Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 30 - Surgical treatment of fecal incontinence

from Section 4 - Urogynecology


1. RockwoodTH. Incontinence severity and QOL scales for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S106–113.
2. AbramsP, AnderssonKE, Birder, L, et al. Fourth international consultation on incontinence recommendations of the international scientific committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn 2010;29:213–240.
3. RockwoodTH, ChurchJM, FleshmanJW, et al. Fecal incontinence quality of life scale. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:9–16.
4. AgachanF, ChenT, PfeiferJ, et al. A constipation scoring system to simplify evaluation and management of constipated patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:681–685.
5. MinerPB. Economic and personal impact of fecal and urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S175–179.
6. SofferEE, HullT. Fecal incontinence: a practical approach to evaluation and treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1873–1880.
7. BrownSR, WadhawanH, NelsonRL. Surgery for fecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(7):CD001757.
8. SolomonMJ, PagerCK, RexJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback with anal manometry, transanal ultrasound, or pelvic floor retraining with digital guidance alone in the treatment of mild to moderate fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:703–710.
9. BlissDZ, FischerLR, SavikK, et al. Severity of fecal incontinence in community-living elderly in a health maintenance organization. Res Nurs Health 2004;27:162–173.
10. MellgrenA, JensonLL, ZetterströmJP, et al. Long-term cost of fecal incontinence secondary to obstetric injuries. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:857–865.
11. Bladder and Bowel Foundation. Making the Case for an Integrated Continence Service. Kettering, UK: Bladder and Bowel Foundation, 2000.
12. WangJY, PattersonTR, HartSL, et al. Age-related factors in fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:426–431.
13. ChassagneP, LandrinI, NeveuC, et al. Fecal incontinence in the institutionalized elderly: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis. Am J Med 1999;106:185–190.
14. LunnissPJ, GladmanMA, HetzerFH, et al. Risk factors in acquired faecal incontinence. J R Soc Med 2004;97:111–116.
15. PratherCM. Physiologic variables that predict the outcome of treatment for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S135–140.
16. HymanN. Incontinence after lateral internal sphincterotomy: a prospective study and quality of life assessment. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:35–38.
17. WarshawJS. Obstetric anal sphincter injury: incidence, risk factors, and repair. Semin Colon Rect Surg 2001;12:90–97.
18. RaoSSC. Pathophysiology of adult fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S14–22.
19. BharuchaAE. Outcome measures for fecal incontinence: anorectal structure and function. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S90–S98.
20. DiamantNE, KammMA, WaldA, et al. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on anorectal testing techniques. Gastroenterology 1999;116:732–760.
21. KepenekciI, KeskinkilicB, AkinsuF, et al. Prevalence of pelvic floor disorders in the female population and the impact of age, mode of delivery and parity. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:85–94.
22. de ParadesV, EtienneyI, ThabutD, et al. Anal sphincter injury after forceps delivery: myth or reality?Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:24–34.
23. MellgrenA, PollackJ, ZetterstromJP. Evaluation of anal incontinence. Semin Colon Rect Surg 2001;12:75–82.
24. LibermanH, FariaJ, TernentCA, et al. A prospective evaluation of the value of anorectal physiology in the management of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1567–1574.
25. OberwalderM, ThalerK, BaigMK, et al. Anal ultrasound and endosonographic measurement of perineal body thickness: a new evaluation for fecal incontinence in females. Surg Endosc 2004;18:650–654.
26. BollardRC, GardinerA, LindowS, et al. Normal female anal sphincter difficulties in interpretation explained. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:171–175.
27. GoldDM, HalliganS, KmiotWA, et al. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in anal endosonography. Br J Surg 1999;86:371–375.
28. BordeianouL, LeeKY, RockwoodT, et al. Anal resting pressure at manometry correlate with fecal incontinence severity index and with presence of sphincter defects on ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:1010–1014.
29. ReddymasuSC, SinghS, WaheedS, et al. Comparison of anorectal manometry to endoanal ultrasound in the evaluation of fecal incontinence. Am J of Med Science 2009;337:336–339.
30. ScarlettY. Medical management of fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S55–S63.
31. MillsK, Chess-WilliamsR. Pharmacology of the internal anal sphincter and its relevance to faecal incontinence. Auton Autacoid Pharm 2009;29:85–95.
32. CheethanMJ, BrazzelliM, NortonCC, GlazenerCM. Drug treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(6):CD002116.
33. WhiteheadWE, WaldA, NortonNJ. Treatment options for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:131–142.
34. JensenLL, LowryAC. Biofeedback improves functional outcome after sphincteroplasty. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40;197–200.
