Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 48 - Endometrial carcinoma

from Section 7 - Gynecological oncology

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. CreasmanW, OdicinoF, MaisonnenveP, et al. Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. J Epidemiol Biostat 1998;3:35–61.
2. FarhiDC, NosanchukJ, SilverbergSG. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in women under 25 years of age. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:741–745.
3. KaminskiPF, PodczaskiES. Premalignant and malignant conditions of the uterus. In HernandezE, AtkinsonBF (eds.) Clinical Gynecologic Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1995, pp. 287–359.
4. IrvinWP, RiceLW. Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review. J Reprod Med 2002;47:173–190.
5. XieX, Wei-GuoL, Da-FengY, et al. The value of curettage in diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. Gynecol Oncol 202;84:135–139.
6. BarakatRR. Contemporary issues in the management of endometrial cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 1998;48:299–314.
7. KaminskiPF, PodczaskiES. Benign conditions of the uterus. In HernandezE, AtkinsonBF (eds.) Clinical Gynecologic Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1995, pp. 223–286.
8. ChooY, NaylorB. Multiple primary neoplasms of the ovary and uterus. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1982;20:327–334.
9. EifelP, HendricksonM, RossJ, et al. Simultaneous presentation of carcinoma involving the ovary and the uterine corpus. Cancer 1982;50:163–170.
10. ZainoR, WhitneyC, BradyMF, et al. Simultaneously detected endometrial and ovarian carcinomas: a prospective clinicopathologic study of 74 cases: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:355–362.
11. MenkoFH, WijnenJT, VasenHFA, OosterwijkMH. Genetic counselling in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Oncology 1996;10:71–76.
12. LindorNM, PetersenGM, HadleyDW, et al. Recommendations for the care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to Lynch syndrome. JAMA 2006;296:1507–1517.
13. BrintonLA, BermanML, MortelR, et al. Reproductive, menstrual, and medical risk factors for endometrial cancer: results from a case–control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:1317–1325.
14. KalandiniA, TzonouA, LipwirthL, et al. Case–control study of endometrial cancer in relation to reproductive, somatometric, and life-style variables. Oncology 1996;53:354–359.
15. JickSS, WalkerAM, JickH. Oral contraceptives and endometrial cancers. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82:931–936.
16. CirisanoFD II, RobboySJ, DodgeRK, et al. Epidemiologic and surgicopathologic findings of papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared to endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1999;74:385–394.
17. DuntonC, BalsaraG, McFarlandM, et al. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1991;46:97–102.
18. ReddingtonL, HernandezE, BalsaraG, et al. The effectiveness of the Masterson curette in sampling the endometrial cavity. J Natl Med Assoc 1995;87:877–880.
19. Suh-BurgmanE, HungY-Y, ArmstrongMA. Complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia: the risk of unrecognized adenocarcinoma and value of preoperative dilation and curettage. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:523–529.
20. GimpelsonRJ, RappoldHO. A comparative study between panoramic hysteroscopy with directed biopsies and dilatation and curettage: a review of 276 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:489–492.
21. BaiocchiG, ManciN, PazzagliaM, et al. Malignancy in endometrial polyps: a 12-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:462.e1–4.
22. RosePG. Endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:640–649.
23. WeberAM, BelinsonJL, PiedmonteMR. Risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer among women with abnormal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:594–598.
24. LangerRD, PierceJJ, O'HanlanKA, et al. Transvaginal ultrasonography compared with endometrial biopsy for the detection of endometrial disease. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1792–1798.
25. WangS, PudneyJ, SongJ, et al. Mechanisms involved in the evolution of progestin resistance in human endometrial hyperplasia: precursor of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2003;88:108–117.
26. WildemeerschD, DhontM. Treatment of nonatypical endometrial hyperplasia with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:1297–1299.
27. LindellLK, AndersonB. Routine pretreatment evaluation of patients with gynecologic cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:242–246.
28. ConnorJP, AndrewsJI, AndersonB, et al. Computed tomography in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:692–696.
