Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 43 - Breast carcinoma

from Section 7 - Gynecological oncology
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Clinical Gynecology
  • Online ISBN: 9781139628938
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139628938
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×

References

1. KriegeM, BrekelmansCTM, BoetesC, et al. Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition. N Engl J Med 2004;351:427–437.
2. KingMC. Breast cancer genes: how many, where and who are they?Nat Genet 1992;2:89–90.
3. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998;351:1451–1467.
4. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998;352:930–942.
5. BaumM, BudzarAU, CuzickJ, et al. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial. Lancet 2002;359:2131–2139.
6. BaumM, BuzdarA, CuzickJ, et al. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial efficacy and safety update analyses. Cancer 2003;98:1802–1810.
7. CoombesRC, HallE, GibsonLJ, et al. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1081–1092.
8. GeyerCE, ForsterJ, LindquistD, et al. Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355:2733–2743.
9. SlamonDJ, Leyland-JonesB, ShakS, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med 2001;344:783–792.
10. RosenLS, GordonDH, DuganW Jr., et al. Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate for the treatment of bone metastases in breast carcinoma patients with at least one osteolytic lesion. Cancer 2004;100:36–43.
11. LiptonA. Bisphosphonates and breast carcinoma: present and future. Cancer 2000;88(Suppl):3033–3037.
12. DesantisC, SiegelR, BandiP, JemalA. Breast cancer statistics, 2011. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:409–418.
13. EastonDF, FordD, BishopDT. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:265–271.
14. MetcalfeK, LynchHT, GhadirianP, et al. Contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:2328–2335.
15. FordD, EastonDF, StrattonM, et al. Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:676–689.
16. RebbeckTR, FriebelT, LynchHT, et al. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:1055–1062.
17. RebbeckTR, LevinAM, EisenA, et al. Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:1475–1479.
18. PerouCM, SørlieT, EisenMB, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 2000;406:747–752.
19. BeatsonG. On the treatment of inoperable cases of carcinoma of the mamma: suggestions for a new method of treatment, with illustrative cases. Lancet 1896;ii:104–107.
20. PaffenbargerRS Jr., KampertJB, ChangHG. Characteristics that predict risk of breast cancer before and after the menopause. Am J Epidemiol 1980;112:258–268.
21. RosnerB, ColditzGA. Nurses’ health study: log-incidence mathematical model of breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:359–364.
22. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50 302 women with breast cancer and 96 973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002;360:187–195.
23. GradyD, HerringtonD, BittnerV, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288:49–57.
24. AndersonGL, LimacherM, AssafAR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:1701–1712.
25.[No authors listed]. Potential risks, benefits of progestins in birth control pills outlined. Contracept Technol Update 1984;5:71.
26. HuangZ, WillettWC, ColditzGA, et al. Waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:1316–1324.
27. HankinsonSE, WillettWC, MansonJE, et al. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1297–1302.
28. GoldschmidtRA, VictorTA. Lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Semin Surg Oncol 1996;12:314–320.
29. FisherB, DignamJ, WolmarkN, et al. Tamoxifen in treatment of intraductal breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-24 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1993–2000.
30. GailMH, BrintonLA, ByarDP, et al. Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:1879–1886.
31. PowlesT, EelesR, AshleyS, et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet 1998;352:98–101.
32. VeronesiU, MaisonneuveP, CostaA, et al. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women. Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. Lancet 1998;352:93–97.
33. VogelVG, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 2006;295:2727–2741.
34. GossPE, IngleJN, Alés-MartínezJE, et al. Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2381–2391.
35. RobsonM, GilewskiT, HaasB, et al. BRCA-associated breast cancer in young women. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1642–1649.
36. SorlieT, TibshiraniR, ParkerJ, et al. Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:8418–8423.
37. KingMC, WieandS, HaleK, et al. Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. JAMA 2001;286:2251–2256.
38. SingletarySE, AllredC, AshleyP, et al. Revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:3628–3636.
39. WoodwardWA, StromEA, TuckerSL, et al. Changes in the 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging for breast cancer dramatically affect stage-specific survival. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:3244–3248.
