Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: October 2012

Part I - Lessons from history: time, scale, and causality



This chapter offers an overview of the history of human migration, conditions pertaining to past migrations, and the types of evidence that allow their study. The importance of scales of time and space is illustrated by ‘standing still’ for a thousand years at a busy crossroads in Europe, and observing the emergence of new social forms. How can these observations help to anticipate and formulate responses to contemporary population movements?


Anderson, P. 1984. Lineages of the Absolutist State. New York: Verso.
Anthony, D. 1997. Prehistoric Migration as Social Process. In J. Chapman and H. Hamerow (eds.), Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Explanation. Oxford: Archaeopress, BAR International Series 664.
Barth, F. 1962. Nomads of South-Persia: the Basseri Tribe of the Khamseh Confederacy. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Bar-Yosef, O. 2002. The Natufian Culture and the Early Neolithic: Social and Economic Trends in Southwestern Asia. In P. Bellwood and Colin Renfrew (eds.), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 114.
Berry, W. E. 1987. Southern Burgundy in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. In C. Crumley and W. Marquardt (eds.), Regional Dynamics: Burgundian Landscapes in Historical Perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press (447–609).
Bilsborrow, R. E. and P. F. DeLargy 1990. Land Use, Migration and Natural Resource Deterioration: the Experience of Guatemala and the Sudan. Population and Development Review 16 (Supplement: Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options): 125–47.
Bryson, R. A. 1994. On Integrating Climatic Change and Culture Change Studies. Human Ecology 22: 115–29.
Bury, J. B. 1963. The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians. New York: Russell and Russell.
Cruikshank, J. 2005. Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters, and Social Imagination. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Crumley, C. L. 1993. Analyzing Historic Ecotonal Shifts. Ecological Applications 3 (3): 377–84.
Crumley, C. L. (ed.) 1994a. Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes. Santa Fe: School of American Research.
Crumley, C. L. 1994b. The Ecology of Conquest: Contrasting Agropastoral and Agricultural Societies’ Adaptation to Climatic Change. In C. L. Crumley (ed.), Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes. Santa Fe: School of American Research (183–201).
Crumley, C. L. 1995. A Critique of Cultural Evolutionist Approaches to Ranked Societies with Particular Reference to Celtic Polities. In B. Gibson and B. Arnold (eds.), Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State. Cambridge University Press (26–33).
Crumley, C. L. 2000. From Garden to Globe: Linking Time and Space with Meaning and Memory. In R. McIntosh, J. A. Tainter and S. K. McIntosh (eds.), The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action (Series in Historical Ecology, W. H. Balee and C. L. Crumley, eds.). New York: Columbia University Press (193–208).
Crumley, C. L. 2007. Historical Ecology: Integrated Thinking at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales. In A. Hornborg and C. Crumley (eds.), The World System and the Earth System: Global Socio-environmental Change and Sustainability since the Neolithic. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press (15–28).
Crumley, C. L. and W. H. Marquardt (eds.) 1987. Regional Dynamics: Burgundian Landscapes in Historical Perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
De Jode, H. (ed.) 2010. Modern and Mobile: the Future of Livestock Production in Africa's Drylands. London: International Institute for Environment and Development and SOS Sahel.
Gunn, J. 1994. Global Climate and Regional Biocultural Diversity. In C. L. Crumley (ed.), Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes. Santa Fe: School of American Research (67–97).
Gunn, J., C. L. Crumley, E. Jones and B. K. Young 2004. A Landscape Analysis of Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages. In C. L. Redman, S. R. James, P. R. Fish and J. D. Rogers (eds.), The Archaeology of Global Change: the Impact of Humans on their Environment. Washington: Smithsonian Books (165–85).
Habu, J. 2004. Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman, K. E. and S. G. Miller 2010. Berbers and Others: Beyond Tribe and Nation in the Maghrib. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Huntington, E. 1907. The Pulse of Asia. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Lee, E. S. 1966. A Theory of Migration. Demography 3 (1): 47–57.