29. NakaoY, YokoyamaM, HaraK, et al. MR imaging in endometrial carcinoma as a diagnostic tool for the absence of myometrial invasion. Gynecol Oncol 2006;102:343–347.
30. SoodAK, BullerRE, BurgerRA, et al. Value of preoperative CA125 level in the management of uterine cancer and prediction of clinical outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90:441–447.
31. MutchDG. The new FIGO staging system for cancers of the vulva, cervix, endometrium and sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2009;115:325–328.
32. CreasmanWT, MorrowCP, BundyBN, et al. Surgical pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer. Cancer 1987;60:2035–2041.
33. ChiangA-J, YuK-J, ChaoK-C, et al. The incidence of isolated para-aortic nodal metastasis in completely staged endometrial cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:122–125.
34. FerrissJS, BrixW, TambouretR, et al. Cervical stromal invasion predicting survival in endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:1035–1041.
35. CreasmanWT, DiSaiaPJ, BlessingJ, et al. Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:921–929.
36. YazigiR, PiverMS, BlumensonL. Malignant peritoneal cytology as a prognostic indicator in stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1983;62:359–362.
37. KadarN, HomesleyHD, MalfetanoJH. Positive peritoneal cytology is an adverse factor in endometrial carcinoma only if there is other evidence of extrauterine disease. Gynecol Oncol 1992;46:145–149.
38. MorrowCP, BundyBN, KurmanRJ, et al. Relationship between surgical–pathological risk factors and outcome in clinical stage I and II carcinoma of the endometrium: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1991;40:55–65.
39. MarinoBD, BurkeTW, TornosC, et al. Staging laparotomy for endometrial carcinoma: assessment of peritoneal spread. Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:34–38.
40. GrigsbyPW. Update on radiation therapy for endometrial cancer. Oncology 2002;16:777–786.
41. UshijimaK, YahataH, YoshikawaH, et al. Multicenter phase II study of fertility-sparing treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for endometrial carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia in young women. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:2798–2803.
42. MontzFJ, BristowRE, BovicelliA, et al. Intrauterine progesterone treatment of early endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:651–657.
43. WalkerJL, PiedmonteMR, SpirtosNM, et al. Laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group Study LAP2. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5331–5336.
44. WalkerJL, PiedmonteMR, SpirtosNM, et al. Recurrence and survival after random assignment to laparoscopy versus laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 Study. J Clin Oncol 2012;80:695–700.
45. SeamonLG, BryanySA, RheaumePS, et al. Comprehensive surgical staging for endometrial cancer in obese patients. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:16–21.
46. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin: clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists – management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:413–424.
47. OrrJW, Jr., HolimonJL, OrrPF. Stage I corpus cancer: is teletherapy necessary?Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:777–789.
48. LewandowskiG, TorrisiJ, PoktulRK, et al. Hysterectomy with extended surgical staging and radiotherapy versus hysterectomy alone and radiotherapy in stage I endometrial cancer: a comparison of complication rates. Gynecol Oncol 1990;36:401–404.
49. PaniciPB, BasileS, ManeschiF, et al. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy vs no lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial carcinoma. Randomized clinical trial. JNCI 2008;100:1707–1716.
50. KitchenerH, SwartAM, QianW, et al. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study. Lancet 2009;373:125–136.
51. TodoY, KatoH, KaneuchiM, et al. Survival effect of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (SEPAL study): a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet 2010;375:1165–1172.
52. ClibyWA, Clarke-PearsonDL, DodgeR, et al. Acute morbidity and mortality associated with selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in the surgical staging of endometrial carcinoma. J Gynecol Tech 1995;1:19–26.
53. EgleD, GrissemannB, ZeimetAG, et al. Validation of intraoperative risk assessment on frozen section for surgical management of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2008;110:286–292.
54. FotioliS, VlahosN, Kondi-PafitiA, et al. Intraoperative gross assessment of myometrial invasion and cervical involvement in endometrial cancer: role of tumor grade and size. Gynecol Oncol 2009;112:517–520.
55. HernandezE. A prospective blinded evaluation of the accuracy of frozen section for the surgical management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:785–786.
