
Raymer, A. M., Thompson, C. K., Jacobs, B., & LeGrand, H. R. (1993). Phonologic treatment of naming deficits in aphasia: model-based generalization analysis. Aphasiology, 7, 27–53.
Raymer, A. M., Singletary, F., Rodriguez, A. et al. (2006). Gesture training effects for noun and verb retrieval in aphasia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 867–882.
Robey, R. R. (1994). The efficacy of treatment for aphasic persons: a meta-analysis. Brain and Language, 47, 582–608.
Rochon, E., Laird, L., Bose, A., & Scofield, J. (2005). Mapping therapy for sentence production impairment in aphasia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 1–36.
Rosenbek, J. C., LaPointe, L. L., & Wertz, R. T. (1989). Aphasia: A Clinical Approach. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc.
Saffran, E. M., Schwartz, M. F., & Marin, O. S. (1980). The word order problem in agrammatism. II. Production. Brain and Language, 10, 263–280.
Sarno, M. T., Silverman, M., & Sands, E. (1970). Speech therapy and language recovery in severe aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 13, 607–623.
Schwartz, M. F., Saffran, E. M., & Marin, O. S. (1980). The word order problem in agrammatism. I. Comprehension. Brain and Language, 10, 249–262.
Schwartz, M. F., Saffran, E. M., Fink, R. B., Myers, J. L., & Martin, N. (1994). Mapping therapy: A treatment programme for agrammatism. Aphasiology, 8, 19–54.
Shebilske, W., Goettl, B., & Regian, J. W. (1999). Executive control of automatic processes as complex skills develop in laboratory and applied settings. In D. Gopher & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and Performance XVII: Cognitive Regulation of Performance: Interaction of Theory and Application (pp. 401–432). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Shewan, C. M., & Kertesz, A. (1984). Effects of speech and language treatment on recovery from aphasia. Brain and Language, 23, 272–299.
Simmons-Mackie, N. (2001). Social approaches to aphasia rehabilitation. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communi-cation Disorders (pp. 246–268). Philadelphia, PA: Lippin-cott Williams & Wilkins.
Sparks, R., Helm, N., & Albert, M. (1974). Aphasia rehabilitation resulting from Melodic Intonation Therapy. Cortex, 10, 303–316.
Taub, E. (2000). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and massed practice. Stroke, 31, 986–988.
Thompson, C. K. (1998). Treating sentence production in agrammatic aphasia. In N. Helm-Estabrooks & A. Holland (Eds.), Approaches to Treatment of Aphasia (pp. 113–151). San Diego, CA: Singular.
Thompson, C. K., & Kearns, K. P. (1981). An experimental analysis of acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of naming behavior in a patient with anomia. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings (pp. 19–31). Minneapolis, MN: BRK.
Thompson, C. K., Shapiro, L. P., & Roberts, M. M. (1993). Treatment of sentence production deficits in aphasia: a linguistic-specific approach to wh-interrogative training and generalization. Aphasiology, 7, 111–133.
Thompson, C. K., Shapiro, L. P., Tait, M. E., Jacobs, B. J., & Schneider, S. L. (1996). Training wh-question production in agrammatic aphasia: analysis of argument and adjunct movement. Brain and Language, 52, 175–228.
Thompson, C. K., Ballard, K. J., & Shapiro, L. P. (1998). The role of syntactic complexity in training wh-movement structures in agrammatic aphasia: optimal order for promoting generalization. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 229–244.
Thompson, C. K., Shapiro, L. P., Kiran, S., & Sobecks, J. (2003). The role of syntactic complexity in treatment of sentence deficits in agrammatic aphasia: the complexity account of treatment efficacy (CATE). Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Disorders, 46, 591–607.
Wade, D. T., Hewer, R. L., David, R. M., & Enderby, P. M. (1986). Aphasia after stroke: natural history and associated deficits. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 11–16.
Wambaugh, J. L. (2003). A comparison of the relative effects of phonologic and semantic cueing treatments. Aphasiology, 17, 433–441.
Wambaugh, J. L., & Thompson, C. K. (1989). Training and generalization of agrammatic aphasic adults’ WH-interrogative productions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 509–525.
Wambaugh, J. L., & Martinez, A. L. (2000). Effects of modified Response Elaboration Training with apraxic and aphasic speakers. Aphasiology, 14, 603–617.
Wambaugh, J. L., Linebaugh, C. W., Doyle, P. J. et al. (2001a). Effects of two cueing treatments on lexical retrieval in aphasic speakers with different levels of deficit. Aphasiology, 15, 933–950.
Wambaugh, J. L., Martinez, A. L., & Alegre, M. N. (2001b). Qualitative changes following application of modified response elaboration training with apraxic-aphasic speakers. Aphasiology, 15, 965–976.
Wertz, R. T., & Irwin, W. H. (2001). Darley and the efficacy of language rehabilitation in aphasia. Aphasiology, 15, 231–247.
Wertz, R. T., Weiss, D. G., Aten, J. L. et al. (1986). Comparison of clinic, home, and deferred language treatment for aphasia. A Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. Archives of Neurology, 43, 653–658.
West, J. A. (1973). Auditory comprehension in aphasic adults: improvement through training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 54, 78–86.
Whitney, J., & Goldstein, H. (1989). Using self-monitoring to reduce disfluencies in speakers with mild aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 576–586.
Wierenga, C., Maher, L. M., & Moore, A. B. (2006). Neural substrates of syntactic mapping treatment: an fMRI study of two cases. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 132–146.

References

Ackroyd, K., Riddoch, M. J., Humphreys, G. W., Nightingale, S., & Townsend, S. (2002). Widening the sphere of influence: using a tool to extend extrapersonal visual space in a patient with severe neglect. Neurocase, 8, 1–12.
Avery, R. A., Franowicz, J. S., Studholme, C., van Dyck, C. H., & Arnsten, A. F. T. (2000). The alpha-2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, increases regional cerebral blood flow in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 240–249.
Barrett, A. M., Crucian, G. P., Schwartz, R. L., & Heilman, K. M. (1999). Adverse effect of dopamine agonist therapy in a patient with motor-intentional neglect. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 600–603.
Beis, J. M., Andre, J. M., Baumgarten, A., & Challier, B. (1999). Eye patching in unilateral spatial neglect: efficacy of two methods. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 71–76.
Berti, A., & Frassinetti, F. (2000). When far becomes near: remapping of space by tool use. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 415–420.
Bird, C. M., Malhotra, P., Parton, A. et al. (2006). Visual neglect following right posterior cerebral artery infarction. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, 1008–1012.
Bisiach, E. (1993). Mental representation in unilateral neglect and related disorders: the twentieth Bartlett Memorial Lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 46, 435–461.
Brighina, F., Bisiach, E., Oliveri, M. et al. (2003). 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere ameliorates contralesional visuospatial neglect in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 336, 131–133.
Butter, C. M., & Kirsch, N. (1992). Combined and separate effects of eye patching and visual stimulation on unilateral neglect following stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 1133–1139.
Buxbaum, L. J., Ferraro, M. K., Veramonti, T. et al. (2004). Hemispatial neglect: subtypes, neuroanatomy, and disability. Neurology, 62, 749–756.
Castiello, U., Lusher, D., Burton, C., Glover, S., & Disler, P. (2004). Improving left hemispatial neglect using virtual reality. Neurology, 62, 1958–1962.
Castner, S. A., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (2004). Enhancement of working memory in aged monkeys by a sensitizing regimen of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 1446–1450.
Dijkerman, H. C., Webeling, M., ter Wal, J. M., Groet, E., & van Zandvoort, M. J. E. (2004). A long-lasting improvement of somatosensory function after prism adaptation, a case study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1697–1702.
Diller, L., & Weinberg, J. (1977). Hemi-inattention in rehabilitation: the evolution of a rational remediation program. In E. Weinstein & R. P. Friedland (Eds.), Advances in Neurology (pp. 63–82). New York, NY: Raven Press.
Doricchi, F., & Tomaiuolo, F. (2003). The anatomy of neglect without hemianopia: a key role for parietal-frontal disconnection? Neuroreport, 14, 2239–2243.
Duncan, J., Humphreys, G., & Ward, R. (1997). Competitive brain activity in visual attention. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 255–261.
Duncan, J., Bundesen, C., Olson, A. et al. (1999). Systematic analysis of deficits in visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 450–478.