McCabe, J. T., P. W. Leslie and L. DeLuca 2010. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: the Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania. Human Ecology 38 (3).
Perruchon, M. 1993. On Gender and Ethnocentrism: the Jivaroan Case. Antropologiska Studier 50/51: 2–13.
Pirenne, H. 1939. Mohammed and Charlemagne. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
Scott, J. C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Scott, J. C. 2009. The Art of Not Being Governed: an Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sofer, O. 1989. Storage, Sedentism, and the Eurasian Paleolithic Record. Antiquity 63 (241): 719–32.
Spikins, P. and G. Bailey (eds.) 2008. Mesolithic Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Vansina, J. 1985. Oral Tradition as History. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Wallace, A. F. C. 1993. The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang.


Anisimov, O. A., D. G. Vaughan, T. V. Callaghan, C. Furgal, H. Marchant, T. D. Prowse, H. Vilhjálmsson and J. E. Walsh 2007. Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 653–85.
Appelt, M. 2004. De sidste Dorsetfolk. In H. C. Gulløv (ed.), Grønlands Forhistorie. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 177–217.
Barth, F. (ed.) 1994 [1969]. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: the Social Organization of Culture Difference. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Barry, R. G., H. Wendy, J. Arundale, J. T. Andrews, S. Raymond, S. Bradled and H. Nichols 1977. Environmental Change and Cultural Change in the Eastern Canadian Arctic during the Last 5000 Years. Arctic and Alpine Research 9 (2): 193–210.
Bauman, Z. 2006. Liquid Fear. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bennike, O., M. Sørensen, B. Fredskild, B. Jakobsen, J. Böcher, S. L. Amsinck, E. Jeppesen, C. Andreasen, H. H. Christiansen and O. Humlum 2008. Late Quaternary Environmental and Cultural Changes in the Wollaston Forland Region, North-east Greenland. Arctic Climate and Climate Change with a Focus on Greenland. In H. Meltofte, T. R. Christensen, B. Elberling, M. C. Forchhammer and M. Rasch (eds.), High-Arctic Ecosystem Dynamics in a Changing Climate. Advances in Ecological Research 40. New York: Elsevier, 45–76.
Boas, F. 1964. The Central Eskimo. Lincoln, Bison Book Reprint. University of Nebraska Press.
Braudel, F. 1980. On History. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Dahl-Jensen, D., K. Mosegaard, N. Gundestrup, G. D. Clow, S. J. Johnsen, A. W. Hansen and N. Balling 1998. Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 282: 268–71.
Dalager, L. 1915. Grønlandske Relationer indeholdende Grønlændernes Liv og Levned, deres Skikke og Vedtægter samt Temperament og Superstitioner tillige nogle korte Reflectioner over Missionen sammenskrevet ved Friderichshaabs Colonie i Grønland anno 1752. In L. Bobé (ed.), Det Grønlandske Selskabs Skrifter 2.
Dekin, A. 1972. Climatic Change and Cultural Change: a Correlative Study from Eastern Arctic Prehistory. Polar Notes 12: 11–31.
Egede, H. 1925. Relationer fra Grønland 1721–36 and Det gamle Grønlands Nye Perlustration. In L. Bobé (ed.), Meddelelser om Grønland 54.
Fitzhugh, W. W. 1985. Vegetation History and Culture Change in Labrador Prehistory. Arctic and Alpine Research 17 (4): 357–70.
Fitzhugh, W. W. 1997. Biogeographical Archaeology in the Eastern North American Arctic. Human Ecology 25 (3): 385–417.
Friesen, M. (ed.) 2000. The Role of Social Factors in Dorset-Thule Interaction. In M. Appelt, J. Berglund and H. C. Gulløv (eds.), Identities and Cultural Contacts in the Arctic. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Centre, 206–21.
Glob, P. V. 1935. Eskimo Settlements in Kempe and King Oscar Fjord. Meddelelser om Grønland 102 (2).
