1. , , , et al. Prevalence of cerebral white matter lesions in elderly people: a population based magnetic resonance imaging study. The Rotterdam Scan Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;70:9–14.
2. , , . Clinical correlates of white matter findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging of 3301 elderly people: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke 1996;27:1274–1282.
3. , , , et al. White matter hyperintensities on MRI in the neurologically nondiseased elderly. Analysis of cohorts of consecutive subjects aged 55 to 85 years living at home. Stroke 1995;26:1171–1177.
4. , , , et al. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes. Acta Neuropathol 2011;122:171–185.
5. , , , et al. White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:66–72.
6. , . Neuroimaging and cognition in Parkinson’s disease dementia. Brain Pathol 2010;20:646–653.
7. , , , et al. MRI volumetric correlates of white matter lesions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:911–916.
8. , , . MRI confirms mild cognitive impairments prodromal for Alzheimer’s, vascular and Parkinson–Lewy body dementias. J Neurol Sci 2007;257:97–104.
9. , , , , . Progression of white matter hyperintensities in Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Parkinson disease dementia: a comparison with normal aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14:842–849.
10. , , , . The influence of white matter lesions on neuropsychological functioning in demented and non-demented 85-year-olds. Acta Neurol Scand 1996;93:142–148.
11. , , , et al. Hypertension and cerebral white matter lesions in a prospective cohort study. Brain 2002;125:765–772.
12. , , , et al. Differential impact of cerebral white matter changes, diabetes, hypertension and stroke on cognitive performance among non-disabled elderly. The LADIS study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:1325–1330.
13. , , , et al. Cardiovascular diseases, health status, brain imaging findings and neuropsychological functioning in neurologically healthy elderly individuals. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2000;30:115–130.
14. , , , et al. White matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and five-year cognitive decline: the Honolulu–Asia Aging Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:1484–1489.
15. , , . Cerebral white matter lesions, vascular risk factors and cognitive function in a population-based study: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology 1994;44:1246–1253.
16. , , , , . Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study. Lancet 2000;356:628–634.
17. , , , et al. White matter lesion progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline: the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Ann Neurol 2005;58:610–616.
18. , , , , . Impact of white matter changes on clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease – a quantitative study Stroke 2000;31:2182–2188.
19. , , , et al. Longitudinal volumetric MRI change and rate of cognitive decline. Neurology 2005;65:565–571.
20. , , , et al. Memory impairment, but not cerebrovascular disease, predicts progression of MCI to dementia. Neurology 2004;63:220–227.
21. , , , . Cognitive decline in individuals with high blood pressure: a longitudinal study in the elderly. EVA Study Group. Epidemiology of vascular aging. Neurology 1999;53:1948–1952.
22. , , , et al. Cerebral small-vessel disease and decline in information processing speed, executive function and memory. Brain 2005;128:2034–2041.
23. , , , et al. Longitudinal MRI and cognitive change in healthy elderly. Neuropsychology 2007;21:412–418.
24. , , , et al. White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. Neurology 2004;63:246–253.
25. , , , et al. Risk factors for dementia in the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:13–22.
26. , , , . Cognitive impairment risk: white matter hyperintensity progression matters. Neurology 2009;73:120–125.
27. , , , et al. Incidence, manifestations, and predictors of worsening white matter on serial cranial magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke 2005;36:56–61.
28. , , , et al. Progression of cerebral small vessel disease in relation to risk factors and cognitive consequences: Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke 2008;39:2712–2719.
29. , , , et al. Increase in periventricular white matter hyperintensities parallels decline in mental processing speed in a non-demented elderly population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:149–153.
30. , , , et al. Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease – the LADIS study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2009;27:384–391.
31. , , , et al. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging vascular changes, apolipoprotein E genotype, and development of dementia in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007;15:839–849.
32. , , , et al. Association of MRI markers of vascular brain injury with incident stroke, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality: the Framingham Offspring Study. Stroke 2010;41:600–606.
33. , . The clinical importance of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:3666.