Farne, A., & Ladavas, E. (2000). Dynamic size-change of hand peripersonal space following tool use. NeuroReport, 11, 1645–1649.
Farne, A., Rossetti, Y., Toniolo, S., & Ladavas, E. (2002). Ameliorating neglect with prism adaptation: visuo-manual and visuo-verbal measures. Neuropsychologia, 40, 718–729.
Fleet, W. S., Valenstein, E., Watson, R. T., & Heilman, K. M. (1987). Dopamine agonist therapy for neglect in humans. Neurology, 37, 1765–1770.
Franowicz, J. S., & Arnsten, A. F. T. (1998). The alpha-2a noradrenergic agonist, guanfacine, improves delayed response performance in young adult rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology, 136, 8–14.
Frassinetti, F., Rossi, M., & Ladavas, E. (2001). Passive limb movements improve visual neglect. Neuropsychologia, 39, 725–733.
Frassinetti, F., Angeli, V., Meneghello, F., Avanzi, S., & Ladavas, E. (2002). Long-lasting amelioration of visuospatial neglect by prism adaptation. Brain, 125, 608–623.
Geminiani, G., Bottini, G., & Sterzi, R. (1998). Dopaminergic stimulation in unilateral neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 65, 344–347.
Grujic, Z., Mapstone, M., Gitelman, D. R. et al. (1998). Dopamine agonists reorient visual exploration away from the neglected hemispace. Neurology, 51, 1395–1398.
Guariglia, C., Lippolis, G., & Pizzamiglio, L. (1998). Somatosensory stimulation improves imagery disorders in neglect. Cortex, 34, 233–241.
Harvey, M., Hood, B., North, A., & Robertson, I. H. (2003). The effects of visuomotor feedback training on the recovery of hemispatial neglect symptoms: assessment of a 2-week and follow-up intervention. Neuropsychologia, 41, 886–893.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J. et al. (2005). Anatomy of spatial attention: insights from perfusion imaging and hemispatial neglect in acute stroke. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 3161–3167.
Hurford, P., Stringer, A. Y., & Jann, B. (1998). Neuropharma-cologic treatment of hemineglect: a case report comparing bromocriptine and methylphenidate. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 346–349.
Husain, M., & Rorden, C. (2003). Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 26–36.
Husain, M., Shapiro, K., Martin, J., & Kennard, C. (1997). Abnormal temporal dynamics of visual attention in spatial neglect patients. Nature, 385, 154–156.
Johannsen, L., Ackermann, H., & Karnath, H. O. (2003). Lasting amelioration of spatial neglect by treatment with neck muscle vibration even without concurrent training. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 35, 249–253.
Kalra, L., Perez, I., Gupta, S., & Wittink, M. (1997). The influence of visual neglect on stroke rehabilitation. Stroke, 28, 1386–1391.
Karnath, H. O. (1996). Optokinetic stimulation influences the disturbed perception of body orientation in spatial neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 60, 217–220.
Karnath, H. O., Ferber, S., & Himmelbach, M. (2001). Spatial awareness is a function of the temporal not the posterior parietal lobe. Nature, 411, 950–953.
Karnath, H. O., Himmelbach, M., & Rorden, C. (2002). The subcortical anatomy of human spatial neglect: putamen, caudate nucleus and pulvinar. Brain, 125, 350–360.
Kimberg, D. Y., & D’Esposito, M. (2003). Cognitive effects of the dopamine receptor agonist pergolide. Neuropsycho-logia, 41, 1020–1027.
Kinsbourne, M. (1993). Orientational bias model of unilateral neglect: Evidence from attentional gradients within hemispace. In I. H. Robertson & J. C. Marshall (Eds.), Unilateral Neglect: Clinical and Experimental Studies (pp. 63–86). Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Luaute, J., Halligan, P., Rode, G., Rossetti, Y., & Boisson, D. (2006). Visuo-spatial neglect: a systematic review of current interventions and their effectiveness. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 30, 961–982.
Malhotra, P. A., Parton, A. D., Greenwood, R., & Husain, M. (2006). Noradrenergic modulation of space exploration in visual neglect. Annals of Neurology, 59, 186–190.
Mannan, S. K., Mort, D., Hodgson, T. L. et al. (2005). Revisiting previously searched locations in visual neglect: role of right parietal and frontal lesions in misjudging old locations as new. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 340–354.
Maravita, A., McNeil, J., Malholtra, P. et al. (2003). Prism adaptation can improve contralesional tactile perception in neglect. Neurology, 60, 1829–1831.
Marshall, J. F. (1979). Somatosensory inattention after dopamine-depleting intracerebral 6-OHDA injections: spontaneous recovery and pharmacological control. Brain Research, 177, 311–324.
Marshall, J. F., & Gotthelf, T. (1979). Sensory inattention in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of ascending dopaminergic neurons: apomorphine-induced reversal of deficits. Experimental Neurology, 65, 398–411.
Mattingley, J. B., Husain, M., Rorden, C., Kennard, C., & Driver, J. (1998). Motor role of human inferior parietal lobe revealed in unilateral neglect patients. Nature, 392, 179–182.
Miyashita, N., Hikosaka, O., & Kato, M. (1995). Visual hemineglect induced by unilateral striatal dopamine deficiency in monkeys. NeuroReport, 6, 1257–1260.
Mort, D. J., Malhotra, P., Mannan, S. K. et al. (2003). The anatomy of visual neglect. Brain, 126, 1986–1997.
Mukand, J. A., Guilmette, T. J., Allen, D. G. et al. (2001). Dopaminergic therapy with carbidopa L-dopa for left neglect after stroke: a case series. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 1279–1282.
Muller, U., von Cramon, D. Y., & Pollmann, S. (1998). D1- versus D2-receptor modulation of visuospatial working memory in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2720–2728.
Niemeier, J. P. (1998). The Lighthouse Strategy: use of a visual imagery technique to treat visual inattention in stroke patients. Brain Injury, 12, 399–406.
Oliveri, M., Bisiach, E., Brighina, F. et al. (2001). rTMS of the unaffected hemisphere transiently reduces contralesional visuospatial hemineglect. Neurology, 57, 1338–1340.
Parton, A. P., Malhotra, P., & Husain, M. (2004). Hemispatial neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 75, 13–21.
Perennou, D. A., Leblond, C., Amblard, B. et al. (2001). Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation reduces neglect-related postural instability after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 440–448.
Posner, M. I., Walker, J. A., Friedrich, F. J., & Rafal, R. D. (1984). Effects of parietal injury on covert orienting of attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 1863–1874.
Redding, G. M., & Wallace, B. (2006). Prism adaptation and unilateral neglect: review and analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1–20.
Robertson, I. H. (2001). Do we need the “lateral” in unilateral neglect? Spatially nonselective attention deficits in unilateral neglect and their implications for rehabilitation. Neuroimage, 14, S85–S90.
Robertson, I. H., & Halligan, P. W. (1999). Spatial Neglect: A Clinical Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Robertson, I. H., & North, N. (1993). Active and passive activation of left limbs: influence on visual and sensory neglect. Neuropsychologia, 31, 293–300.
Robertson, I., Nico, D., & Hood, B. M. (1995). Believing what you feel: using proprioceptive feedback to reduce unilateral neglect. Neuropsychology, 11, 53–58.
Robertson, I. H., Manly, T., Beschin, N. et al. (1997). Auditory sustained attention is a marker of unilateral spatial neglect. Neuropsychologia, 35, 1527–1532.
Robertson, I. H., Hogg, K., & McMillan, T. M. (1998a). Rehabilitation of unilateral neglect: improving function by contralesional limb activation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 8, 19–29.
Robertson, I. H., Mattingley, J. B., Rorden, C., & Driver, J. (1998b). Phasic alerting of neglect patients overcomes their spatial deficit in visual awareness. Nature, 395, 169–172.
Robertson, I. H., McMillan, T. M., MacLeod, E., Edgeworth, J., & Brock, D. (2002). Rehabilitation by limb activation training reduces left-sided motor impairment in unilateral neglect patients: a single-blind randomized control trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 439–454.
Rode, G., & Perenin, M. T. (1994). Temporary remission of representational hemineglect through vestibular stimulation. NeuroReport, 5, 869–872.