Gotfredsen, A. B. 2010. Faunal Remains from the Wollaston Forland – Clavering Ø Region, North-east Greenland – Thule Culture Subsistence in a High Arctic Polynya and Ice-edge Habitat. Danish Journal of Geography 110 (2): 175–200.
Griffith, T. 2010. A Humanist on Thin Ice. Review 29: 1–24.
Grønnow, B. 1994. Qeqertasussuk – the Archaeology of a Frozen Saqqaq Site in Disko Bugt, west Greenland. In William E. Taylor, D. Morrison and J. L. Pilon (eds.), Threads of Arctic Prehistory: Chapters in Honour of Quebec. Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 197–239.
Grønnow, B. and J. F. Jensen 2003. The Northernmost Ruins of the Globe. Meddelelser om Grønland 29.
Grønnow, B., H. C. Gulløv, B. H. Jakobsen, A. B. Gotfredsen, L. H. Kauffmann, A. Kroon, J. B. T. Pedersen and M. Sørensen 2011. At the Edge: High Arctic Walrus Hunters during the Little Ice Age. Antiquity 85: 960–77.
Gulløv, H. C. 1995. ‘Olden Times’ in Southeast Greenland: New Archaeological Investigations and the Oral Tradition. Inuit Studies 19: 3–37.
Gulløv, H. C. 1997a. From Middle Ages to Colonial Times. Meddelelser om Grønland 23.
Gulløv, H. C. 1997b. Ice Summers and Long-distance Journeys – an Inuit Perspective on the Little Ice Age. In K. Canning (ed.), Climate and Man in the Arctic. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Centre, 44–54.
Gulløv, H. C. 1997c. The Soul of the Prey. Fifty Years of Arctic Research. In R. Gilberg and H. C. Gulløv (eds.), Anthropological Studies from Greenland to Siberia. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 131–40.
Gulløv, H. C. (ed.) 2005. Grønlands Forhistorie. København: Gyldendal.
Gulløv, H. C. 2006. Aasiviit as Focal Places in Prehistoric Greenland. In J. Arneborg and B. Grønnow (eds.), Dynamics of Northern Societies. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 209–15.
Gulløv, H. C. 2009. The End of the Thule Culture and the Rise of Native Thought – Ammassalik, a Key to Another World. In B. Grønnow (ed.), On the Track of the Thule Culture from Bering Strait to East Greenland. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 245–57.
Gulløv, H. C. 2010a. Archaeological Commentary on the Isotopic Study of the Greenland Thule Culture. Journal of the North Atlantic Special Issue 3.
Gulløv, H. C. 2010b. Commercial Hunting Activities in the Greenland Sea. The Impact of the European Blubber Industry on East Greenland Societies. Danish Journal of Geography 110 (2): 167–73.
Hastrup, K. 2009. Arctic Hunters: Climate Variability and Social Flexibility. In K. Hastrup (ed.), The Question of Resilience. Social Responses to Climate Change. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 245–71.
Hjort, C. 1997. Glaciation, Climate History, Changing Marine Levels and the Evolution of the North-east Water Polynya. Journal of Marine Systems 10: 23–33.
Holm, G. 1887. Ethnologisk Skizze af Angmagsalikerne. Meddelelser om Grønland 10 (2).
Jacobs, J. D. and G. Sabo 1978. Environments and Adaptations of the Thule Culture on the Davis Strait Coast of Baffin Island. Arctic and Alpine Research 10 (3): 595–615.
Jørgensen, A. M. K., E. Buch, E. Bødtker, J. Cappelen, B. Christiansen, E. Kaas, N. Larsen and L. Wester-Andersen 2001. Danmark, Færøernes og Grønlands Klima. DMI's Afrapportering til FN's Klimakonvention UNFCCC. Copenhagen: Danmarks Klimacenter, Rapport 01–4.
Kaplan, S. and J. M. Woollett 2000. Challenges and Choices: Exploring the Interplay of Climate, History, and Culture on Canada's Labrador Coast. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 32 (3): 351–9.