34. , , , et al. Cerebral white matter lesions and the risk of dementia. Arch Neurol 2004;61:1531–1534.
35. , , , et al. Vascular subcortical hyperintensities predict conversion to vascular and mixed dementia in mci patients. Stroke 2008;39:2046–2051.
36. , , , et al. Incidence of dementia and associated risk factors in Japan: the Osaki–Tajiri project. J Neurol Sci 2007;260:175–182.
37. , , , et al. White matter hyperintensities are associated with impairment of memory, attention, and global cognitive performance in older stroke patients. Stroke 2004;35:1270–1275.
38. , , , et al. White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study. Neurology 2010;75:160–167.
39. , , , et al. Progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia: contribution of cerebrovascular disease compared with medial temporal lobe atrophy. Stroke 2009;40:1269–1274.
40. , , , et al. Neuropathological basis of magnetic resonance images in aging and dementia. Ann Neurol 2008;63:72–80.
41. , , , et al. White matter hyperintensities are significantly associated with cortical atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:822–827.
42. , , , . Absolute diffusivities define the landscape of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 2010;133:529–539.
43. , , , et al. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a three-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort. J Neurol Sci 2011;307:100–105.
44. , , , et al. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:491–496.
45. , , , et al. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:955–963.
46. , , , et al. Callosal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: different effects in different stages. Neuroimage 2010;49:141–149.
47. , , , et al. Progression of corpus callosum atrophy in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2002;59:243–248.
48. , , , et al. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment: the LADIS study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2011;32:279–286.
49. , , , , . Subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. Lancet Neurol 2002;1:426–436.
50. , , , et al. Incidence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke 2003;34:392–396.
51. , , , et al. Subcortical lacunes are associated with executive dysfunction in cognitively normal elderly. Stroke 2008;39:397–402.
52. , , , et al. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:478–483.
53. , , , . Dementia associated with lacunar infarction. Stroke 1992;23:1225–1229.
54. , , , . Leukoaraiosis in relation to prognosis for patients with lacunar infarction. Stroke 1992;23:1434–1438.
55. , , , et al. Cognitive consequences of thalamic, basal ganglia, and deep white matter lacunes in brain aging and dementia. Stroke 2005;36:1184–1188.
56. , , , et al. Incident lacunes influence cognitive decline: the LADIS study. Neurology 2011;76:1872–1878.
57. , , , et al. Lacunar lesions are independently associated with disability and cognitive impairment in CADASIL. Neurology 2007;69:172–179.
58. , , , et al. Lacunar infarcts are the main correlate with cognitive dysfunction in CADASIL. Stroke 2007;38:923–928.
59. , , , et al. Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 1997;277:813–817.
60. , . Incidence of cerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimer’s disease: a postmortem study. Acta Neuropathol 2003;105:14–17.
61. , , , et al. Magnetic resonance imaging predictors of cognition in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2007;64:1023–1028.
62. , , , et al. Cerebral microbleeds in Binswanger’s disease: a gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study. Neurosci Lett 2003;340:213–216.
63. , , , et al. Prevalence and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds: an update of the Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke 2010;41:S103–S106.
64. , . Brain microbleeds and Alzheimer’s disease: innocent observation or key player? Brain 2011;134:335–344.
65. , , , et al. Clinical significance of microbleeds in subcortical vascular dementia. Stroke 2007;38:1949–1951.
66. , , , et al. Cerebral microbleeds and long-term cognitive outcome: longitudinal cohort study of stroke clinic patients. Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;33:430–435.
67. , , , et al. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with cerebral microbleeds on T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI. Brain 2004;127:2265–2275.
68. , , , et al. Cerebral microbleeds, retinopathy, and dementia: the Ages–Reykjavik study. Neurology 2010;75:2221–2228.
69. , , , et al. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with worse cognitive function: the Rotterdam Scan Study. Neurology 2012;78:326–333.
70. , , , et al. Frontal and temporal microbleeds are related to cognitive function: the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) study. Stroke 2011;42:3382–3386.
71. , , , et al. Cerebral microbleeds and cognitive functioning in the PROSPER study. Neurology 2011;77:1446–1452.