Rossetti, Y., Rode, G., Pisella, L. et al. (1998). Prism adaptation to a rightward optical deviation rehabilitates left hemispatial neglect. Nature, 395, 166–169.
Rousseaux, M., Bernati, T., Saj, A., & Kozlowski, O. (2006). Ineffectiveness of prism adaptation on spatial neglect signs. Stroke, 37, 542–543.
Rubens, A. B. (1985). Caloric stimulation and unilateral visual neglect. Neurology, 35, 1019–1024.
Schindler, I., Kerkhoff, G., Karnath, H. O., Keller, I., & Goldenberg, G. (2002). Neck muscle vibration induces lasting recovery in spatial neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 73, 412–419.
Serino, A., Angeli, V., Frassinetti, F., & Ladavas, E. (2006). Mechanisms underlying neglect recovery after prism adaptation. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1068–1078.
Shindo, K., Sugiyama, K., Huabao, L. et al. (2006). Long-term effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the unaffected posterior parietal cortex in patients with unilateral spatial neglect. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 38, 65–67.
Smania, N., Martini, M. C., Gambina, G. et al. (1998). The spatial distribution of visual attention in hemineglect and extinction patients. Brain, 121, 1759–1770.
Sturm, W., Willmes, K., Orgass, B., & Hartje, W. (1997). Do specific attention deficits need specific training? Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 7, 81–103.
Tham, K., & Tegner, R. (1997). Video feedback in the rehabilitation of patients with unilateral neglect. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 410–413.
Thimm, M., Fink, G. R., Kust, J., Karbe, H., & W., S. (2006). Impact of alertness training on spatial neglect: a behavioural and fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1230–1246.
Tilikete, C., Rode, G., Rossetti, Y. et al. (2001). Prism adaptation to rightward optical deviation improves postural imbalance in left-hemiparetic patients. Current Biology, 11, 524–528.
Vallar, G. (2001). Extrapersonal visual unilateral spatial neglect and its neuroanatomy. Neuroimage, 14, S52–S58.
Vallar, G., Guariglia, C., Nico, D., & Pizzamiglio, L. (1997). Motor deficits and optokinetic stimulation in patients with left hemineglect. Neurology, 49, 1364–1370.
Vallar, G., Rusconi, M. L., Barozzi, S. et al. (1995). Improvement of left visuo-spatial hemineglect by left-sided transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 33, 73–82.
Walker, R., Young, A. W., & Lincoln, N. B. (1996). Eye patching and the rehabilitation of visual neglect. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 6, 219– 231.
Wiart, L., SaintCome, A. B., Debelleix, X. et al. (1997). Unilateral neglect syndrome rehabilitation by trunk rotation and scanning training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 424–429.
Zeloni, G., Farne, A., & Baccini, M. (2002). Viewing less to see better. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 73, 195–198.

References

Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., Murray, L. S., & Scott, G. (1982). Diffuse axonal injury due to nonmissile head injury in humans: an analysis of 45 cases. Annals of Neurology, 12, 557–563.
Alderman, N. (2004). Disorders of behaviour. In J. Ponsford (Ed.), Cognitive and Behavioural Rehabilitation (pp. 269–298). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
Alderman, N., & Burgess, P. W. (2003). Assessment and rehab-ilitation of the dysexecutive syndrome. In R. Greenwood, T. M. McMillan, M. P. Barnes, & C. D. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of Neurological Rehabilitation (2nd Edition) (pp. 387–402). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Alderman, N., Fry, R. K., & Youngson, H. A. (1995). Improvement of self-monitoring skills, reduction of behaviour disturbance and the dysexecutive system. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 5, 193–222.
Alexander, G. E., DeLong, M. R., & Strick, P. L. (1986). Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 9, 357–381.
Alexander, M. P., Stuss, D. T., & Fansabedian, N. (2003). California Verbal Learning Test: performance by patients with focal frontal and non-frontal lesions. Brain, 126, 1493–1503.
Alexander, M. P., Stuss, D. T., Shallice, T., Picton, T. W., & Gillingham, S. (2005). Impaired concentration due to frontal lobe damage from two distinct lesion sites. Neurology, 65, 572–579.
Anderson, S. W., & Damasio, A. R. (1995). Frontal-lobe syndromes. In J. Bogousslavsky & L. Caplan (Eds.), Stroke Syndromes (pp. 140–144). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, S. W., Damasio, H., Jones, R. D., & Tranel, D. (1991). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance as a measure of frontal lobe damage. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 909–922.
Arco, L., Cohen, L., & Geddes, K. (2004). Verbal self-regulation of impulsive behaviour of persons with frontal lobe injury. Behavior Therapy, 35, 605–619.
Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 7–15.
Berryhill, P., Lilly, M. A., Levin, H. S. et al. (1995). Frontal lobe changes after severe diffuse closed head injury in children: a volumetric study of magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery, 37, 392–399.
Bottger, S., Prosiegel, M., Steiger, H.-J., & Yassouridis, A. (1998). Neurobehavioural disturbances, rehabilitation outcome, and lesion site in patients after rupture and repair of anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 65, 93–102.
Brooks, N., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., & McKinlay, W. (1986). The five year outcome of severe blunt head injury: a relative’s view. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 764–770.
Burgess, P. W., Alderman, N., Evans, J., Emslie, H., & Wilson, B. A. (1998). The ecological validity of tests of executive function. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 547–558.
Burgess, P. W., Veitch, E., de Lacy Costello, A., & Shallice, T. (2000). The cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of multitasking. Neuropsychologia, 38, 848–863.
Burgess, P. W., Simons, J. S., Dumontheil, I., & Gilbert, S. J. (2005). The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function. In L. Duncan, L. Phillips, & P. McLeod (Eds.), Speed, Control, and Age: In Honour of Patrick Rabbitt (pp. 217–248). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Burgess, P. W., Gilbert, S. J., & Dumontheil, I. (2007). Function and localization within rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part B, 362, 887–899.
Burke, W. H., Zencius, A. H., Wesolowski, M. D., & Doubleday, F. (1991). Improving executive function disorders in brain-injured clients. Brain Injury, 5, 241–252.
Chen, A. J., Abrams, G. M., & D’Esposito, M. (2006). Functional reintegration of prefrontal neural networks for enhancing recovery after brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 107–118.
Cheng, S. K., & Man, D. W. (2006). Management of impaired self-awareness in persons with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 621–628.
Chittum, W. R., Johnson, K., Chittum, J. M., Guercio, J. M., & McMorrow, M. J. (1996). Road to awareness: an individualized training package for increasing knowledge and comprehension of personal deficits in persons with acquired brain injury. Brain Injury, 10, 763–776.
Christman, C. W., Salvant, J. B. J., Walker, S. A., & Povlishock, J. T. (1997). Characterization of a prolonged regenerative attempt by diffusely injured axons following traumatic brain injury in adult cat: a light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study. Acta Neuropathologica, 94, 329–337.
Christoff, K., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organization within the human prefrontal cortex. Psychobiology, 28, 168–186.
Cicerone, K. D. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Science, 290, 966–969.
Cicerone, K. D., & Giacino, J. T. (1992). Remediation of executive function deficits after traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation, 2, 12–22.
Cicerone, K. D., & Tanenbaum, L. N. (1997). Disturbance of social cognition after traumatic orbitofrontal brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12, 173–188.
Cicerone, K. D., & Wood, J. C. (1987). Planning disorder after closed head injury: a case study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68, 111–115.
Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F. et al. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1681–1692.
Cicerone, K., Levin, H., Malec, J., Stuss, D., & Whyte, J. (2006). Cognitive rehabilitation interventions for executive function: moving from bench to bedside in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1–11.
Cicerone, K. W. (2002). The enigma of executive functioning: theoretical contributions to therapeutic interventions. In P. J. Eslinger, M. M. Downey-Lamb, M. L. Glisky, I. Robertson, & S. Ward (Eds.), Neuropsychological Interventions: Clinical Research and Practice (pp. 426). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Clifton, G., Grossman, R., Makela, M. et al. (1980). Neurological course and correlated computerized tomography findings after severe closed head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 52, 611–624.
Courville, C. B. (1937). Pathology of the Central Nervous System, Part 4. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing.
Cummings, J. L. (1993). Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Archives of Neurology, 50, 873–880.
Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences, 351, 1413–1420.
Dayus, B., & van den Broek, M. D. (2000). Treatment of stable confabulations using self-monitoring training. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 10, 415–427.