Kaufman, D. S., D. P. Schneider, N. P. McKay, C. M. Ammann, R. S. Bradley, K. R. Briffa et al. 2009. Recent Warming Reverses Long-term Arctic Cooling. Science 325: 1,236–9.
Krupnik, I. 2006. We have Seen this Warm Weather Before. Indigeneous Observations, Archaeology, and the Modeling of Arctic Climate Change. In J. Arneborg and B. Grønnow (eds.), Dynamics of Northern Societies. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark.
Larsen, H. 1934. Dødemandsbugten. Meddelelser om Grønland 102 (1).
Larsen, H. and J. Meldgaard 1958. Paleo-Eskimo cultures in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 161 (2).
Mary-Rousselière, G. 1991. Qillarsuaq: the Story of a Polar Migration. Winnipeg: Wuerz Publishing Ltd.
Mathiassen, T. 1935. Eskimo Migrations in Greenland. Geographical Review 25 (3): 408–22.
McGhee, R. 1969/70. Speculations on Climatic Change and Thule Culture Development. Folk 11–12: 172–84.
McGhee, R. 1996. Ancient People of the Arctic. Vancouver: UBC Press.
McGhee, R. 2000. Radiocarbon Dating and the Timing of the Thule Migration. In M. Appelt, J. Berglund and H. C. Gulløv (eds.), Identities and Cultural Contacts in the Arctic. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Centre.
McGhee, R. 2006. The Population Size and Temporal Duration of the Thule Culture in Arctic Canada. In B. Grønnow (ed.), On the Track of the Thule Culture. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 75–91.
McGhee, R. 2009. When and Why did the Inuit Move to the Eastern Arctic? In H. Mashner, O. Mason and R. McGhee (eds.), The Northern World AD 900–1400: the Dynamics of Climate, Economy and Politics in Hemispheric Perspective. University of Utah Press.
Meldgaard, J. 1962. On the Formative Period of the Dorset Culture. In J. M. Campbell (ed.), Prehistoric Cultural Relations Between the Arctic and Temperate Zones of North America. Montreal: Arctic Institute of North America, 92–5.
Meldgaard, J. 1977. The Prehistoric Cultures in Greenland: Discontinuities in a Marginal Area. In H. P. Kylstra and L. H. Liefferink (eds.), Continuity and Discontinuity in the Inuit Culture of Greenland. University of Groningen, 19–52.
Møhl, J. 1979. Description and Analysis of the Bone Material from Nugarsuk: an Eskimo Settlement Representative of the Thule Culture in West Greenland. In A. P. McCartney (ed.), Thule Eskimo Culture: an Anthropological Retrospective. National Museum of Man, Mercury Series 88, 380–94.
Morrison, D. 1983. Thule Culture in Western Coronation Gulf, N.W.T. National Museum of Man, Mercury Series 116.
Pedersen, J. B. T., L. H. Kaufmann, A. Kroon and B. H. Jakobsen 2010. The North-east Greenland Sirius Water Polynya Dynamics and Variability Inferred from Satellite Imagery. Danish Journal of Geography 110 (2): 175–200.
Rasmussen, K. 1915. Min Rejsedagbog. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.
Rasmussen, M. Y., S. Li, J. S. Lindgreen, A. Pedersen, I. Albrechtsen, M. Moltke et al. 2010. Ancient Human Genome Sequence of an Extinct Palaeo-Eskimo. Nature 463: 757–62.
Richling, B. 1993. Labrador's ‘Communal House Phase’ Reconsidered. Arctic Anthropology 30 (1): 67–78.
Roberts-Lamblin, J. 2006. Demographic Fluctuations and Settlement Patterns of the East Greenlandic Population – as Gathered from Early Adminstrative and Ethnographic Sources. In J. Arneborg and B. Grønnow (eds.), Dynamics of Northern Societies. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 235–47.