72. , , , et al. Clinical correlating factors and cognitive function in community-dwelling healthy subjects with cerebral microbleeds. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2011;20:105–110.
73. , , , et al. Brain microbleeds and global cognitive function in adults without neurological disorder. Stroke 2008;39:3323–3328.
74. , , , et al. Absence of cerebral microbleeds predicts reversion of vascular “cognitive impairment no dementia” in stroke. Int J Stroke 2011;6:498–505.
75. , , , , Imaging cerebral microbleeds using susceptibility weighted imaging: one step toward detecting vascular dementia. J Magn Reson Imaging 2010;31:142–148.
76. , , , et al. Patients with Alzheimer disease with multiple microbleeds: relation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cognition. Stroke 2009;40:3455–3460.
77. , , , et al. Distributional impact of brain microbleeds on global cognitive function in adults without neurological disorder. Stroke 2012;43:1800–1805.
78. , , , et al. Prevalence and severity of microbleeds in a memory clinic setting. Neurology 2006;66:1356–1360.
79. , , , et al. Cognitive function and cholinergic transmission in patients with subcortical vascular dementia and microbleeds: a TMS study. J Neural Transm 2011;118:1349–1358.
80. , , , et al. MRI correlates of cognitive decline in CADASIL: a seven-year follow-up study. Neurology 2009;72:143–148.
81. , , , et al. Serial susceptibility weighted MRI measures brain iron and microbleeds in dementia. J Alzheimers Dis 2009;17:599–609.
82. , , , et al. Microbleed topography, leukoaraiosis, and cognition in probable Alzheimer disease from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. Arch Neurol 2008;65:790–795.
83. , , , et al. Transitions to mild cognitive impairments, dementia, and death: findings from the Nun Study. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:1231–1238.
84. , , , et al. Development of a neuropsychological battery for the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study: experience and baseline data. Neuroepidemiology 2006;27:101–116.
85. , , Influence of education on the relationship between white matter lesions and cognition. Neurology 2003;60:831–836.
86. , , , , Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:64–74.
87. , , Poststroke dementia. Cerebrovasc Dis 2006;22:61–70.
88. , , , et al. Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study. BMJ 2001;322:1447–1451.
89. , , , et al. Midlife blood pressure and dementia: the Honolulu–Asia Aging Study. Neurobiol Aging 2000;21:49–55.
90. , , . Low diastolic pressure and risk of dementia in very old people: a longitudinal study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;28:213–219.
91. , , , , . Blood pressure, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: the OPTIMA longitudinal study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;28:70–74.
92. , , , et al. Change in blood pressure and incident dementia: a 32-year prospective study. Hypertension 2009;54:233–240.
93. , , , et al. Blood pressure and late-life cognitive function change: a biracial longitudinal population study. Neurology 2004;62:2021–2024.
94. , , , et al. Relation of blood pressure to risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and change in global cognitive function in older persons. Neuroepidemiology 2006;26:30–36.
95. , , , et al. Cognitive impairment without dementia in older people: prevalence, vascular risk factors, impact on disability. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:775–782.
96. , , , et al. Correlates of cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study investigators. Gerontology 1998;44:95–105.
97. , , , Total plasma homocysteine, age, systolic blood pressure, and cognitive performance in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:2014–2018.
98. , , , , Hypertension is related to cognitive impairment: a 20-year follow-up of 999 men. Hypertension 1998;31:780–786.
99. , , , et al. The role of blood pressure in cognitive impairment in an elderly population. Osservatorio Geriatrico Campano Group. J Hypertens 1997;15:135–142.
100. , , , et al. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011;42:2672–2713.
101. , , , . Blood pressure lowering in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease for prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;4:CD004034.
102. , , , et al. No association between hypertension and risk for Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Alzheimers Dis 2011;27:799–807.
103. , , , et al. The association of antihypertensive medication use with risk of cognitive decline and dementia: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Int J Clin Pract 2011;65:1295–1305.
104. . Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 1991;265:3255–3264.