Deacon, D., & Campbell, K. B. (1991). Decision-making following closed-head injury: can response speed be retrained? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 639–651.
Delazer, M., Bodner, T., & Benke, T. (1998). Rehabilitation of arithmetical text problem solving. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 8, 401–412.
DeLuca, J. (1992). Cognitive dysfunction after aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 924–934.
DeLuca, J., & Diamond, B. J. (1995). Aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery: a review of the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological sequelae. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 100–121.
Deutsch, G., Papanicolaou, A. C., Bourbon, W. T., & Eisenberg, H. M. (1987). Cerebral blood flow evidence of right frontal activation in attention demanding tasks. International Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 23–28.
Diamond, B. J., DeLuca, J., & Kelley, S. M. (1997). Memory and executive functions in amnesic and non-amnesic patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Brain, 120, 1015–1025.
Dias, R., Robbins, T. W., & Roberts, A. C. (1996). Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts. Nature, 380, 69–72.
Dias, R., Robbins, T. W., & Roberts, A. C. (1997). Dissociable forms of inhibitory control within prefrontal cortex with an analog of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test: restriction to novel situations and independence from “on-line” processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 9285–9297.
Dikmen, S. S., Ross, B. L., Machamer, J. E., & Temkin, N. R. (1995). One year psychosocial outcome in head injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 67–77.
Duncan, J. (1986). Disorganization of behavior after frontal lobe damage. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 3, 271–290.
Duncan, J., Emslie, H., Williams, P., Johnson, R., & Freer, C. (1996). Intelligence and the frontal lobe: the organization of goal-directed behavior. Cognitive Psychology, 30, 257–303.
Dunn, B. D., Dalgleish, T., & Lawrence, A. D. (2006). The somatic marker hypothesis: a critical evaluation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 239–271.
Elliott, R., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 308–317.
Eslinger, P. J., & Damasio, A. R. (1985). Severe disturbance of higher cognition after bilateral frontal lobe ablation: Patient EVR. Neurology, 35, 1731–1741.
Evans, J. J., Emslie, H., & Wilson, B. A. (1998). External cueing systems in the rehabilitation of executive impairments of action. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 399–408.
Fellows, L. K., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 58–63.
Fleming, J. M., Lucas, S. E., & Lightbody, S. (2006). Using occupation to facilitate self-awareness in people who have acquired brain injury: a pilot study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73, 44–55.
Floel, A., Breitenstein, C., Hummel, F. et al. (2005). Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory. Annals of Neurology, 58, 121–130.
Fox, R. M., Martella, R. C., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (1989). Acquisition, maintenance and generalization of problem-solving skills by closed head injured adults. Behaviour Therapy, 20, 61–76.
Fuster, J. M. (1997). The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology, and Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobe (3rd Edition). New York, NY: Raven Press.
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., Adams, J. H. et al. (1982). Diffuse axonal injury and traumatic coma in the primate. Annals of Neurology, 12, 564–572.
Gentry, L. R., Godersky, J. C., & Thompson, B. (1988). MR imaging of head trauma: review of the distribution and radiopathologic features of traumatic lesions. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 9, 101–110.
Gilboa, A., Alain, C., Stuss, D. T. et al. (2006). Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: a strategic retrieval account. Brain, 129, 1399–1414.
Giles, G. M., & Morgan, J. H. (1990). Self-instruction training of functional skills: a single case study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 314–316.
Glosser, G., & Goodglass, H. (1990). Disorders in executive control functions among aphasic and other brain-damaged patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 485–501.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987). Circuitry of primate prefrontal cortex and regulation of behavior by representational memory. In F. Plum & V. Mountcastle (Eds.), Handbook of Physiology: The Nervous System (pp. 373–417). Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.
Harlow, J. M. (1868). Recovery after severe injury to the head. Publication of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 2, 327–346.
Hewitt, J., Evans, J. J., & Dritschel, B. (2006). Theory driven rehabilitation of executive functioning: improving planning skills in people with traumatic brain injury through the use of an autobiographical episodic memory cueing procedure. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1468–1474.
Hux, K., Reid, R., & Lugert, M. (1994). Self-instruction training following neurological injury. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 259–271.
Jennett, B., Snoek, J., Bond, M. R., & Brooks, N. (1981). Disability after severe head injury: observations on the use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 44, 285–293.
Knight, C., Rutterford, N. A., Alderman, N., & Swan, L. J. (2002). Is accurate self-monitoring necessary for people with acquired neurological problems to benefit from the use of differential reinforcement methods? Brain Injury, 16, 75–87.
Kraus, M. F., Smith, G. S., Butters, M. et al. (2005). Effects of the dopaminergic agent and NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine on cognitive function, cerebral glucose metabolism and D2 receptor availability in chronic traumatic brain injury: a study using positron emission tomography (PET). Brain Injury, 19, 471–479.
Levine, B. (1999). Self-regulation and autonoetic consciousness. In E. Tulving (Ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference (pp. 200–214). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Levine, B., & Downey-Lamb, M. (2002). Design and evaluation of intervention experiments. In P. J. Eslinger (Ed.), Neuropsychological Interventions: Emerging Treatment and Management Models for Neuropsychological Impairments (pp. 80–104). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Levine, B., Stuss, D. T., Milberg, W. P. et al. (1998). The effects of focal and diffuse brain damage on strategy application: evidence from focal lesions, traumatic brain injury and normal aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 247–264.
Levine, B., Dawson, D., Boutet, I., Schwartz, M. L., & Stuss, D. T. (2000a). Assessment of strategic self-regulation in traumatic brain injury: its relationship to injury severity and psychosocial outcome. Neuropsychology, 14, 491–500.
Levine, B., Robertson, I. H., Clare, L. et al. (2000b). Rehabilitation of executive functioning: an experimental-clinical validation of goal management training. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 299–312.
Levine, B., Katz, D., Black, S. E., & Dade, L. (2002). New approaches to brain-behavior assessment in traumatic brain injury. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe function (pp. 448–465). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cheung, G. et al. (2005). Gambling task performance in traumatic brain injury: relationships to injury severity, atrophy, lesion location, and cognitive and psychosocial outcome. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 18, 45–54.
Levine, B., Fujiwara, F., O’Connor, C. et al. (2006). In vivo characterization of traumatic brain injury neuropathology with structural and functional neuroimaging. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23, 1396–1411.
Levine, B., Stuss, D. T., Winocur, G. et al. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: effects on strategic behavior in relation to goal management. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 143–152.
Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd Edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Lilja, A., Salford, L. G., Smith, G. J., & Hagstadius, S. (1992). Neuropsychological indexes of a partial frontal syndrome in patients with nonfrontal gliomas. Neuropsychology, 6, 315–326.
Lira, F. T., Carne, W., & Masri, A. M. (1983). Treatment of anger and impulsivity in a brain damaged patient: a case in applying stress innoculation. Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 159–160.
Lucas, S. E., & Fleming, J. M. (2005). Interventions for improving self-awareness following acquired brain injury. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 52, 160–170.
Luria, A. R. (1966). Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Luria, A. R., & Homskaya, D. (1964). Disturbance in the regulative role of speech with frontal lobe lesions. In J. M. Warren & K. Akert (Eds.), The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior (pp. 353–371). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Manly, T., Hawkins, K., Evans, J., Woldt, K., & Robertson, I. H. (2002). Rehabilitation of executive function: facilitation of effective goal management on complex tasks using periodic auditory alerts. Neuropsychologia, 40, 271–281.
Marshall, R. C., Karow, C. M., Morelli, C. A. et al. (2004). Effects of interactive strategy modelling training on problem-solving by persons with traumatic brain injury. Aphasiology, 18, 659–673.
Mavaddat, N., Kirkpatrick, P. J., Rogers, R. D., & Sahakian, B. J. (2000). Deficits in decision-making in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Brain, 123, 2109–2117.
Maxwell, W. L., Povlishock, J. T., & Graham, D. L. (1997). A mechanistic analysis of nondisruptive axonal injury: a review. Journal of Neurotrauma, 14, 419–440.
McDowell, S., Whyte, J., & D’Esposito, M. (1998). Differential effect of a dopaminergic agonist on prefrontal function in traumatic brain injury patients. Brain, 121, 1155–1164.
