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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: May 2015

24 - Regional study: trans-Saharan trade

from Part II - Trans-regional and regional perspectives

Summary

The written Chinese language played a critical role in shaping the emergence of a distinctively East Asian cultural zone. The development of writing in Bronze Age China is thus fundamental to both Chinese and East Asian civilization more broadly. Although tantalizing examples of markings that seem to resemble writing have been discovered from earlier periods, the first unmistakable examples of written language in China appear on the 'oracle bones' that were used for divination at the late Shang court. During the fourth and early fifth centuries, Xianbei bands in the northeast established a series of dynasties in the area of southwestern Manchuria and northeastern China proper. In the early sixth century, there was reportedly a steady flow of merchants from the remote west arriving in the Northern Wei dynasty capital at Luoyang, in north-central China. Buddhism was then introduced to Paekche by a Central Asian monk, Malananda, coming from Southern dynasty China in 384.
Herodotus, , The Histories, trans. Godley, A. D., Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 1921, vol. ii, pp. 383–89.
Hopkins, J. F. P., and Levitzon, Nehemia, Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Abun-Nasr, Jamil M., A History of the Maghrib, Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Austen, Ralph A., Trans-Saharan Africa in World History, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Brett, Michael, and Fentress, Elizabeth, The Berbers: The People of Africa, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.
Bulliet, Richard W., The Camel and the Wheel, Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 1975.
De Villiers, Marq, and Hirtle, Sheila, Sahara: A Natural History, New York: Walker, 2002.
Dowler, Amelia, and Galvin, Elizabeth R. (eds.), Money, Trade and Trade Routes in Pre-Islamic North Africa, London: The British Museum, 2011.
Encyclopédie berbère, Aix-en-Provence: EDISUD, 2008.
Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edn., ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th., Bosworth, C. E., van Donzel, E., and Heinrichs, W. P.. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Gruen, Erich S., Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, Princeton University Press, 2010.
Harper, Kyle, Slavery in the Late Roman World, ad 275–425, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Hirschberg, H. Z., A History of the Jews in North Africa, Leiden: Brill, 1974, vol. i.
Kaegi, Jr., Walter, E., Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Law, R. C. C., “North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, 323 bc to ad 305,” in Fage, J. D. and Oliver, Roland (eds.), The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. ii, Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 148290.
Lydon, Ghislaine, On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Western Africa, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Mattingly, David (ed.), The Libyan Desert: Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage, London: Society for Libyan Studies, 2006.
McIntosh, Susan Keech, “Changing Perceptions of West Africa’s Past: Archaeological Research Since 1988,” Journal of Archaeological Research 2 (1994): 165–98.
Merrills, A. H. (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Muzzolini, Alfred, “Livestock in Saharan Rock Art,” in Blench, Roger M. and MacDonald, Kevin C. (eds.), The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics, and Ethnography, London: UCL Press, 2000, pp. 87110.
Savage, Elizabeth, A Gateway to Hell, a Gateway to Paradise: The North African Response to the Arab Conquest, Princeton, nj: Darwin Press, 1997.
Schiedel, Walter, “The Roman Slave Supply,” in Bradley, Keith and Cartledge, Paul (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery, Cambridge University Press, vol. i, 2011, pp. 287310.
Shaw, Brent D., Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Vikør, Knut S., The Oasis of Salt: The History of Kawar, a Saharan Centre of Salt Production, Bergen, Norway: Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1999.
Wilson, Andrew, “Saharan Trade in the Roman Period: Short-, Medium- and Long-Distance Trade Networks,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47 (2012): 409–49.
Herodotus, , The Histories, trans. Godley, A. D., Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 1921, vol. ii, pp. 383–89.
Hopkins, J. F. P., and Levitzon, Nehemia, Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Abun-Nasr, Jamil M., A History of the Maghrib, Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Austen, Ralph A., Trans-Saharan Africa in World History, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Brett, Michael, and Fentress, Elizabeth, The Berbers: The People of Africa, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.
Bulliet, Richard W., The Camel and the Wheel, Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 1975.
De Villiers, Marq, and Hirtle, Sheila, Sahara: A Natural History, New York: Walker, 2002.
Dowler, Amelia, and Galvin, Elizabeth R. (eds.), Money, Trade and Trade Routes in Pre-Islamic North Africa, London: The British Museum, 2011.
Encyclopédie berbère, Aix-en-Provence: EDISUD, 2008.
Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edn., ed. Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th., Bosworth, C. E., van Donzel, E., and Heinrichs, W. P.. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Gruen, Erich S., Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, Princeton University Press, 2010.
Harper, Kyle, Slavery in the Late Roman World, ad 275–425, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Hirschberg, H. Z., A History of the Jews in North Africa, Leiden: Brill, 1974, vol. i.
Kaegi, Jr., Walter, E., Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Law, R. C. C., “North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, 323 bc to ad 305,” in Fage, J. D. and Oliver, Roland (eds.), The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. ii, Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 148290.
Lydon, Ghislaine, On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Western Africa, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Mattingly, David (ed.), The Libyan Desert: Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage, London: Society for Libyan Studies, 2006.
McIntosh, Susan Keech, “Changing Perceptions of West Africa’s Past: Archaeological Research Since 1988,” Journal of Archaeological Research 2 (1994): 165–98.
Merrills, A. H. (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Muzzolini, Alfred, “Livestock in Saharan Rock Art,” in Blench, Roger M. and MacDonald, Kevin C. (eds.), The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics, and Ethnography, London: UCL Press, 2000, pp. 87110.
Savage, Elizabeth, A Gateway to Hell, a Gateway to Paradise: The North African Response to the Arab Conquest, Princeton, nj: Darwin Press, 1997.
Schiedel, Walter, “The Roman Slave Supply,” in Bradley, Keith and Cartledge, Paul (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery, Cambridge University Press, vol. i, 2011, pp. 287310.
Shaw, Brent D., Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Vikør, Knut S., The Oasis of Salt: The History of Kawar, a Saharan Centre of Salt Production, Bergen, Norway: Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1999.
Wilson, Andrew, “Saharan Trade in the Roman Period: Short-, Medium- and Long-Distance Trade Networks,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47 (2012): 409–49.