56. BelinsonJL, LeeKR, BadgerGJ, et al. Clinical stage I adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: analysis of recurrence and the potential benefit of staging lymphadenectomy. Gynecol Oncol 1992;44:17–23.
57. KuceraH, VavraN, WeghauptK. Benefits of external irradiation in pathologic stage I endometrial carcinoma: a prospective clinical trial of 605 patients who received postoperative vaginal irradiation and additional pelvic irradiation in the presence of unfavorable prognostic factors. Gynecol Oncol 1990;38:99–104.
58. AckermanI, MaloneS, ThomasG, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: relative effectiveness of adjuvant irradiation vs. therapy reserved for relapse. Gynecol Oncol 1996;60:177–183.
59. CreutzbergCL, van PuttenWLJ, KeperPC, et al. Survival after relapse in patients with endometrial cancer: results from a randomized trial. Gynecol Oncol 2003;89:201–209.
60. KeysHM, RobertsJA, BrunettoVL, et al. A phase III trial of surgery with or without adjunctive external pelvic radiation therapy in intermediate risk endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:744–751.
61. MarianiA, KeenyG, WebbMJ, PodratzKC. Stage I endometrial cancer: assessment of vaginal failure. Gynecol Oncol 2003;88:184.
62. NoutRA, SmitVTHBM, PutterH, et al. Vaginal brachytherapy versus pelvic external beam radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer of high-intermediate risk (PORTEC-2): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet 2010;375:816–823.
63. RandallME, BrunettoG, MussH, et al. Whole abdominal radiotherapy versus combination doxorubicin-cisplatin chemotherapy in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a randomized phase III trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:2.
64. IrwinC, LevinW, FylesA, et al. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in carcinoma of the endometrium: results of 550 patients with pathologic stage I disease. Gynecol Oncol 1998;70:247–254.
65. DizonDS. Treatment options for advanced endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2010;117:373–381.
66. Bancher-TodescaD, NeunteufelW, WilliamsKE, et al. Influence of postoperative treatment on survival in patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1998;71:344–347.
67. HoskinsPJ, SwenertonKD, PikeJA, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin, alone or with irradiation, in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:4048–4053.
68. MarianiA, WebbMJ, KeeneyGL, et al. Role of wide/radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection in endometrial cancer with cervical involvement. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:72–80.
69. NgTY, NicklinJL, PerrinLC, et al. Postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy for node-negative stage II (occult) endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2001;81:193–195.
70. HogbergT, SignorelliM, Freire de OliveiraC, et al. Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer: results from two randomized studies. Eur J Cancer 2010;46:2422–2431.
71. WhitneyCN, BrunettoVL, ZainoRJ, et al. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus tamoxifen in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:4–9.
72. FioricaJV, BrunettoVL, HanjaniP, et al. A phase II trial of alternating courses of megestrol acetate and tamoxifen in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:10–14.
73. BristowR, ZerbeMJ, RosensheinNB, et al. Stage IVB endometrial carcinoma: the role of cytoreductive surgery and determinants of survival. Gynecol Oncol 2000;78:85–91.
74. WadlerS, LevyDE, LincolnST, et al. Topotecan is an active agent in the first-line treatment of metastatic or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E3E93. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2110–2114.
75. BrownJ, SmithJA, RamondettaLM, et al. Combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is highly active in women with endometrial carcinoma: results of a prospective phase 2 trial. Cancer 2010;116:4973–4979.
76. ReddochJM, BurkeTW, MorrisM, et al. Surveillance for recurrent endometrial carcinoma: development of a follow-up scheme. Gynecol Oncol 1995;59:221–225.
77. RosePG, SommersRM, RealeFR, et al. Serial serum CA125 measurements for evaluation of recurrence in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:12–16.
78. BarakatRR, BundyBN, SpirtosNM, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo in women with stage I or II endometrial cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:587–592.
79. CreasmanW, OdicinoF, MaisonneuveP, et al. Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;95(Suppl 1):S105–S143.
80. LewinSN, HertzogTJ, Barrena MedelNI, et al. Comparative performance of the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system for uterine corpus cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:1141–1149.