Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 65 - Perimenopause

from Section 8 - Infertility and reproductive endocrinology

References

1. US Census Bureau. 2010 Census Brief: Age and Sex Composition. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.
2. SoulesMR, ShermanS, ParrottE, et al. Stages of reproductive aging workshop (STRAW): executive summary. Menopause 2001;8:402–407.
3. Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Managing the Perimenopause [APGO Educational Series on Women’s Health Issues]. Washington, DC, Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2001, pp. 1–20.
4. FaddyMJ, GosdenRG, GougeonA, et al. Accelerated disappearance of ovarian follicles in mid-life: implications for forecasting menopause. Hum Reprod 1992;7:1342–1346.
5. McKinlaySM, BrambillaDJ, PosnerJG. The normal menopause transition. Maturitas 1992;14:103–115.
6. TreloarAE. Menstrual cyclicity and the pre-menopause. Maturitas 1981;3:249–264.
7. GoldEB, BrombergerJ, CrawfordS, et al. Factors associated with age at natural menopause in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. Am J Epidemiol 2000;153:865–874.
8. GroomeNP, IllingworthPJ, O’BrienM, et al. Measurement of dimeric inhibin B throughout the human menstrual cycle: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1401–1405.
9. SantoroN, BrownJR, AdelT, et al. Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1495–1501.
10. Hale, GE, Zhao, X, Hughes, CL, et al. Endocrine features of menstrual cycles in middle and late reproductive age and the menopausal transition classified according to the Staging of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:3060–3067.
11. Fanchin, R, Taieb, J, Lozano, DHM, et al. High reproducibility of serum anti-mullerian hormone measurements suggests a multi-staged follicular secretion and strengthens its role in the assessment of ovarian follicular status. Human Reproduction 2005;20:923–927.
12. AstrupK, OlivariusNF, MøllerS, et al. Menstrual bleeding patterns in pre- and perimenopausal women: a population-based prospective diary study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83:197–202.
13. TaylorSM, KinneyAM, KlineJK. Menopausal transition: predicting time to menopause for women 44 years or older from simple questions on menstrual variability. Menopause 2004;11:40–48.
14. Harlow, SD, Mirchell, ES, Crawford, S, et al. The ReSTAGE Collaboration: defining optimal bleeding criteria for onset of early menopausal transition. Fertil Steril 2008;89:129–140.
15. KaunitzAM. Gynecologic problems of the perimenopause: evaluation and treatment. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2002;29:455–473.
16. SperoffL, GlassR, KaseN. Menopause and the perimenopausal transition. In Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp. 673–748.
17. FarquharCM, LethabyA, SowterM, et al. An evaluation of risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal menstrual bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;81:525–529.
18. AshSJ, FarrellSA, FlowerdenG. Endometrial biopsy in DUB. J Reprod Med 1996;41:892–896.
19. Dijkhuizen, FPHLJ, Mol, BWJ, Brolmann, HAM, Heintz, APM. The accuracy of endometrial sampling in the diagnosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia: a meta-analysis. Cancer 2000;89:1765–1772.
20. FeldmanS, BerkowitzRS, TostesonANA. Cost-effectiveness of strategies to evaluate postmenopausal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:968–975.
21. GoldsteinSR, ZeltserI, HoranCK, et al. Ultrasonography-based triage for perimenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:102–108.
22. BernardJP, RizkE, CamatteS, et al. Saline contrast sonohysterography in the preoperative assessment of benign intrauterine disorders. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;17:145–149.
23. Clevenger-HoeftM, SyropCH, StovallDW, et al. Sonohysterography in premenopausal women with and without abnormal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:516–520.
24. BronzL, SuterT, RuscaT. The value of transvaginal sonography with and without saline instillation in the diagnosis of uterine pathology in pre- and postmenopausal women with abnormal bleeding or suspect sonographic findings. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;9:53–58.
25. deVriesLD, DijkhuizenFP, MolBWJ, et al. Comparison of transvaginal sonography, saline infusion sonography, and hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. J Clin Ultrasound 2000;28:217–223.
26. FarquharC, EkeromaA, FurnessS, et al. A systematic review of transvaginal ultrasonography, sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for the investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82:493–504.
27. GaucherandP, PiacenzaJM, SalleB, RudigozRC. Sonohysterography of the uterine cavity: preliminary investigations. J Clin Ultrasound 1995;23:339–348.