35. BarlettL, SlootsK, NowakM, et al. Biofeedback for fecal incontinence: a randomized study comparing exercise regimens. Dis Colon Rectum 2011, 54:846–856.
36. NortonC. Behavioral management of fecal incontinence in adults. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S64–S70.
37. SchwanderT, KonigIR, HeimerlT, et al. Triple target treatment (3T) is more effective than biofeedback alone for anal incontinence: the 3T-AI study. Dis Colon Rectum 2010;53:1007–1016.
38. NortonCC, CodyJD, HoskerG. Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;(7): CD002111.
39. MahonyR, BehanM, O'HerlihyC, et al. Randomized, clinical trial of bowel confinement vs. laxative use after primary repair of a third-degree obstetric anal sphincter tear. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:12–17.
40. RiegerN. Surgical intervention for faecal incontinence in women: an update. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14:545–548.
41. MadoffRD. Surgical treatment options for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126:S48–S54.
42. KarouiS, LeroiAM, KoningE, et al. Results of sphincteroplasty in 86 patients with anal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:813–820.
43. GillilandR, AltomareDF, MoreiraH, et al. Pudendal neuropathy is predictive of failure following anterior overlapping sphincteroplasty. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:1516–1522.
44. ChenAS, LuchtefeldMA, SenagoreAJ, et al. Pudendal nerve latency: does it predict outcome of anal sphincter repair?Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:1005–1009.
45. TernentCA, ShashidharanM, BlatchfordGJ, et al. Transanal ultrasound and anorectal physiology findings affecting continence after sphincteroplasty. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:462–467.
46. HalversonAL, HullTL. Long-term outcome of overlapping anal sphincter repair. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:345–348.
47. ZutshiM, HullT, BastJ, et al. Ten-year outcome after anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2009;52:1089–1094.
48. RissS, StiftA, TelkyB, et al. Long-term anorectal and sexual function after overlapping anterior anal sphincter repair: a case match study. Dis Colon Rectum 2009;52:1095–1100.
49. ChapmanAE, GeerdesB, HewettP, et al. Systematic review of dynamic graciloplasty in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 2002;89:138–153.
50. BuieWD. Dynamic graciloplasty for fecal incontinence: the current status. Semin Colon Rect Surg 2001;12:108–114.
51. MellgrenA, WexnerS, CollerJA, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:1065–1075.
52. WongWD, CongilosiSM, SpencerMP, et al. The safety and efficacy of the artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence: results from a multi-center cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:1139–1153.
53. WongMT, MeuretteG, StandherlinP, et al. The magnetic anal sphincter versus the artificial bowel sphincter: a comparison of 2 treatments for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:773–779.
54. MundyL, MerlinTL, MaddernGJ, et al. Systematic review of safety and effectiveness of an artificial bowel sphincter for faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 2004;91:665–672.
55. MaedaY, MatzelK, LundbyL, et al. Post operative issues of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation: A systematic literature review and treatment guideline. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:1443–1460.
56. TanE, NgoN, DarziA, et al. Meta-analysis: sacral nerve stimulation versus conservative therapy in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Int J Colorectal Dis 2011;26:275–294.
57. BoyleDJ, MurphyJ, GooneratneML, et al. Efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:1271–1278.
58. JarrettMED, MowattG, GlazenerCMA, et al. Systematic review of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence and constipation. Br J Surg 2004;91:1559–1569.
59. MatzelKE, StadelmaierU, HohenbergerW. Innovations in fecal incontinence: sacral nerve stimulation. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:1720–1728.
60. LimJT, HastieIA, HiscockRJ, et al. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: long-term outcomes. Dis Colon Rectum 2011;54:969–974.
61. MaedaY, LarubergS, NortonC. Perianal injectable bulking agents as treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(2):CD007959.
62. TakahashiT, Garcia-OsogobioS, ValdovinosMA, et al. Radio-frequency energy delivery to the anal canal for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:915–922.
63. EfronJE, CormanML, FleshmanJ, et al. Safety and effectiveness of temperature-controlled radio-frequency energy delivery to the anal canal (Secca procedure) for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:1606–1616.
64. RuizDR, PintoRA, HullTL, et al. Does the radiofrequency procedure for fecal incontinence improve quality of life and incontinence at 1-year follow-up?Dis Colon Rectum 2010;53:1041–1046.
65. Takahashi-MonroyT, MoralesM, Garcia-OsogobioS, et al. SECCA procedure for the treatment of fecal incontinence: Results of five-year follow-up. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:355–359.