105. , , , et al. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): principal results of a randomized double-blind intervention trial. J Hypertens 2003;21:875–886.
106. , , , et al. Incident dementia and blood pressure lowering in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial cognitive function assessment (HYVET-cog): a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:683–689.
107. , , , et al. Telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1225–1237.
108. , , , et al. Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled systolic hypertension in Europe (SYST-Eur) trial. Lancet 1998;352:1347–1351.
109. , , , et al. Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1069–1075.
110. , , . Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes – systematic overview of prospective observational studies. Diabetologia 2005;48:2460–2469.
111. . Adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: an epidemiological perspective. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;585:119–129.
112. , , , et al. Diabetes, glucose control, and nine-year cognitive decline among older adults without dementia. Arch Neurol 2012;69:1170–1175.
113. , , , et al. Risk of Alzheimer’s disease in relation to diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 2012;38:237–244.
114. , , , et al. Midlife stroke risk and cognitive decline: a 10-year follow-up of the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:572-579.
115. , , , . Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Intern Med J 2012;42:484–491.
116. , , , , . Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function. Arch Neurol 2004;61:661–666.
117. , , , et al. Brain magnetic resonance imaging correlates of impaired cognition in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2006;55:1106–1113.
118. , , , et al. Reduced O-glcNacylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 2009;132:1820–1832.
119. . Brain insulin resistance and deficiency as therapeutic targets in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2012;9:35–66.
120. , , , , . Prestroke cognitive performance, incident stroke, and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke 2008;39:36–41.
121. , , . Prevalence of poststroke cognitive impairment: South London Stroke Register 1995–2010. Stroke 2013;44:138–145.
122. , . Epidemiological studies of the effect of stroke on incident dementia: a systematic review. Stroke 2010;41:e41–46.
123. , , , . Neuropsychological abnormalities associated with lacunar infarction. J Neurol Sci 2007;257:160–165.
124. , , , et al. Cognitive impairment in lacunar strokes: the SPS3 trial. Ann Neurol 2012;72:351–362.
125. , , , et al. Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2005;62:1556–1560.
126. , , , . Cardiovascular risk factors and incident Alzheimer disease: a systematic review of the literature. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2009;23:1–10.
127. , , , et al. Vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in a stroke-free cohort. Neurology 2011;77:1729–1736.
128. , , , et al. Clinical predictors of cognitive decline in patients with mild cognitive impairment: the Chongqing Aging Study. J Neurol 2012;259:1303–1311.
129. , , , . Treatment of vascular risk factors is associated with slower decline in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2009;73:674–680.
130. , , . Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for clinicians. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
131. , , , et al. Magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities and brain volume in the prediction of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Arch Neurol 2008;65:94–100.
132. , , , et al. MRI measures and progression of cognitive decline in nondemented elderly attending a memory clinic. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005;20:1060–1066.
133. , , , et al. Impact of age-related cerebral white matter changes on the transition to disability – the LADIS study: rationale, design and methodology. Neuroepidemiology 2005;24:51–62.
134. , , , . Cognitive impairments in acute lacunar stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 2006;114:17–22.
135. , , , et al. CAMDEX. A standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1986;149:698–709.
136. , , . A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1356–1364.
137. . General measures of cognition. Int Psychogeriatr 2003;15:215–217.
138. , , , et al. Comparison of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale and the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale in differentiating elderly individuals with different degrees of white matter changes. The LADIS study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2007;24:73–81.
139. , , , et al. Neuropsychological predictors of dementia in a three-year follow-up period: data from the LADIS study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2010;29:325–334.
140. , , , et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:695–699.
141. , , , et al. The validity, reliability and clinical utility of the Hong Kong Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in patients with cerebral small vessel disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;28:81–87.
142. , , , , . Silent infarction or white matter hyperintensity and impaired attention task scores in a nondemented population: the Osaki–Tajiri Project. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;21:275–282.
143. , , , et al. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke 2006;37:2220–2241.
144. . Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychol 1935;18:643–662.