40. AlbainKS, BarlowWE, ShakS, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:55–65.
41. GianniL, ZambettiM, ClarkK, et al. Gene expression profiles in paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue predict response to chemotherapy in women with locally advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:7265–7277.
42. EllisMJ, CoopA, SinghB, et al. Letrozole is more effective neoadjuvant endocrine therapy than tamoxifen for ERBB-1- and/or ERBB-2-positive, estrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer: evidence from a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3808–3816.
43. HalstedWSI. The results of radical operations for the cure of carcinoma of the breast. Ann Surg 1907;46:1–19.
44. National Institutes of Health. Consensus Development Conference Statement on treatment of early stage breast cancer. Consensus Statement 1990;8:1–19. [NB This statement is more than five years old and is provided solely for historical purposes].
45. HaagensenCD, StoutAP. Carcinoma of the breast. II-Criteria of operability. Ann Surg 1943;118:1032–1051.
46. JacquillatC, WeilM, BailletF, et al. Results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the breast-conserving treatment of 250 patients with all stages of infiltrative breast cancer. Cancer 1990;66:119–129.
47. GiulianoAE. Mapping a pathway for axillary staging: a personal perspective on the current status of sentinel lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Arch Surg 1999;134:195–199.
48. GolshanM, MartinWJ, DowlatshahiK. Sentinel lymph node biopsy lowers the rate of lymphedema when compared with standard axillary lymph node dissection. Am Surg 2003;69:209–211; discussion 212.
49. HarrisJ. Diseases of the Breast, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.
50. FisherB, AndersonS, BryantJ, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1233–1241.
51. HughesKS, SchnaperLA, BerryD, et al. Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen with or without irradiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:971–977.
52. FylesAW, McCreadyDR, ManchulLA, et al. Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:963–970.
53. FisherB, DignamJ, WolmarkN, et al. Lumpectomy and radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-17. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:441–452.
54. FowbleB, GrayR, GilchristK, et al. Identification of a subgroup of patients with breast cancer and histologically positive axillary nodes receiving adjuvant chemotherapy who may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1107–1117.
55. RagazJ, JacksonSM, LeN, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in node-positive premenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1997;337:956–962.
56. OvergaardM, HansenPS, OvergaardJ, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82B Trial. N Engl J Med 1997;337:949–955.
57. FowbleBL, SolinLJ, SchultzDJ, GoodmanRL. Ten year results of conservative surgery and irradiation for stage I and II breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;21:269–277.
58. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Favourable and unfavourable effects on long-term survival of radiotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2000;355:1757–1770.
59. WhelanTJ, JulianJ, WrightJ, JadadAR, LevineML. Does locoregional radiation therapy improve survival in breast cancer? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1220–1229.
60. ViciniFA, KestinL, ChenP, et al. Limited-field radiation therapy in the management of early-stage breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1205–1210.
61. RemouchampsVM, LettsN, ViciniFAet al. Initial clinical experience with moderate deep-inspiration breath hold using an active breathing control device in the treatment of patients with left-sided breast cancer using external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;56:704–715.
62. FreedmanG, HanlonA, AndersonP. Pattern of local recurrence after conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation: implications for partial breast irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61:1328–1336.
63. KeischM, ViciniF, KuskeRR, et al. Initial clinical experience with the MammoSite breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:289–293.
64. FisherB, BryantJ, WolmarkN, et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2672–2685.
65. WolmarkN, WangJ, MamounasE, BryantJ, FisherB. Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2001;30:96–102.
66. SmithIC, HeysSD, HutcheonAW, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: significantly enhanced response with docetaxel. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1456–1466.
67. FisherB, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371–1388.
68. FisherB, DignamJ, BryantJ, WolmarkN. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:684–690.
69. GossPE, IngleJN, MartinoS, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1793–1802.
70. GossP, IngleJ, MartinoS. Updated analysis of the NCIC CTG MA.17 randomized placebo (P) controlled trial of letrozole (L) after five years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(Suppl):88.
