Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 61 - Secondary amenorrhea

from Section 8 - Infertility and reproductive endocrinology

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. GallinelliA, MatteoML, VolpeA, et al. Autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to stress in patients with functional hypothalamic secondary amenorrhea. Fertil Steril 2000;73:812–816.
2. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril 2004;82:266–272.
3. InslerV. Gonadotropin therapy: new trends and insights. Int J Fertil 1988;33:85–97.
4. WitchelSF, PlantTM. Puberty: gonadarche and adrenarche. In StraussJF, BarbieriRL (eds.) Yen & Jaffe’s Reproductive Endocrinology, 7th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2014, pp. 377–421.
5. BlumenkranzMJ, GallagherN, BashoreRA, et al. Retrograde menstruation in women undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Obstet Gynecol 1981;57:667–670.
6. PetterssonF, FriesH, NilliusSJ. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1973;117:80–86.
7. BachmannGA, KemmannE. Prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in a college population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144:98–102.
8. MavroudisK. Clinical syndromes of secondary amenorrhea. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;816:241–249.
9. HernandezI, Cervera-AguilarR, VergaraMD, et al. [Prevalence and etiology of secondary amenorrhea in a selected Mexican population.]Ginecol Obstet Mex 1999;67:374–376 [Spanish].
10. AndersonSE, DallalGE, MustA. Relative weight and race influence average age at menarche: results from two nationally representative surveys of US girls studied 25 years apart. Pediatrics 2003;111:844–850.
11. ChumleaWC, SchubertCM, RocheAF, et al. Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls. Pediatrics 2003;111:110–113.
12. SlapGB. Menstrual disorders in adolescence. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2003;17:75–92.
13. Herman-GiddensME, SloraEJ, WassermanRC, et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network. Pediatrics 1997;99:505–512.
14. ParentAS, TeilmannG, JuulA, et al. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Endocr Rev 2003;24:668–693.
15. ReindollarRH, NovakM, ThoSPT, et al. Adult-onset amenorrhea: a study of 262 patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;155:531–543.
16. BisagaK, PetkovaE, ChengJ, et al. Menstrual functioning and psychopathology in a county-wide population of high school girls. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002;41:1197–1204.
17. la MarcaA, MorganteG, de LeoV. Evaluation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes. Hum Reprod 1999;14:298–302.
18. KinonBJ, GilmoreJA, LiuH, et al. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenic patients treated with conventional antipsychotic medications or risperidone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2003;28:55–68.
19. KiddyDS, Hamilton-FairleyD, BushA, et al. Improvement in endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992;36:105–111.
20. ClarkAM, ThornleyB, TomlinsonL, et al. Weight loss in obese infertile women results in improvement in reproductive outcome for all forms of fertility treatment. Hum Reprod 1998;13:1502–1505.
21. ShermanBM, HalmiKA, ZamudioR. LH and FSH response to gonadotropin releasing hormone in anorexia nervosa: effect of nutritional rehabilitation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;41:135–142.
22. ChenEC, BrzyskiRG. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction. Fertil Steril 1999;71:1–6.
23. GoldenNH. Eating disorders in adolescence and their sequelae. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2003;17:57–73.
24. FerinM. Clinical review 105: stress and the reproductive cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1768–1774.
25. KallenbergGA, PesceCM, NormanB, et al. Ectopic hyperprolactinemia resulting from an ovarian teratoma. JAMA 1990;263:2472–2474.
26. TomlinsonJW, DraperN, MackieJ, et al. Absence of cushingoid phenotype in a patient with Cushing's disease due to defective cortisone to cortisol conversion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:57–62.
27. VegettiW, MarozziA, ManfrediniE, et al. Premature ovarian failure. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000;161(1–2):53–57.
28. CoulamCB, AdamsonSC, AnnegersJF. Incidence of premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:604–606.
29. SchenkerJG, MargaliothEJ. Intrauterine adhesions: an updated appraisal. Fertil Steril 1982;37:593–610.
30. AmatoP, RobertsAC. Transient ovarian failure: a complication of uterine artery embolization. Fertil Steril 2001;75:438–439.
31. DaviesC, GibsonM, HoltEM, et al. Amenorrhoea secondary to endometrial ablation and Asherman's syndrome following uterine artery embolization. Clin Radiol 2001;57:317–318.
32. KarosiM, SwamyMK. Secondary occupational amenorrhea. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2004;87:48–49.
33. AlzubaidiNH, ChapinHL, VanderhoofVH, et al. Meeting the needs of young women with secondary amenorrhea and spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:720–725.
34. KhalidA. Irregular or absent periods: what can an ultrasound scan tell you?Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2004;18:3–11.
35. LakhaniK, SeifalianAM, AtiomoWU, et al. Polycystic ovaries. Br J Radiol 2002;75:9–16.
36. CocciaME, BecattiniC, BraccoGL, et al. Pressure lavage under ultrasound guidance: a new approach for outpatient treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Fertil Steril 2001;75:601–606.
37. SalleB, GaucherandP, de Saint HilaireP, et al. Transvaginal sonohysterographic evaluation of intrauterine adhesions. J Clin Ultrasound 1999;27:131–134.
38. RaberW, GesslA, NowotnyP, et al. Hyperprolactinaemia in hypothyroidism: clinical significance and impact of TSH normalization. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003;58:185–191.
39. YazigiRA, QuinteroCH, SalamehWA. Prolactin disorders. Fertil Steril 1997;67:215–225.
40. SchlechteJA. Clinical practice. Prolactinoma. N Engl J Med 2003;349:2035–2041.
41. SchlechteJ, DolanK, ShermanB, et al. The natural history of untreated hyperprolactinemia: a prospective analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;68:412–418.