Rowley, S. 1985. Population movements in the Canadian Arctic. Inuit Studies 9 (1): 3–22.
Sandell, H. T. and B. Sandell 1991. Archaeology and Environment in the Scoresby Sund Fjord. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Last Thule Culture of North-east Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 15.
Schledermann, P. 1976. The Effect of Climatic/Ecological Changes on the Style of Thule Culture Winter Dwellings. Arctic and Alpine Research 8 (1): 37–47.
Schledermann, P. 1980. Polynias and Prehistoric Settlement Patterns. Arctic 33 (2): 292–302.
Sørensen, M. 2010. Inuit Landscape Use and Responses to Climate Change in the Wollaston Forland – Clavering Ø Region, North-east Greenland. Danish Journal of Geography 110 (2): 155–74.
Sørensen, M. and H. C. Gulløv 2012. The Prehistory of the Inuit in North-east Greenland. Arctic Anthropology 49 (2).
Sørensen, M., A. B. Gotfredsen, J. T. Pedersen, M. Hardenberg, H. C. Gulløv, B. Grønnow et al. 2009. GeoArk 2008. Archaeological and Zoo-archaeological Report on Investigations of the Southern Coast of Clavering Ø, the Revet area, Hvalros Ø and the Estuary of Young Sund. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, The Greenland Research Centre, SILA-Feltrapport 28.
Steensby, H. P. 1917. An Anthropogenic Study of the Origin of the Eskimo Culture. Meddelelser om Grønland 53 (2).
Thalbitzer, W. 1923. The Ammassalik Eskimo: Contributions to the Ethnology of the East Greenland Natives. Meddelelser om Grønland 40 (1–3).
Trenberth, K. E., P. D. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank et al. 2007. Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Vibe, C. 1967. Arctic Animals in Relation to Climatic Fluctuations. Meddelelser om Grønland 170 (5).
Wenzel, G. 2009. Canadian Inuit Subsistence and Ecological Instability – If the Climate Changes Must the Inuit? Polar Research 28 (1): 89–99.
Woollett, J. M. 1999. Living in the Narrows: Subsistence Economy and Culture Change in Labrador Inuit Society during the Contact Period. World Archaeology 30 (3): 370–87.


Bauman, Z. 2006. Liquid Fear. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bauman, Z. 2007. Liquid Times. Living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Braudel, F. 1981. The Structures of Everyday Life. Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century, vol I. Trans. S. Reynolds. London: Collins.
Castles, S. 2002. Environmental Change and Forced Migration. Making Sense of the Debate. UNHCR: New Issues in Refugee Research, working paper no. 70.
Crapanzano, V. 2004. Imaginative Horizons. An Essay in Literary-Philosophical Anthropology. University of Chicago Press.
Diamond, J. 2005. Collapse. How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.
Einarsson, Oddur [1589] 1971. Íslandslysing. Qualiscunque descriptio Islandiae. Trans. Sveinn Pálsson. Reykjavík: Bókúgafa menningarsjóðs.
Einarsson, Stefán 1957. A History of Icelandic Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Fagan, B. 2002. The Little Ice Age. How Climate Made History 1300–1850. New York: Basic Books.
Finnsen, H. 1970 [1796]. Mannfækkun af hallærum. Jón Eyþórsson and Johannes Nordal (eds.). Reykjavík: Almenna bókfélagið, Rit Lærdomslistafélagsins.
Hastrup, K. 1985. Culture and History in Medieval Iceland. An Anthropological Analysis of Culture and History. Oxford: Clarendon.
Hastrup, K. 1990a. Nature and Policy in Iceland 1400–1800. An Anthropological Analysis of History and Mentality. Oxford: Clarendon.
Hastrup, K. 1990b. Island of Anthropology. Studies in Past and Present Iceland. Odense Universitetsforlag.
Hastrup, K. 1990c. The Meaning of Migration. Icelandic Migratory Patterns in Historical Perspective. Island of Anthropology. Studies in Past and Present Iceland. Odense Universitetsforlag, 218–32.