71. JonatW, KaufmannM, SauerbreiW, et al. Goserelin versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: The Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association Study. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:4628–4635.
72. BiancoAR, Del MastroL, GalloC, et al. Prognostic role of amenorrhea induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1991;63:799–803.
73. GoldhirschA, GelberRD, CastiglioneM. The magnitude of endocrine effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer patients. The International Breast Cancer Study Group. Ann Oncol 1990;1:183–188.
74. RichardsMA, O’ReillySM, HowellA, et al. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in patients with axillary node-positive breast cancer: an update of the Guy’s/Manchester trial. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:2032–2039.
75. FisherB, BrownAM, DimitrovNV, et al. Two months of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide with and without interval reinduction therapy compared with 6 months of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in positive-node breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-nonresponsive tumors: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-15. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1483–1496.
76. LevineMN, BramwellVH, PritchardKI, et al. Randomized trial of intensive cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2651–2658.
77. HutchinsL, GreenS, RavdinP. CMF versus CAF with and without tamoxifen in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients and a natural history follow-up study in low-risk node-negative patients: first results of Intergroup Trial INT 0102. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998;1a.
78. HendersonIC, BerryDA, DemetriGD, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:976–983.
79. MamounasEP, BryantJ, LemberskyB, et al. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:3686–3696.
80. MartínM, SeguíMA, AntónA, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2200–2210.
81. CitronML, BerryDA, CirrincioneC, et al. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1431–1439.
82. HorwitzKB, McGuireWL. Predicting response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer: a hypothesis. Science 1975;189:726–727.
83. MouridsenH, GershanovichM, SunY, et al. Superior efficacy of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of a phase III study of the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2596–2606.
84. MouridsenH, GershanovichM, SunY, et al. Phase III study of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: analysis of survival and update of efficacy from the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2101–2109.
85. NabholtzJM, BuzdarA, PollakM, et al. Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial. Arimidex Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:3758–3767.
86. ParidaensRJ, DirixLY, BeexLV, et al. Phase III study comparing exemestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:4883–4890.
87. HowellA, RobertsonJFR, QuaresmaAlbano J, et al. Fulvestrant, formerly ICI 182 780, is as effective as anastrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer progressing after prior endocrine treatment. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:3396–3403.
88. VogelCL, CobleighMA, TripathyD, et al. Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab as a single agent in first-line treatment of HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:719–726.
89. PegramM, HsuS, LewisG, et al. Inhibitory effects of combinations of HER-2/neu antibody and chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment of human breast cancers. Oncogene 1999;18:2241–2251.
90. PegramMD, FinnRS, ArzooK, et al. The effect of HER-2/neu overexpression on chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity in human breast and ovarian cancer cells. Oncogene 1997;15:537–547.
91. CameronD, CaseyM, OlivaC, et al. Lapatinib plus capecitabine in women with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer: final survival analysis of a phase III randomized trial. Oncologist 2010;15:924–934.
92. CameronD, CaseyM, PressM, et al. A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;112:533–543.
93. JohnstonS, PippenJ Jr., PivotX, et al. Lapatinib combined with letrozole versus letrozole and placebo as first-line therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5538–5546.
94. O’BrienMER, WiglerN, InbarM, et al. Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15:440–449.
95. SeidmanAD, BerryD, CirrincioneC, et al. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1642–1649.
96. JonesSE, ErbanJ, OvermoyerB, et al. Randomized phase III study of docetaxel compared with paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:5542–5551.
97. OshaughnessyJA, BlumJ, MoiseyenkoV, et al. Randomized, open-label, phase II trial of oral capecitabine (Xeloda) vs. a reference arm of intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) as first-line therapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2001;12:1247–1254.
98. AlbainKS, NagSM, Calderillo-RuizG, et al. Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3950–3957.
99. O’ShaughnessyJ, MilesD, VukeljaS, et al. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2812–2823.
100. TheriaultRL, LiptonA, HortobagyiGN, et al. Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer and lytic bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:846–854.