28. WidrichT, BradleyLD, MitchinsonAR, et al. Comparison of saline infusion sonography with office hysteroscopy for the evaluation of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:1327–1334.
29. WilliamsCD, MarshburnPB. A prospective study of transvaginal hydrosonography in the evaluation of AUB. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:292–298.
30. O’ConnellLP, FriesMH, ZeringueE. Triage of abnormal postmenopausal bleeding: a comparison of endometrial biopsy and transvaginal sonohysterography versus fractional curettage with hysteroscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:956–961.
31. ValleRF. Office hysteroscopy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1999;42:276–289.
32. KaunitzAM. Oral contraceptive use in perimenopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:S32–S37.
33. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 136: management of abnormal uterine bleeding associated with ovulatory dysfunction. Obstet Gynecol 2013;122:176–185.
34. DavisA, GodwinA, LippmanJ, et al. Triphasic norgestimate-ethinylestradiol for treating dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:913–920.
35. KaunitzAM. Efficacy, cycle control, and safety of two triphasic oral contraceptives: Cyclessa (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol): a randomized trial. Contraception 2000;61:295–302.
36. KaunitzAM. Injectable contraception: new and existing options. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2000;27:741–780.
37. Pinkerton, JV. Pharmacological therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding. Menopause 2011;18:435–461.
38. LethabyAE, CookeI, ReesM. Progesterone/progestogen releasing intrauterine systems versus either placebo or any other medication for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD002126.
39. Haoula, ZJ, Walker, KF, Powell, MC. Levonorgestrel intra-uterine system as a treatment option for complex endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;159:176–179.
40. HurskainenR, TeperiJ, RissanenP, et al. Quality of life and cost-effectiveness of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus hysterectomy for treatment of menorrhagia: a randomized trial. Lancet 2001;357:273–277.
41. HubacherD, GrimesDA. Noncontraceptive health benefits of intrauterine devices: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2002;57:120–128.
42. Marret, H, Fauconnier, A, Chabbert-Buffet, N, et al. Clinical practice guidelines on menorrhagia: management of abnormal uterine bleeding before menopause. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;152:133–137.
43. Lethaby, A, Augood, C, Duckitt, K, FarquharC. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(1):CD000400.
44. BongersMY, BourdrezP, MolBW, HeintzAP, BrölmannHA. Randomized controlled trial of bipolar radio-frequency endometrial ablation and balloon endometrial ablation. BJOG 2004;111:1095–1102.
45. ClarkTJ, SamuelN, MalickS, et al. Bipolar radiofrequency compared with thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the office: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:109–118.
46. Kleijn, J, Engels, R, Bourdrez, P, Mol, B, BongersM. Five-year follow up of a randomised controlled trial comparing NovaSure and ThermaChoice endometrial ablation. BJOG 2008;115: 193–198.
47. LissakA, FruchterO, MashiachS, et al. Immediate versus delayed treatment of perimenopausal bleeding due to benign causes by balloon thermal ablation. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1999;6:145–150.
48. YinCS. Pregnancy after hysteroscopic endometrial ablation without endometrial preparation: a report of five cases and a literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2010;49:311–319.
49. HenshawSK. Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Fam Plann Perspect 1998;30:24–29.
50. ArcherD. Use of contraceptives for older women. In LoboRA (ed.) Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman: Basic and Clinical Aspects, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, pp. 83–92.
51. KemmerenJM, AlgraA, GrobbeeDE. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thrombosis: meta-analysis. BMJ 2001;323:131–134.
52. JickH, KayeJA, Vasilakis-ScaramozzaC, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel before and after 1995: cohort and case–control analysis. BMJ 2000;321:1190–1195.
53. MichaelssonK, BaronJA, FarahmandBY, et al. Oral-contraceptive use and risk of hip fracture: a case–control study. Lancet 1999;353:1481–1484.
54. BaradD, KooperbergC, Wactawski-WendeJ, et al. Prior oral contraception and postmenopausal fracture: a Women’s Health Initiative observational cohort study. Fertil Steril 2005;84:374–383.
55. SulakP, LippmanJ, SiuC, et al. Clinical comparison of triphasic norgestimate/35 μg ethinyl estradiol and monophasic norethindrone acetate/20 μg ethinyl estradiol: cycle control, lipid effects, and user satisfaction. Contraception 1999;59:161–166.