42. MolitchME. Clinical review 65: evaluation and treatment of the patient with a pituitary incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3.
43. DonovanLE, CorenblumB. The natural history of the pituitary incidentaloma. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:181–183.
44. KatznelsonL, AlexanderJM, KlibanskiA. Clinical review 45: clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:1089–1094.
45. KatznelsonL, AlexanderJM, BikkalHA, et al. Imbalanced follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit hormone biosynthesis in human pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:1343–1351.
46. HallWA, LucianoMG, DoppmanJL, et al. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in normal human volunteers: occult adenomas in the general population. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:817–828.
47. ReinckeM, AllolioB, SaegerW, et al. The "incidentaloma" of the pituitary gland. Is neurosurgery required?JAMA 1990;263:2772–2776.
48. BartCJ, FauserJM, TarlatzisBC, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Goup. Fertil Steril 2012;97:28–38.
49. BarbieriRL, RyanKJ. Hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans syndrome: a common endocrinopathy with distinct pathophysiologic features. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;147:90–101.
50. AzzizR, HincapieLA, KnochenhauerES, et al. Screening for 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia among hyperandrogenic women: a prospective study. Fertil Steril 1999;72:915–925.
51. WarrenMP, GoodmanLR. Exercise-induced endocrine pathologies. J Endocrinol Invest 2003;26:873–878.
52. MillerKK, KlibanskiA. Clinical review 106: amenorrheic bone loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1775–1783.
53. MuñozMT, ArgenteJ. Anorexia nervosa in female adolescents: endocrine and bone mineral density disturbances. Eur J Endocrinol 2002;147:275–286.
54. GrinspoonSK, FriedmanAJ, MillerKK, et al. Effects of a triphasic combination oral contraceptive containing norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in young women with osteopenia secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:3651–3656.
55. AdashiEY. Long-term gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist therapy: the evolving issue of steroidal "add-back" paradigms. Hum Reprod 1994;9:1380–1397.
56. ChouSH, ChamberlandJP, LiuX, et al. Leptin is an effective treatment for hypothalamic amenorrhea. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011;108:6586–6590.
57. BalenAH, BraatDD, WestC, et al. Cumulative conception and live birth rates after the treatment of anovulatory infertility: safety and efficacy of ovulation induction in 200 patients. Hum Reprod 1994;9:1563–1570.
58. RebarRW, ConnollyHV. Clinical features of young women with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea. Fertil Steril 1990;53:804.
59. ManuelM, KatayamaPK, JonesHW, Jr. The age of occurrence of gonadal tumors in intersex patients with a Y chromosome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;124:293–300.
60. TrocheV, HernandezE. Neoplasia arising in dysgenetic gonads. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1986;41:74–79.
61. PasquinoAM, PasseriF, PucarelliI, et al. Spontaneous pubertal development in Turner's syndrome. Italian Study Group for Turner's Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:1810–1813.
62. BidetM, BachelotA, BissaugeE. Resumption of ovarian function and pregnancies in 358 patients with premature ovarian failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:3864–3872.
63. NelsonLM. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl J Med 2009;306:606–614.
64. LamlT, HuberJC, AlbrechtAE, et al. Unexpected pregnancy during hormone-replacement therapy in a woman with elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels and amenorrhea. Gynecol Endocrinol 1999;13:89–92.
65. KreinerD, DroeschK, NavotD, et al. Spontaneous and pharmacologically induced remissions in patients with premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:926–928.
66. RosenGF, StoneSC, YeeB. Ovulation induction in women with premature ovarian failure: a prospective, crossover study. Fertil Steril 1992;57:448–449.
67. Van KasterenYM, HoekA, SchoemakerJ. Ovulation induction in premature ovarian failure: a placebo-controlled randomized trial combining pituitary suppression with gonadotropin stimulation. Fertil Steril 1995;64:273–278.
68. KarnisMF, ZimonAE, LalwaniSI, et al. Risk of death in pregnancy achieved through oocyte donation in patients with Turner syndrome: a national survey. Fertil Steril 2003;80:498–501.
69. BayramN, Van WelyM, KaaijkEM, et al. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2004;328:192–196.
70. WilcoxAJ, WeinbergCR, BairdDD. Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation: effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1517–1521.
71. KnowlerWC, Barrett-ConnorE, FowlerSE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393–403.
72. CarminaE, LoboR. Does metformin induce ovulation in normoandrogenic anovulatory women?Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1580–1584.
73. NestlerJE, JakubowiczDJ, EvansWS, et al. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1876–1880.
74. VandermolenDT, RattsVS, EvansWS, et al. Metformin increases the ovulatory rate and pregnancy rate from clomiphene citrate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are resistant to clomiphene citrate alone. Fertil Steril 2001;75:310–315.
75. MitwallyMF, CasperRF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305–309.
76. Al-OmariWR, SulaimanWR, Al-HadithiN. Comparison of two aromatas inhibitors in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2004;85:289–291.
77. SteinIF Sr. Duration of fertility following ovarian wedge resection: Stein–Leventhal syndrome. West J Surg Obstet Gynecol 1964;72:237–242.
78. DahlgrenE, JohanssonS, LindstedtG, et al. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome wedge resected in 1956 to 1965: a long-term follow-up focusing on natural history and circulating hormones. Fertil Steril 1992;57:505–513.
79. SolomonCG, HuFB, DunaifA, et al. Long or highly irregular menstrual cycles as a marker for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001;286:2421–2426.
80. NewMI, LorenzenF, LernerAJ, et al. Genotyping steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: hormonal reference data. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;57:320–326.