Medd, J., & Tate, R. L. (2000). Evaluation of an anger management program following ABI: a preliminary study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 10, 185–201.
Meintzschel, F., & Ziemann, U. (2006). Modification of practice-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex by neuromodulators. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1106–1115.
Meythaler, J. M., Depalma, L., Devivo, M. J., Guin-Renfroe, S., & Novack, T. A. (2001). Sertraline to improve arousal and alertness in severe traumatic brain injury secondary to motor vehicle crashes. Brain Injury, 15, 321–331.
Miller, E. K. (1999). The prefrontal cortex: complex neural properties for complex behavior. Neuron, 22, 15–17.
Milner, B. (1963). Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting: the role of the frontal lobes. Archives of Neurology, 9, 100–110.
Mishkin, M. (1964). Perseveration of central sets after frontal lesions in monkeys. In K. A. M. Warren (Ed.), The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Monakow, v. (1914). Localization in the Cerebrum and the Degeneration of Functions through Cortical Sources. Wiesbaden, Germany: J. F. Bergman.
Muller, U., & von Cramon, D. Y. (1994). The therapeutic potential of bromocriptine in neuropsychological rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain damage. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 18, 1103–1120.
Nakawatase, T. Y. (1999). Frontal lobe tumors. In B. L. Miller & J. L. Cummings (Eds.), Human Frontal Lobes. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (1999). Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Nauta, W. J. (1971). The problem of the frontal lobe: a reinterpretation. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 8, 167–187.
Newburn, G., & Newburn, D. (2005). Selegiline in the management of apathy following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19, 149–154.
O’Callaghan, M. E., & Couvadelli, B. (1998). Use of self-instructional strategies with three neurologically impaired adults. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 91–107.
O’Connor, C., Turner, G. R., Katerji, S. et al. (2006). A randomized control trial of goal management training in adults with neurological damage. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, Suppl. 1, 93.
Ommaya, A. K., & Gennarelli, T. A. (1974). Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsciousness. Correlation of experimental and clinical observations of blunt head injuries. Brain, 97, 633–654.
Ownsworth, T., & McFarland, K. (2000). Investigation of psychological and neuropsychological factors associated with clinical outcome following a group rehabilitation programme. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 14, 535–562.
Ownsworth, T., Fleming, J., Desbois, J., Strong, J., & Kuipers, P. (2006). A metacognitive contextual intervention to enhance error awareness and functional outcome following traumatic brain injury: a single-case experimental design. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 54–63.
Pandya, D. N., & Barnes, C. L. (1987). Architecture and connections of the frontal lobe. In E. Perecman (Eds.), The Frontal Lobes Revisited (pp. 41–72). New York, NY: IRBN Press.
Pandya, D. N., & Yeterian, E. H. (1996). Morphological correlations of human and monkey frontal lobes. In A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of Decision Making (pp. 13–46). New York, NY: Springer Verlag.
Pardo, J. V., Fox, P. T., & Raichle, M. E. (1991). Localization of a human system for sustained attention by positron emission tomography. Nature, 349, 61–64.
Park, N. W., Conrod, B., Hussain, Z. et al. (2003). A treatment program for individuals with deficient evaluative processing and consequent impaired social and risk judgement. Neurocase, 9, 51–62.
Parks, R. W., Crockett, D. J., Manji, H. K., & Ammann, W. (1992). Assessment of bromocriptine intervention for the treatment of frontal lobe syndrome: a case study. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 4, 109–111.
Penfield, W., & Evans, J. (1935). The frontal lobe in man: a clinical study of maximum removals. Brain, 58, 115–133.
Petrides, M., & Milner, B. (1982). Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 20, 249–262.
Phillips, J. P., Devier, D. J., & Feeney, D. M. (2003). Rehabilitation pharmacology: bridging laboratory work to clinical application. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 342–356.
Picton, T. W., Stuss, D. T., Shallice, T., Alexander, M. P., & Gillingham, S. (2006). Keeping time: effects of focal frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1195–1209.
Povlishock, J. T. (1992). Traumatically induced axonal injury: pathogenesis and pathobiological implications. Brain Pathology, 2, 1–12.
Povlishock, J. T. (1993). Pathobiology of traumatically induced axonal injury in animals and man. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 22, 980–986.
Povlishock, J. T., & Christman, C. W. (1995). The pathobiology of traumatically induced axonal injury in animals and humans: a review of current thoughts. Journal of Neurotrauma, 12, 555–564.
Povlishock, J. T., Erb, D. E., & Astruc, J. (1992). Axonal response to traumatic brain injury: reactive axonal change, deafferentation, and neuroplasticity. Journal of Neurotrauma, 9, Suppl. 1, S189–S200.
Powell, J. H. (1996). Motivational deficits after brain injury: effects of bromocriptine in 11 patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 60, 416–421.
Price, R. P., Goetz, K. L., & Lovell, M. R. (1997). Neuropsychiatric aspects of brain tumors. In S. C. Yodofsky & R. E. Hales (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Neuropsychiatry (3rd Edition). (pp. 635–643). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Prigatano, G. P. (1991). Disturbances of self-awareness of deficit after traumatic brain injury. In G. Prigatano & D. L. Schacter (Eds.), Awareness of Deficit after Brain Injury (pp. 111–126). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rath, J. F., Simon, D., Langenbahn, D. M., Sherr, R. L., & Diller, L. (2003). Group treatment of problem-solving deficits in outpatients with traumatic brain injury: a randomised outcome study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 13, 461–488.
Rebman, M. J., & Hannon, R. (1995). Treatment of unawareness of memory deficits in adults with brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 40, 279–287.
Robertson, I. H., & Murre, J. M. (1999). Rehabilitation of brain damage: brain plasticity and principles of guided recovery. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 544–575.
Robinson, R. G., & Starkstein, S. E. (1997). Neuropsychiatric aspects of cerebrovascular disorders. In S. C. Yodofsky & R. E. Hales (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Neuropsychiatry (3rd Edition). (pp. 607–614). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Rolls, E. T. (1996). The orbitofrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part B, 351, 1433–1444.
Rolls, E. T. (2000). The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 284–294.
Rueckert, L., & Grafman, J. (1996). Sustained attention deficits in patients with right frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 34, 953–963.
Sanides, F. (1970). Functional architecture of motor and sensory cortices in primates in the light of a new concept of neocortex development. In C. R. Noback & W. Montagna (Eds.), Advances in Primatology (pp. 137–208). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Schlund, M. W. (1999). Case study: Self awareness: effects of feedback and review on verbal self reports and remembering following brain injury. Brain Injury, 13, 375–380.
Schwartz, M. F., Montgomery, M. W., Buxbaum, L. J. et al. (1998). Naturalistic action impairment in closed head injury. Neuropsychology, 12, 13–28.
Schwartz, M. F., Buxbaum, L. J., Montgomery, M. W. et al. (1999). Naturalistic action production following right hemisphere stroke. Neuropsychologia, 37, 51–66.
Serino, A., Ciaramelli, E., Di Santantonio, A., & Ladavas, E. (2006). A rehabilitative program for central executive deficits after traumatic brain injury. Brain and Cognition, 60, 213–214.
Shallice, T., & Burgess, P. W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727–741.
Shallice, T., & Burgess, P. W. (1993). Supervisory control of action and thought selection. In A. Baddeley & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.), Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control. A Tribute to Donald Broadbent (pp. 171–187). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Shammi, P., & Stuss, D. T. (1999). Humour appreciation: a role of the right frontal lobe. Brain, 122, 657–666.
Siegal, M., & Varley, R. (2002). Neural systems involved in “theory of mind”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 463–471.
Sohlberg, M. M., Sprunk, H., & Metzelaar, K. (1988). Efficacy of an external cuing system in an individual with severe frontal lobe damage. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 6, 36–41.
Soong, W., Tam, S. F., Man, W. K., & Hui-Chan, C. (2005). A pilot study on the effectiveness of tele-analogy-based problem-solving training for people with brain injuries. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28, 341–347.
Stablum, F., Umilta, C., Mogentale, C., Carlan, M., & Guerrini, C. (2000). Rehabilitation of executive deficits in closed head injury and anterior communicating artery aneurysm patients. Psychological Research, 63, 265–278.
Strich, S. (1956). Diffuse degeneration of the cerebral white matter in severe dementia following head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 19, 163–185.
Stuss, D. T. (2006). Frontal lobes and attention: Processes and networks, fractionation and integration. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 261–271.