56. NarodSA, RischH, MoslehiR, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:424–428.
57. WhittemoreAS, BaliseRR, PharoahPD, et al. Oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk among carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Br J Cancer 2004;91:1911–1915.
58. NachtigallLE. The symptoms of perimenopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998;41:921–927.
59. CasperRF, DodinS, ReidRI, et al. The effect of 20 μg ethinyl estradiol/1 mg norethindrone acetate (Minestrin), a low-dose oral contraceptive, on vaginal bleeding patterns, hot flashes, and quality of life in symptomatic perimenopausal women. Menopause 1997;4:139–147.
60. Archer, DF, Sterdee, DW, Barber, R, et al. Menopausal hot flushes and night sweats: where are we now?Climacteric 2011;14:515–528.
61. ShulmanLP, HarariD. Low-dose transdermal estradiol for symptomatic perimenopause. Menopause 2004;11:34–39.
62. AlbertazzP. Non-estrogenic approaches for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Climacteric 2007;10:115–120.
63. LilueM, PalaciosS. Non-hormonal treatment for vasomotor symptoms during menopause: role of desvenlafaxine. Ginecol Obstet Mex 2009;77:475–481.
64. Jassim, GA. Strategies for managing hot flashes. J Family Pract 2011;60:333–339.
65. MedunickJI, CamachoPM, CobinRH, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Endocrine Pract 2010;16:270–283 (https://www.aace.com/files/gl-standards.pdf, accessed 1 December 2013).
66. KaunitzAM. Sexual pain and genital atrophy: breaking down barriers to recognition and treatment. Menopause Manag 2001;10:22–32.
67. CardozoL, BachmannG, McClishD, et al. Meta-analysis of estrogen therapy in the management of urogenital atrophy in postmenopausal women: second report of the Hormones and Urogenital Therapy Committee. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:722–727.
68. FreedmanM. Sexuality in post-menopausal women. Menopausal Med 2000;8:1–5.
69. RiouxJE, DevlinMC, GelfandMM, et al. 17-Beta-estradiol vaginal tablet versus conjugated equine estrogen vaginal cream to relieve menopausal atrophic vaginitis. Menopause 2000;7:156–161.
70. NotelovitzM. Urogenital atrophy and low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy (editorial). Menopause 2000;7:140–142.
71. GradyD, BrownJS, VittinghoffE, for the HERS Research Group. Postmenopausal hormones and incontinence: the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:116–120.
72. NessRB, KederLM, SoperDE, et al. Oral contraception and the recognition of endometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:580–585.
73. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin No. 129: osteoporosis. Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:718–734.
74. World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases. FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield (https://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/tool.aspx, accessed 22 January 2014).
75. North American Menopause Society. Estrogen and progestogen use in peri- and postmenopausal women: September 2003 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2003;10:497–506.
76. MenkenJ, TrussellJ, LarsenU. Age and infertility. Science 1986;233:1389–1394.
77. KleinJ, SauerMV. Assessing fertility in women of advanced reproductive age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:758–770.
78. JohnsonJ, CanningJ, KanekoT, et al. Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary. Nature 2004;428:145–150.
79. VenturaSJ, AbmaJC, MosherWD. Revised pregnancy rates, 1990–97, and new rates for 1998–99: United States. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2003;52:1–16.
80. TarlatzisBC, ZepiridisL. Perimenopausal conception. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;997:93–104.
81. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Technical Bulletin No. 210: health maintenance for perimenopausal women. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1995;51:171–181.
82. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 483: primary and preventive care, periodic assessments. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1008–1015.
83. Munir, JA, WuH, BauerK, et al. The perimenopausal atherosclerosis transition: relationships between calcified and noncalcified coronary, aortic, and carotid atherosclerosis and risk factors and hormone levels. Menopause 2012;19:10–15.
84. NestaresT, L-F MdeL, Diaz-CastroJ, Campos, MS, Lopez-FriasM, Evaluating the effectiveness of a weight-loss program for perimenopausal women. In J Vitam Nutr Res 2009;79:212–217.
85. HerringonDS, ReboussinD, BrosninanK, et al. Effects of estrogen replacement in progression of coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2000;343:522–529.
86. PriorJC. Ovarian aging and the perimenopausal transition: the paradox of endogenous ovarian hyperstimulation. Endocrine April 2005;26:297–300.
87. North American Menopause Society. From estrogen and progestogen use in peri- and postmenopausal women: March 2007 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2007;14:168–182.