145. . Validity of the Trail Making test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Percept Mot Skills 1958;8:271–276.
146. , , , et al. White matter hyperintensities as a predictor of neuropsychological deficits post-stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:1229–1233.
147. , , , et al. Cognitive profile of subcortical ischaemic vascular disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:28–33.
148. , . Different cognitive profiles between mild cognitive impairment due to cerebral small vessel disease and mild cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease origin. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2009;15:898–905.
149. , , , , . Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1993.
150. , , , et al. White matter changes in healthy elderly persons correlate with attention and speed of mental processing. Arch Neurol 1993;50:818–824.
151. , , , et al. Leuko-araiosis on magnetic resonance imaging and speed of mental processing. Arch Neurol 1990;47:151–156.
152. , , , et al. Strategic role of frontal white matter tracts in vascular cognitive impairment: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study in CADASIL. Brain 2011;134:2366–2375.
153. . Frontal–subcortical circuits and human behavior. J Psychosom Res 1998;44:627–628.
154. , . Frontal–subcortical neuronal circuits and clinical neuropsychiatry: an update. J Psychosom Res 2002;53:647–654.
155. , , , et al. Non-invasive mapping of connections between human thalamus and cortex using diffusion imaging. Nat Neurosci 2003;6:750–757.
156. , , , et al. Corpus callosum atrophy, white matter lesions, and frontal executive dysfunction in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. A community-based study: the Tajiri Project. Int Psychogeriatr 2003;15:9–25.
157. , , , et al. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS study. Neuropsychologia 2012;50:1650–1655.
158. , , , et al. White matter hyperintensities and subclinical infarction: associations with psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility. Stroke 2008;39:800–805.
159. , , . Vascular cognitive impairment. In , , eds. Handbook on the Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia. New York, NY: Springer; 2012: pp. 281–294.
160. , , , , . Clinical significance of subcortical vascular disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Eur J Neurol 2005;12:125–130.
161. , , , et al. Cognitive profiles in Alzheimer’s disease and in mild cognitive impairment of different etiologies. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21:309–315.
162. , , , et al. Different mechanisms of episodic memory failure in mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia 2005;43:1688–1697.
163. , , , et al. Brain atrophy accelerates cognitive decline in cerebral small vessel disease: the LADIS study. Neurology 2012;78:1785–1792.
164. , . Aging white matter and cognition: differential effects of regional variations in diffusion properties on memory, executive functions, and speed. Neuropsychologia 2009;47:916–927.
165. , , , et al. Microstructural integrity of the cingulum is related to verbal memory performance in elderly with cerebral small vessel disease: the RUN DMC study. Neuroimage 2012;65C:416–423.
166. , , , et al. Diffusion tensor imaging of the hippocampus and verbal memory performance: the RUN DMC study. Hum Brain Mapp 2012;33:542–551.
167. , , . Cognition and white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia. Arch Neurol 1990;47:387–391.
168. , , , , . Diagnostic utility of abbreviated fluency measures in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Neurology 2004;62:556–562.
169. , , . Neuropsychological test findings in subject with leukoaraiosis. Arch Neurol 1989;46:40–44.
170. , , . Clinical significance of MRI white matter lesions in the elderly. Neurology 1989;39:1470–1474.
171. , , , et al. Cognitive correlates of ventricular enlargement and cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The Rotterdam Study. Stroke 1994;25:1109–1115.
172. , , , , . White-matter hyperintensity and neuropsychological functions in dementia and healthy aging. Arch Neurol 1992;49:626–632.
173. , . Neuropsychological deficits in vascular dementia versus Alzheimer’s disease. Frontal lobe deficits prominent in vascular dementia. Arch Neurol 1994;51:1226–1231.
174. , . The Purdue Pegboard: norms and studies of reliability and validity. J Appl Psychol 1948;32:234.
175. , , , et al. Differential patterns of cognitive decline in anterior and posterior white matter hyperintensity progression. Stroke 2010;41:1946–1950.
176. , , , et al. Functional impact of white matter hyperintensities in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Arch Neurol 2010;67:1379–1385.