Stuss, D. T., & Alexander, M. P. (1999). Affectively burnt in: a proposed role of the right frontal lobe. In E. Tulving (Ed.), Memory, Consciousness and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference (pp. 215–227). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Stuss, D. T., & Alexander, M. P. (2000). The anatomical basis of affective behavior, emotion and self-awareness: a specific role of the right frontal lobe. In G. Hatano, N. Okada, & H. Tanabe (Eds.), Affective Minds. The 13th Toyota Conference (pp. 13–25). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.
Stuss, D. T., & Alexander, M. P. (in press). Executive functions: Is there a frontal lobe syndrome? In L. Squire, T. Albright, F. Bloom, F. Gage, & N. Spitzer (Eds.), New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience.
Stuss, D. T., & Benson, D. F. (1986). The Frontal Lobes. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Stuss, D. T., & Gow, C. A. (1992). “Frontal dysfunction” after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 5, 272–282.
Stuss, D. T., & Levine, B. (2002). Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 401–433.
Stuss, D. T., Delgado, M., & Guzman, D. A. (1987). Verbal regulation in the control of motor impersistence: a proposed rehabilitation procedure. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 1, 19–24.
Stuss, D. T., Shallice, T., Alexander, M. P., & Picton, T. (1995). A multidisciplinary approach to anterior attentional functions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 769, 191–212.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Hamer, L. et al. (1998). The effects of focal anterior and posterior brain lesions on verbal fluency. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 265–278.
Stuss, D. T., Toth, J. P., Franchi, D. et al. (1999). Dissociation of attentional processes in patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions. Neuropsychologia, 37, 1005–1027.
Stuss, D. T., van Reekum, R., & Murphy, K. J. (2000). Differentiation of states and causes of apathy. In J. Borod (Ed.), The Neuropsychology of Emotion (pp. 340–363). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Stuss, D. T., Floden, D., Alexander, M. P., Levine, B., & Katz, D. (2001a). Stroop performance in focal lesion patients: dissociation of processes and frontal lobe lesion location. Neuropsychologia, 39, 771–786.
Stuss, D. T., Gallup, G. G. J., & Alexander, M. P. (2001b). The frontal lobes are necessary for “theory of mind”. Brain, 124, 279–286.
Stuss, D. T., Picton, T. W., & Alexander, M. P. (2001c). Consciousness, self-awareness, and the frontal lobes. In S. P. Salloway & P. F. Malloy (Eds.), The Frontal Lobes and Neuropsychiatric Illness (pp. 101–109). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Stuss, D. T., Binns, M. A., Murphy, K. J., & Alexander, M. P. (2002). Dissociations within the anterior attentional system: effects of task complexity and irrelevant information on reaction time speed and accuracy. Neuropsychology, 16, 500–513.
Stuss, D. T., Murphy, K. J., Binns, M. A., & Alexander, M. P. (2003). Staying on the job: the frontal lobes control individual performance variability. Brain, 126, 2363–2380.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Shallice, T. et al. (2005a). Multiple frontal systems controlling response speed. Neuropsychologia, 43, 396–417.
Stuss, D. T., Rosenbaum, R. S., Malcolm, S., Christiana, W., & Keenan, J. P. (2005b). The frontal lobes and self-awareness. In T. E. Feinberg & J. P. Keenan (Eds.), The Lost Self: Pathologies of the Brain and Identity (pp. 50–64). London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Stuss, D. T., Robertson, I. H., Craik, F. I. M. et al. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: a randomized trial to evaluate a new protocol. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 120–131.
Tucha, O., Smely, C., Preier, M., & Lange, K. W. (2000). Cognitive deficits before treatment among patients with brain tumors. Neurosurgery, 47, 324–333.
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology, 26, 1–12.
Turner, G. R., & Levine, B. (2004). Disorders of executive function and self-awareness. In J. Ponsford (Ed.), Rehabilitation of Neurobehavioral Disorders (pp. 224–268). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Vallesi, A., Shallice, T., & Walsh, V. (2007). Role of the prefrontal cortex in the foreperiod effect. TMS evidence for dual mechanisms in temporal preparation. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 466–474.
van Hooren, S. A., Valentijn, S. A., Bosma, H. et al. (2006). Effect of a structured course involving goal management training in older adults: a randomised controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 65, 205–213.
van Reekum, R., Bayley, M., Garner, S. et al. (1995). N of 1 study: amantadine for the amotivational syndrome in a patient with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 9, 49–53.
van Reekum, R., Stuss, D. T., & Ostrander, L. (2005). Apathy: Why care? Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 7–19.
von Cramon, D. Y., & Matthes von Cramon, G. (1994). Back to work with a chronic dysexecutive syndrome? (A case report). Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 4, 399–417.
von Cramon, D. Y., Matthes von Cramon, G., & Mai, N. (1991). Problem-solving deficits in brain-injured patients. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1, 45–64.
Walker-Batson, D., Smith, P., Curtis, S., Unwin, H., & Greenlee, R. (1995). Amphetamine paired with physical therapy accelerates motor recovery after stroke. Further evidence. Stroke, 26, 2254–2259.
Webb, P. M., & Glueckauf, R. L. (1994). The effects of direct involvement in goal setting on rehabilitation outcome for persons with traumatic brain injuries. Rehabilitation Psychology, 39, 179–188.
Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T., & Tulving, E. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: the frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 331–354.
Wilkins, A. J., Shallice, T., & McCarthy, R. (1987). Frontal lesions and sustained attention. Neuropsychologia, 25, 359–365.
Woods, D. L., & Knight, R. T. (1986). Electrophysiologic evidence of increased distractibility after dorsolateral prefrontal lesions. Neurology, 36, 212–216.
Youngjohn, J. F., & Altman, I. M. (1989). A performance-based group approach to the treatment of anosagnosia and denial. Rehabilitation Psychology, 34, 217–222.
Zhou, J., Chittum, R., Johnson, K. et al. (1996). The utilization of a game format to increase knowledge of residuals among people with acquired brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 11, 51–61.

References

Abikoff, H. B., Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. et al. (2002). Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 349–359.
Anderson, S. W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 1032–1037.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.
Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255, 556–559.
Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 21, 65–94.
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of Childhood Disorders (2nd Edition). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2004). Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview of empirically based treatments. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 10, 39–56.
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 192–202.
Bauermeister, J. J., Matos, M., Reina, G. et al. (2005). Comparison of the DSM-IV combined and inattentive types of ADHD in a school-based sample of Latino/Hispanic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 166–179.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2000). Emotion, decision-making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 295–307.
Beers, S. R., Skold, A., Dixon, C. E., & Adelson, P. D. (2005). Neurobehavioral effects of amantadine after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a preliminary report. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 450–463.
Berlin, L., Bohlin, G., Nyberg, L., & Janols, L. (2004). How well do measures of inhibition and other executive functions discriminate between children with ADHD and controls? Child Neuropsychology, 10, 1–13.
Bijur, P., Golding, J., Haslum, M., & Kurzon, M. (1988). Behavioral predictors of injury in school-age children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 142, 1307–1312.
Bittigau, P., Sifringer, M., Pohl, D. et al. (1999). Apoptotic neurodegeneration following trauma is markedly enhanced in the immature brain. Annals of Neurology, 45, 724–735.
Borkowski, J. G., Burke, J. E., Lyon, G. R., & Krasnegor, N. A. (1996). Theories, models, and measurements of executive functioning: an information processing perspective. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 235–262). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Braver, T. S., Cohen, J. D., Nystrom, L. E. et al. (1997). A parametric study of prefrontal cortex involvement in human working memory. Neuroimage, 5, 49–62.
Brodeur, D. A., & Pond, M. (2001). The development of selective attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 229–239.
Brown, T. T., Lugar, H. M., Coalson, R. S. et al. (2004). Developmental changes in human cerebral functional organization for word generation. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 275–290.
Bull, R., & Scerif, G. (2001). Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematics ability: inhibition, switching, and working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 273–293.
Bunge, S. A., Ochsner, K. N., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Prefrontal regions involved in keeping information in and out of mind. Brain, 124, 2074–2086.
Cabeza, R., & Nyberg, L. (2000). Imaging cognition II: an empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1–47.
Case, R. (1992). The role of the frontal lobes in the regulation of cognitive development. Brain and Cognition, 20, 51–73.
