Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: March 2012

Chapter 80 - Other vascular disorders

from Section 3 - Symptomatic epilepsy


This chapter provides an overview of biological and psychosocial issues that may be associated with seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery. It reviews seizure recurrence without introducing the variable constituted by antiepileptic drugs (AED) tapering or discontinuation. Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE/HS) is the prototype of a surgically remediable epilepsy syndrome, in which the chances for medical control are reduced whereas the chances for surgical remediation are elevated. The chapter discusses what could be seen as de novo epilepsy after epilepsy surgery and is subdivided into two independent parts: postoperative seizures possibly related to surgically inflicted cortical damage, and postoperative seizures possibly associated with disinhibition of a potential epileptogenic zone (EZ). Stopping AEDs would be the closest construct for the cure of epilepsy. There is evidence that at least in some pathologies epilepsy may be a release phenomenon following initial resection for epilepsy.


Ambrosetto G, Tinuper P, Tassinari CA (1988) Marfan's syndrome, recurrent complex partial status epilepticus and myoclonus: a case report. Clin Electroencephalogr 19:33–6.
Andersgaard AB, Herbst A, Johansen M, et al. (2006) Eclampsia in Scandinavia: incidence, substandard care, and potentially preventable cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85:929–36.
Bousser MG, Ferro JM (2007) Cerebral venous thrombosis: an update. Lancet Neurol 6:162–70.
Buffon F, Porcher R, Hernandez K, et al. (2006) Cognitive profile in CADASIL. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:175–80.
Byers PH (1995) Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type IV: a genetic disorder in many guises. J Invest Dermatol 105:311–13.
Calabrese LH, Dodick DW, Schwedt TJ, Singhal AB (2007) Narrative review: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. Ann Intern Med 146:34–44.
Calabrese LH, Duna GF, Lie JT (1997) Vasculitis in the central nervous system. Arthritis Rheum 40:1189–201.
Campbell AL, Pierangeli SS, Wellhausen S, Harris EN (1995) Comparison of the effects of anticardiolipin antibodies from patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome and with syphilis on platelet activation and aggregation. Thromb Haemost 73:529–34.
Caplan LP (ed.) (2008) Uncommon Causes of Strokes 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chiu D, Sheddon P, Bratine P, Grotta JC (1998) Clinical features of moyamoya in the United States. Stroke 29:1347–51.
Chu N-S (1983) Marfan's syndrome and epilepsy: report of two cases and review of the literature. Epilepsia 24:49–55.
Cupo LN, Pyeritz RE, Olson JL, et al. (1981) Ehlers–Danlos syndrome with abnormal collagen fibrils, sinus of Valsalva aneurysms, myocardial infarction, panacinar emphysema and cerebral heterotopias. Am J Med 71:1051–8.
Desmond DW, Moroney JT, Lynch T, et al. (1999) The natural history of CADASIL: a pooled analysis of previously published cases. Stroke 30:1230–3.
Ducros A, Boukobza M, Porcher R, et al. (2007) The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Brain 130:3091–101.
Echaniz-Laguna A, de Saint-Martin A, Lafontaine AL, et al. (2000) Bilateral focal polymicrogyria in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Arch Neurol 57:123–7.
Euser AG, Cipolla MJ (2009) Magnesium sulfate for the treatment of eclampsia: a brief review. Stroke 40:1169–75.
Ferro JM, Canhão P, Bousser MG, et al. (2008) Early seizures in cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: risk factors and role of antiepileptics. Stroke 39:1152–8.
Frances C, Papo T, Wechsler B, et al. (1999) Sneddon syndrome with or without antiphospholipid antibodies: a comparative study of 46 patients Medicine (Baltimore) 78:209–19.
Gharavi AE, Pierangeli SS (1998) Origin of antiphospholipid antibodies: induction of aPL by viral peptides. Lupus 7(Suppl2):52–4.