Hastrup, K. 1990d. Witchcraft in 17th Century Iceland. Island of Anthropology. Studies in Past and Present Iceland. Odense Universitetsforlag, 233–50.
Hastrup, K. 1990e. Iceland. Pagans and Sorcerers. In B. Ankerloo and G. Henningsen (eds.), Early Modern European Witchcraft. Centres and Peripheries. Oxford: Clarendon, 383–402.
Hastrup, K. 1992. Uchronia and the Two Histories of Iceland. In K. Hastrup (ed.), Other Histories. London: Routledge, 102–20.
Hastrup, K. 2009a. Waterworlds. Framing the Question of Social Resilience. In K. Hastrup (ed.), The Question of Resilience. Social Responses to Climate Change. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 11–30.
Hastrup, K. 2009b. Arctic Hunters. Climate Variability and Social Flexibility. In K. Hastrup (ed.), The Question of Resilience. Social Responses to Climate Change. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 245–70.
Hastrup, K. 2009c. Destinies and Decisions. Taking the Life-world Seriously in Environmental Research. In S. Sörlin and P. Warde (eds.), Nature's End. History and the Environment. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 331–48.
Ingold, T. 2007. Lines. A Brief History. London: Routledge.
James, W. 2003. The Ceremonial Animal. A New Portrait of Anthropology. Oxford University Press.
Jónsbók 1904. Kong Magnus Hakonssons Lovbog for Island. Vedtaget på Altinget 1281. Ó. Halldórsson (ed.). Copenhagen: S. L. Møllers Bogtrykkeri.
Latour, B. 2006. Reassembling the Social. An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford University Press.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1979. Times of Feast, Times of Famine. A History of Climate since the Year 1000. London: Allen and Unwin.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1981. The Mind and Method of the Historian. Trans. S. and B. Reynolds. University of Chicago Press.
Manntalið 1960. Population Census 1703. Reykjavík: Statistics of Iceland, ii, no. 21.
Mauss, M. 1906 [1979]. Seasonal Variation of the Eskimo. A Study in Social Morphology (in collaboration with H. Beuchat; transl. J.-J. Fox). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
McGovern, T. H., O. Vésteinsson, A. Fridriksson, M. Church, I. Lawson, I. A. Simpson et al. 2007. Landscapes of Settlement in Northern Iceland: Historical Ecology of Human Impact and Climate Fluctuation on the Millennial Scale. American Anthropologist 109 (1): 27–51.
Ólafsson, Stefán 1885–6. Kvæði, i–ii. Copenhagen: Hið Íslenzka Bokilometresenntafélag.
Reenberg, A. 2009. Embedded Flexibility in Coupled Human-Environmental Systems in Sahel. In K. Hastrup (ed.), The Question of Resilience. Social Response to Climate Change. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 138–52.
Taylor, C. 2004. Modern Social Imaginaries. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Thomas, K. 1970. The Relevance of Social Anthropology to the Historical Study of English Witchcraft. In M. Douglas (ed.), Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations. London: Tavistock.
Thorsteinsson, H. 1924–7. Séra Jón Jónsson gamli á Staðarhrauni. Blanda 3. Reykjavík: Sögufélagið.
Tilley, C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape. Places, Paths and Monuments. Oxford: Berg.

Specialist references

AÍ: Alingisbækur Íslands 1912–82. Acta Comitiorium Generalium Islandiae. Reykjavík: Sögufélagið, i–xv.
Ann.: Annálar 1400–1800 1922–42. Annales Islandici. Posteriorum saecolorum. Reykjavík, i–iv.
ÍL: Íslenzk ljóðasafn 1957–8. Kristián Karlsson (ed.). Reykjavík: Almenna bókfélagið, i–v.
LI: Lovsamling for Island 1853–89. O. Stephensen and Jón Sigurðsson (eds.). Copenhagen: Høst og Søn.