Casey, B. J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N. et al. (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 374–383.
Casey, B. J., Tottenham, N., & Fossella, J. (2002). Clinical, imaging, lesion, and genetic approaches toward a model of cognitive control. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 237–254.
Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., & Berquin, P. C. (2001). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imagining in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 289–295.
Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W. et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1740–1748.
Catroppa, C., & Anderson, V. (2003). Children’s attentional skills 2 years post-traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 359–373.
Chronis, A. M., Jones, H. A., & Raggi, V. L. (2006). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 486–502.
Collette, F., & van der Linden, M. (2002). Brain imaging of the central executive component of working memory. Neuroscience Biobehavior Reviews, 26, 105–125.
Crone, E. A., & van der Molen, M. W. (2004). Developmental changes in real life decision making: performance on a gambling task previously shown to depend on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 251–279.
Davidson, D. (1991). Children’s decision-making examined with an information-board procedure. Cognitive Deve-lopment, 6, 77–90.
De Bellis, M. D., Keshavan, M. S., Clark, D. B. et al. (1999). Bennett research award. Developmental traumatology. Part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1271–1284.
Demetre, J. D., Lee, D. N., Pitcairn, T. K., & Grieve, R. (1992). Errors in young children’s decisions about traffic gaps: experiments with roadside simulations. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 189–202.
Denckla, M. B. (1996). A theory and model of executive function: a neuropsychological perspective. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 263–278). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Dennis, M., Wilkinson, M., Koski, L., & Humphreys, R. P. (1995). Attention deficits in the long term after childhood head injury. In S. H. Broman & M. E. Michel (Eds.), Traumatic Head Injury in Children (pp. 165–187). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Dennis, M., Guger, S., Roncadin, C., Barnes, M., & Schachar, R. (2001). Attentional-inhibitory control and social-behavioral regulation after childhood closed head injury: do biological, developmental, and recovery variables predict outcome? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 683–692.
Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Diamond, A. (2005). Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): a neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity). Developmental Psychopathology, 17, 807–825.
DuPaul, G. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1997). The effects of school-based interventions for ADHD: a meta-analysis. School Psychology Digest, 26, 5–27.
Durston, S. (2003). A review of the biological bases of ADHD: what have we learned from imaging studies? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 184–195.
Durston, S., Hulshoff, P. H. E., Casey, B. J. et al. (2001). Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1012–1020.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., & Maszk, P. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children’s social functioning: a longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1360–1384.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A. et al. (2000). Predictions of elementary school children’s externalizing problem behaviors from attentional and behavioral regulation and negative emotionality. Child Development, 71, 1367–1382.
Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143–149.
Eslinger, P. J., & Damasio, A. R. (1985). Severe disturbance of higher cognition after bilateral frontal lobe ablation: Patient EVR. Neurology, 35, 1731–1741.
Ewing-Cobbs, L., Prasad, M. R., Landry, S. H., Kramer, L., & DeLeon, R. (2004). Executive functions following traumatic brain injury in young children: a preliminary analysis. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 487–512.
Fuggetta, G. P. (2006). Impairment of executive functions in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 12, 1–21.
Gaillard, W. D., Hertz-Pannier, L., Mott, S. H. et al. (2000). Functional anatomy of cognitive development: fMRI of verbal fluency in children and adults. Neurology, 54, 180–185.
Garon, N., & Moore, C. (2004). Complex decision making in early childhood. Brain and Cognition, 55, 158–170.
Garon, N., Moore, C., & Waschbusch, D. A. (2006). Decision making in children with ADHD only, ADHD-anxious/depressed, and control children using a child version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9, 607–619.
Gathercole, S. E., & Alloway, T. P. (2006). Practitioner review: short-term and working memory impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders: diagnosis and remedial support. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 4–15.
Gerardi-Caulton, G. (2000). Sensitivity to spatial conflict and the development of self-regulation in children 24–36 months of age. Developmental Science, 3, 397–404.
Gerring, J. P., Brady, K. D., Chen, A. et al. (1998). Premorbid prevalence of ADHD and development of secondary ADHD after closed head injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 647–654.
Gerring, J., Brady, K., Chen, A. et al. (2000). Neuroimaging variables related to development of secondary attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after closed head injury in children and adolescents. Brain Injury, 14, 205–218.
Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2–7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53, 129–153.
Giedd, J. N., Castellanos, F. X., & Casey, B. J. (1994). Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 665–669.
Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O. et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861–863.
Gioia, G. A., & Isquith, P. K. (2004). Ecological assessment of executive function in traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 135–158.
Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Retzlaff, P. D., & Espy, K. A. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a clinical sample. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 249–257.
Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L. et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 8174–8179.
Goldberg, M. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Cutting, L. E. et al. (2005). Subtle executive impairment in children with autism and children with ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 279–293.
Goldman, P. S. (1974). Functional recovery after lesions of the nervous system. 3. Developmental processes in neural plasticity. Recovery of function after CNS lesions in infant monkeys. Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin, 12, 217–222.
Graham, D. I., Gennarelli, T. A., & McIntosh, T. R. (2002). Trauma. In D. I. Graham & P. L. Lantos (Eds.), Greenfield’s Neuropathology (7th Edition) (pp. 823–897). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Lyon, G. R., & Krasnegor, N. A. (1996). Addressing problems in attention, memory, and executive functioning: an example from self-regulated strategy development. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 349–366). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, Publishing Co.
Grattan, L. M., & Eslinger, P. J. (1992). Long-term psychological consequences of childhood frontal lobe lesion in patient DT. Brain and Cognition, 20, 185–195.
Hanten, G., Scheibel, R. S., Li, X. et al. (2006). Decision-making after traumatic brain injury in children: a preliminary study. Neurocase, 12, 247–251.
Harnishfeger, K. K., & Pope, R. S. (1996). Intending to forget: the development of cognitive inhibition in directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 62, 292–315.
Heaton, H. K. (1981). A Manual for the Wisconsin Card Sort Test. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Herskovits, E. H., Megalooikonomou, V., Davatzikos, C. et al. (1999). Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury predictive of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Analysis with brain-image database. Radiology, 213, 389–394.
Hill, D. E., Yeo, R. A., Campbell, R. A. et al. (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 496–506.
Hornyak, J. E., Nelson, V. S., & Hurvitz, E. A. (1997). The use of methylphenidate in paediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 1, 15–17.
Hoza, B., Mrug, S., Gerdes, A. C. et al. (2005). What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 411–423.
Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Novey, E. S. et al. (1993). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Child Neurology, 8, 339–347.
Jensen, S., & Rosen, L. A. (2004). Emotional reactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8, 53–61.
Jin, C., & Schachar, R. (2004). Methylphenidate treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder secondary to traumatic brain injury: a critical appraisal of treatment studies. CNS Spectroscopy, 9, 217–226.
Kail, R. (1991). Developmental change in speed of processing during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 490–501.
Kates, W. R., Frederikse, M., Mostofsky, S. H. et al. (2002). MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 116, 63–81.
Kerr, A., & Zelazo, P. D. (2004). Development of “hot” executive function: the children’s gambling task. Brain and Cognition, 55, 148–157.
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R. et al. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716–723.
Kibby, M. Y., Cohen, M. J., & Hynd, G. W. (2002). Clock face drawing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 531–546.
Kipp, K. (2005). A developmental perspective on the measurement of cognitive deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1256–1260.
Kochanek, P. M., Clark, R. S. B., Ruppel, R. A. et al. (2000). Biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms in the evolution of secondary damage after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children: lessons learned from the bedside. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 1, 4–19.
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1091.
Konrad, K., Gauggel, S., Manz, A., & Schoell, M. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain Injury, 14, 859–875.
Koriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). Monitoring and control processes in the strategic regulation of memory accuracy. Psychological Review, 103, 490–517.
Kurtz, B. E., & Borkowski, J. G. (1987). Development of strategic skills in impulsive and reflective children: a longitudinal study of metacognition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 43, 129–148.
Lawrence, V., Houghton, S., Douglas, G. et al. (2004). Executive function and ADHD: a comparison of children’s performance during neuropsychological testing and real-world activities. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7, 137–149.
Lee, Z. I., Byun, W. M., Jang, S. H. et al. (2003). Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of microstructural abnormalities in children with brain injury. American Journal of Medical Rehabilitation, 82, 556–559.