Goenka S, Mehta AV (1999) Petit mal seizure in a child with Marfan's syndrome. Tenn Med 92:53–4.
Goren H, Steinberg MC, Farboody GH (1980) Familial oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis. Brain 103:473–95.
Hall S, Barr W, Lie JT, et al. (1985) Takayasu arteritis. Medicine 94:89–99.
Han DW, Kwon OK, Byun BJ, et al. (2000) The Korean Society for Cerebrovascular Disease. A co-operative study: clinical characteristics of 334 Korean patients with moyamoya disease treated at neurosurgical institutes (1976–1994) Acta Neurochirurg (Wien) 142:1263–73.
Hankey GJ (1991) Isolated angiitis/angiopathy of the central nervous system. Cerebrovasc Dis 1:2–15.
Hendriks L, van Duijn CM, Cras P, et al. (1992) Presenile dementia and cerebral hemorrhage linked to a mutation at codon 692 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein gene. Nat Genet 1:218–21.
Hinchey J, Chaves C, Appignani B, et al. (1996) A reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. N Engl J Med 334:494–500.
Houkin K, Nakayama N, Kuroda S, et al. (2005) Novel magnetic resonance angiography stage grading for moyamoya disease. Cerebrovasc Dis 20:347–54.
Ikeda K, Iwasaki Y, Kashihara H, et al. (2006) Adult moyamoya disease in the asymptomatic Japanese population. J Clin Neurosci 13:334–8.
Ioannides MA, Eftychiou C, Georgiou GM, Nicolaides E (2009) Takayasus arteritis presenting as epileptic seizures: a case report and brief review of the literature. Rheumatol Int 29:703–5.
Jacobson MW, Rapport LJ, Keenan PA, Coleman RD, Tietjen GE (1999) Neuropsychological deficits associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 21:252–64.
Jacome DE (1999) Epilepsy in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Epilepsia 40:467–73.
Kikuta K, Takagi Y, Arakaa Y, Miyamoto S, Hashimoto N (2006) Absence epilepsy associated with moyamoya disease: case report. J Neurosurg 104(Suppl 4):265–8.
Kuroda S (1995) Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation during cerebral ischemia. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 70:401–11. (In Japanese.)
Kuroda S, Houkin K (2008) Moyamoya disease: current concepts and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol 7:1056–66.
Lossius MI, Rønning OM, Slapø GD, Mowinckel P, Gjerstad L (2005) Poststroke epilepsy: occurrence and predictors: a long-term prospective controlled study (Akershus Stroke Study). Epilepsia 46:1246–51.
Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG (1995) A comparison of magnesium sulfate with phenytoin for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med 333:201–5.
Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, et al. (2006) International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost 4:295–306.
Mizuguchi T, Collod-Beroud G, Akyiama T, et al. (2004) Heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome. Nat Genet 36:855–60.
Moore PM (1999) The vasculitides. Curr Opin Neurol 12:383–8.
Pavlakis SG, Frank Y, Chusid R (1999) Hypertensive encephalopathy, reversible occipitoparietal encephalopathy, or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy: three names for an old syndrome. J Child Neurol 14:277–81.
Razvi SS, Davidson R, Bone I, Muir KW (2005) The prevalence of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) in west of Scotland. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:739–41.
Schütz H, Bödeker RH, Damian M, Krack P, Dorndorf W (1990) Age-related spontaneous intracerebral hematoma in a German community. Stroke 21:1412–18.
Shah DM (2007) Preeclampsia: new insights. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 16:213–20.
Sibai BM (2005) Diagnosis, prevention, and management of eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 105:402–10.
Stam J (2005) Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med 28:1791–8.
Stott VL, Hurrell MA, Anderson TJ (2005) Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: a misnomer reviewed. Intern Med J 35:83–90.
Zuber M, Blustajn J, Arquizan C, et al. (1999) Angiitis of the central nervous system. J Neuroradiol 26:101–17.