Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: May 2011

3 - China–India cooperation, South–South coalition and the new international economic order

from PART I - China, India and the global trade system



International economic order means the comparatively steady pattern, structure or model of international economic relations gradually formed in a specific history era. The establishment and evolution of the international economic order depends on the comparative economic, political and military power among categories of members in international society. International economic order is closely related to international economic law. International economic law is a fundamental tool to strengthen existing international economic order, and at the same time, an important means to promote and change the old international economic order and establish the new international economic order.

The development process of international economy and international economic law witnesses the continuous struggles between strong countries who are trying to maintain and enlarge their vested interests and to defend the old international economic order, and the weak countries who are striving to ensure a status of economic equality and to establish a new international economic order. These struggles are generally resolved with compromise and cooperation between the two parties. However, after a period of compromise and cooperation, new struggles arise from new interest contradictions and conflicts. This is a recurring cycle, with each recurrence raising the existing international economic order and related international economic norms to a new level or new phase.

Bell, Coral, “The rise and rise of the un-West,” Asia Times Online, March 22, 2006, available at Middle_East/HC22Ak03.html
Bello, Walden, “G-20 leaders succumb to ‘divide-and-rule tactics' – NGO,” South Bulletin 85, available at info/southbulletin/bulletin85/bulletin85–06.htm
Bhurban, G-20 Ministerial Declaration, Bhurban, September 9–10, 2005, available at statement_16122005_01.htm
“Bush's visit to India promotes US–India cooperation,” Global Times (Huanqiu Shibao), March 3, 2006
Bush, George W., Statement of George, W. Bush, President of the United States of America, 2005, World Summit High Level Plenary Meeting, September 14, 2005, available at statements.html
An, CHEN, Chen's Papers on International Economic Law, vol. I (Beijing University Press, 2005)
An, CHEN, Jurisprudence of International Economic Law, 3rd edn (Peking University Press, 2005)
“A reflection on the South–South coalition in the last half century from the perspective of international economic law-making: From Bandung, Doha and Cancún to Hong Kong, Part III,” (2006) 7(2) The Journal of World Investment & Trade
,“China–India Joint Study Group: A Study Report on China–India Comprehensive Trade and Economic Cooperation.”
,“Comprehensive Report: The Doha Round is highly likely to be finished in 2006,”Chinese Economy Report, 1276, September 17, 2005, available at
Declaration by the Group of 77 and China on the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference at Doha, Qatar, October 22, 2001, available at
Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation between China and India signed in June 2003
Drezner, Daniel W., “The New Republic Online,” December 10, 2003, available at
“Final Communiqué of the Asian-African Conference, A. Economic Cooperation,” paras. 5, 9 and12
Franks, Sir Oliver, “The new international balance: Challenge to the Western world,” Saturday Review, January 1960
G77's South Summit, Havana, Cuba, April 10–14, 2000, available at; Declaration of the South Summit, and Havana Programme of Action, available at and respectively
“Han Dynasty History: Biographies of Zhang Qian and Li Guangli,” vol. IX (Chinese Press, 1962)
Yaobang, HU, Comprehensive Start of a New Phase of Constructing Socialism Modernization (Report in the 12th Representative Meeting of China's Communist Party) (Remin Press, 1982)
,“India: Economy, Industry & Trade,” available at
“India's Prime Minister signed the Nuclear Energy Agreement and Bush felt relieved (in Chinese),” n242114833.shtml
“Japan cuts short its economic aid to China to a large scale, improves its relations with India to contain China,” March 10, 2004, available at jy/japan/200412280994.htm
,“Japan–India Economic Partnership Agreement,” available at Japan-India%20Economic%20 Partnership%20Agreement
“Japan–India partnership in a new Asian era: Strategic orientation of Japan–India global partnership,” available at region/asia-paci/india/partner0504.html
“Japan's loan to India increased to the highest,” News for Reference (Cankao Xiaoxi), April 2, 2006, p. 1
Xianlin, JI, Paper Collection on the History of Sino-India Cultural Relations (in Chinese), (SDX Joint Publishing Company, 1982)
Yaping, JIANG, “Focus on mutual official visits of Japan and India,” Globe Magazine, March 30, 2006, available at 2006-03-30/17259486761.shtml
Yaping, JIANG, “Sino-Indian relations in a new stage of comprehensive development,” (in Chinese), April 8, 2005, available at
Joint Declaration of the Heads of State and/or Government of Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa, participating in the G8 Gleneagles Summit (July 07, 2005), G8 Summit Joint Declaration, Press Release, available at