Lehto, J. E., & Elorinne, E. (2003). Gambling as an executive function task. Applied Neuropsychology, 10, 234–238.
Levin, I. P., & Hart, S. (2003). Risk preferences in young children: early evidence of individual differences in reaction to potential gains and losses. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16, 397–413.
Levin, H. S., Culhane, K. A., & Hartmann, J. (1991). Developmental changes in performance on tests of purported frontal lobe functioning. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 377–395.
Levin, H. S., Culhane, K. A., Mendelsohn, D. et al. (1993). Cognition in relation to MRI in head injured children and adolescents. Archives of Neurology, 50, 897–905.
Levin, H. S., Mendelsohn, D., Lilly, M. et al. (1994). Tower of London performance in relation to magnetic resonance imaging following closed head injury in children. Neuropsychology, 8, 171–179.
Levin, H. S., Benavidez, D. A., Verger-Maestre, K. et al. (2000). Reduction of corpus callosum growth after severe traumatic brain injury in children. Neurology, 54, 647–653.
Levin, H. S., Song, J. X., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Chapman, S. B., & Mendelsohn, D. (2001a). Word fluency in relation to severity of closed head injury, associated frontal brain lesions, and age at injury in children. Neuropsychologia, 39, 122–131.
Levin, H. S., Song, J. X., Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Roberson, G. (2001b). Porteus maze performance following traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 4, 557–567.
Levin, H. S., Hanten, G., Chang, C. C. et al. (2002). Working memory after traumatic brain injury in children. Annals of Neurology, 52, 82–88.
Levin, H. S., Hanten, G., Zhang, L. et al. (2004a). Changes in working memory after traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 18, 240–247.
Levin, H. S., Zhang, L., Dennis, M. et al. (2004b). Psychosocial outcome of TBI in children with unilateral frontal lesions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 305–316.
Logan, G. D. (1994). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A users’ guide to the stop signal paradigm. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory Processes in Attention, Memory, and Language (pp. 189–239). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Loo, S. K., & Barkley, R. A. (2005). Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Neuropsychology, 12, 64–76.
Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., Bruhn, P., Borner, H., & Nielsen, J. B. (1989). Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Neurology, 46, 48–52.
Luciana, M., & Nelson, C. A. (1998). The functional emergence of prefrontally-guided working memory systems in four- to eight-year-old children. Neuropsychologia, 36, 273–293.
Luna, B., Thulborn, K. R., Munoz, D. P. et al. (2001). Maturation of widely distributed brain function subserves cognitive development. Neuroimage, 13, 786–793.
Mahalick, D. M., Carmel, P. W., Greenberg, J. P. et al. (1998). Psychopharmacologic treatment of acquired attention disorders in children with brain injury. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 29, 121–126.
Mahone, E., Zabel, T., Levey, E., Verda, M., & Kinsman, S. (2002). Parent and self-report ratings of executive function in adolescents with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 258–270.
Mangeot, S., Armstrong, K., Colvin, A. N., Yeates, K. O., & Taylor, H. G. (2002). Long-term executive function deficits in children with traumatic brain injuries: assessment using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Child Neuropsychology, 8, 271–284.
Marlowe, W. B. (2000). An intervention for children with disorders of executive functions. Developmental Neuropsychology, 18, 445–454.
Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (2006). Treatment of Childhood Disorders (3rd Edition). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Max, J. E., Lansing, A. E., Koele, S. L. et al. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents following traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 159–177.
Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys: linkages with social behaviors and peer preference. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 73–86.
Mendelsohn, D., Levin, H. S., Bruce, D. et al. (1992). Late MRI after head injury in children: relationship to clinical features and outcome. Childs Nervous System, 8, 445–452.
Metcalfe, J., & Shimamura, A. P. (1994). Metacognition: Knowing About Knowing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167–202.
Mitterschiffthaler, M. T., Ettinger, U., Mehta, M. A., Mataix-Cols, D., & Williams, S. C. (2006). Applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 23, 851–861.
Monastra, V. J. (2004). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 55–82.
Mostofsky, S. H., Reiss, A. L., Lockhart, P., & Denckla, M. B. (1998). Evaluation of cerebellar size in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 434–439.
Mulas, F., Capilla, A., Fernández, S. et al. (2006). Shifting-related brain magnetic activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 373–379.
Munson, S., Schroth, E., & Ernst, M. (2006). The role of functional neuroimaging in pediatric brain injury. Pediatrics, 117, 1372–1381.
Nagy, Z., Westerberg, H., Skare, S. et al. (2003). Preterm children have disturbances of white matter at 11 years of age as shown by diffusion tensor imaging. Pediatric Research, 54, 672–679.
Neil, J., Miller, J., Mukherjee, P., & Huppi, P. S. (2002). Diffusion tensor imaging of normal and injured developing human brain: a technical review. NMR Biomedicine, 15, 543–552.
Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Huang-Pollock, C. L., & Huang-Pollock, C. L. (2002). Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 59–66.
Nigg, J. T., Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2005). Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1224–1230.
O’Driscoll, G. A., Depatie, L., Holahan, A. L. et al. (2005). Executive functions and methylphenidate response in subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1452–1460.
Overman, W. H. (2004). Sex differences in early childhood, adolescence, and adulthood on cognitive tasks that rely on orbital prefrontal cortex. Brain and Cognition, 55, 134–147.
Passolunghi, M. C., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Short-term memory, working memory, and inhibitory control in children with difficulties in arithmetic problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 44–57.
Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.
Pennington, B. F., Bennetto, L., McAleer, O. et al. (1996). Executive functions and working memory. Theoretical and measurement issues. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 327–348). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Price, B. H., Daffner, K. R., Stowe, R. M., & Mesulam, M. M. (1990). The comportmental learning disabilities of early frontal lobe damage. Brain, 113, 1383–1393.
Rhodes, S. M., Coghill, D. R., & Matthews, K. (2005). Neuropsychological functioning in stimulant-naive boys with hyperkinetic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1109–1120.
Rolls, E. T. (2000). The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 284–294.
Romine, C. B., Lee, D., Wolfe, M. E. et al. (2004). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test with children: a meta-analytic study of sensitivity and specificity. Archives of Clinical Neurop-sychology, 19, 1027–1041.
Rosa-Neto, P., Lou, H. C., Cumming, P. et al. (2005). Methylphenidate-evoked changes in striatal dopamine correlate with inattention and impulsivity in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroimage, 25, 868–876.
Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E. et al. (2000). Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 13–19.
Schachar, R. J., Levin, H. S., Max, J. E., Purvis, K. L., & Chen, S. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and response inhibition after closed head injury in children: do preinjury behavior and injury severity predict outcome? Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 179–198.
Scheres, A., Oosterlaan, J., Geurts, H. et al. (2004). Executive functioning in boys with ADHD: Primarily an inhibition deficit? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 569–594.
Scheres, A., Dijkstra, M., Ainslie, E. et al. (2006). Temporal and probablistic discounting of rewards in children and adolescents effects of age and ADHD symptoms. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2092–2103.
Schultz, W., Tremblay, L., & Hollerman, J. R. (2000). Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 272–283.
Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., & Filipek, P. (1994). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: magnetic resonance imaging morphometric analysis of the corpus callosum. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 875–881.
Serra-Grabulosa, J. M., Junque, C., Verger, K. et al. (2005). Cerebral correlates of declarative memory dysfunctions in early traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76, 129–131.
Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 298, 199–209.
Shallice, T., & Burgess, P. W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727–741.
Shallice, T., Marzocchi, G. M., Coser, S. et al. (2002). Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21, 43–71.
Sheline, Y. I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338–352.
Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. M. (2003). Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily life: links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74, 1869.
Slomine, B. S., Gerring, J. P., Grados, M. A. et al. (2002). Performance on measures of executive function following pediatric traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 16, 759–772.
Solanto, M. V. (2002). Dopamine dysfunction in AD/HD: integrating clinical and basic neuroscience research. Behavioral Brain Research, 130, 65–71.
Swanson, H. L. (1999). What develops in working memory? A life span perspective. Developmental Psychology, 35, 986–1000.
Swanson, H. L., & Sachse-Lee, C. (2001). Mathematical problem solving and working memory in children with learning disabilities: both executive and phonological processes are important. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 294–321.
Tasker, R. C., Salmond, C. H., Westland, A. G. et al. (