Joint Statement by the Cairns Group and G20, Hong Kong, December 16, 2005, available at statement_16122005_01.htm
Khor, Martin, “Deadlock persists as clock ticks on Doha talks,”SUNS (South–North development monitor) #5985, Tuesday March 14, 2006 [email edition]
Khor, Martin“Havana Summit: A defining moment in G77 history: coordinating commission set up” (2000) 232 Third World Economics
Khor, Martin“Mood at WTO gloomy as “Ministerial Green Room” convenes,” TWN Info Service on WTO and Trade Issues, November 9, 2005, available at
Krueger, Anne O., “Letting the future in: India's continuing reform agenda, June 4, 2004, 2004/060404.htm
Lamy, Pascal, “Time out needed to review options and positions,”, July 24, 2006
Lamy, Pascal, “Trade is ‘fundamental tool’ in fight against poverty,” October 6, 2005, available at spp105_e.htm
Lamy, Pascal, “We have resumed negotiations fully across the board,”, February 7, 2007
Lancaster, John, “India, China hoping to ‘reshape the world order’ together,” Washington Post Foreign Service, April 12, 2005, p. A16, available at A43053-2005Apr11.html
,Letter to call for end of Five Interested Parties process in Agriculture, May 6, 2005,
Narsalay, Raghav, “Letter to the Indian Minister of Commerce, Mr. Arun Jaitley,” February 28, 2003, Focus on the Global South-India Programme,
“NGOs call on trade ministers to reject exclusive mini-ministerials and green room meetings in the run-up to, and at, the 5th WTO ministerial,” available at WTO_5Min_112002.html
Paris Consensus adopted by the 39th Meeting of the Chairpersons/ Coordinators of the G-77, Paris, February 27–28, 2006, G-77 News Center, available at index.htm
“The permanent mission of China to WTO, Ambassador Sun Zhenyu appeals to change the WTO negotiation patterns,” March 17, 2006, available at 200603/20060301704883.html
Prestowitz, Clyde, “China–India entente shifts global balance,” YaleGlobal, April 15, 2005, available at display.article?id=5578
“Promote the friendship between China and India and increase South–South cooperation,” October 22, 1982. (Excerpt from a talk with a delegation from the Indian Council for Social Sciences Research.), available at eng/zyjh/t154908.htm
Quest, Matthew, “The lessons of the Bandung Conference: Reviewing Richard Wright's The Color Curtain 40 years later,” available at
Razzaq, Abdur, “The new international economic order,” (1991) Barcelona Conference on the Law of the World
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan “A new opportunity in Cancún's failure,” YaleGlobal, December 3, 2003, available at
Ramesh, Jairam, Making Sense of Chindia: Reflections on China and India (India Research Press, 2005)
Robes, Clement (Chair for the Group of 77 and China for 1999), “The Group of 77 and China: Current priorities,” New York, January 12, 1999, available at 33/s 133-06.htm
Sevilla, Christina R., “The WTO's North–South conflict: A dangerous new (old) international economic order?,” (2003) The National Interest,
Saran, Shyam, “Present Dimensions of the Indian Foreign Policy?,”Address by Foreign Secretary Mr. Shyam Saran at Shanghai Institute of International Studies, Shanghai, January 11, 2006, speech/2006/01/11ss01.htm
Guangsheng, SHI, Head of the Chinese Delegation, at the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the WTO,
South Centre, The Future of the Group of 77, South Centre Background Paper for the Ministerial Round Table of Group of 77 (South Africa: South Centre Publications, 1996)
“A South IGO,” available at
“Subtle balance of the relations between China, India and America (in Chinese),” March 5, 2006, available at world/2006-03/05/content_4259389.htm
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum, “WTO mini ministerial meetings: High profile decisions,” available at research_and_news_bulletin/jan_feb_2005/wto_mini_ministerial.htm
Lu, TANG, “The world treats China and India as A Pair” – an interview with Jairam Ramesh with regard to the rise of Chindia, News for Reference (Cankao Xiaoxi), 2 May 2006
Thakurta, Paranjoy Guha, “China could overtake US's India trade,” Asian Times online, China Business, 15 March 2006, available at HC15Cb06.html
“There is enough space in Asia for both China and India to rise (in Chinese), 12 January 2006, available at GB/4019715.html
Thirty Years of the Group of 77(1964–1994), United for a Global Partnership for Development and Peace (South Africa: South Centre Publications, 1994)
“Three main points of Bush's visit to India: Nuclear energy, trade and economy, and strategic cooperation,” March 2, 2006, available at
Waelde, Thomas W., “A requiem for the ‘New International Economic Order’: The rise and fall of paradigms in international economic law,” March 18, 2000, available at cepmlp/journal/html/article1-2.html
Hongwei, WANG, “A new phase of good neighborly relations between China and India,” August 26, 2003, available at
Jiabao, WEN, “Strengthen ASEM economic co-op,” a speech delivered at the opening ceremony of the 6th ASEM Financial Ministers' Meeting on August 7, 2005,–8–8/p1.htm
“What is the Group of 77?,” available at main.htm
Lijun, ZHANG, “Growing cooperation between China and South Asia,” available at–01–11/51216.html
Minqiu, ZHANG (ed.), Studies on Sino-India Relations (in Chinese) (Peking University Press, 2004)
Zhijun, ZHANG, “China pursues an independent foreign policy of peace in its external relations: Speech at the 42nd Munich Conference on Security Policy,” available at