For studies of institutions of servitude in China, see:
Crossley, P. K., “Slavery in Early Modern China,” in Eltis, David and Engerman, Stanley L. (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (Cambridge, 2011–2017), Vol. 3 (1420–1804), pp. 186–215.
Schottenhammer, Angela, “Slaves and Forms of Slavery in Late Imperial China (Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Centuries),” Slavery and Abolition, 24 (2003): 143–54.
A major source on Japan is Nelson, Thomas, “Slavery in Medieval Japan,” Monumenta Nipponica, 59 (2004): 463–92, and for Korea see Kim, Bok Rae, “Nobi: A Korean System of Slavery,” in Gwyn Campbell (ed.), Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia (London, 2003).
For traditional servitude, see:
Anderson, Mary M., Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China (Buffalo, 1990).
Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World (Princeton, NJ, 1990).
Kutcher, Norma A., “Unspoken Collusions: The Empowerment of Yuanming Yuan Eunuchs in the Qianlong Period,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 70 (2010): 449–95.
Taisuke, Mitamura, Chinese Eunuchs: The Structure of Intimate Politics, trans. Pomeroy, Charles A. (Tokyo, 1970).
For histories of women in various contexts of dependency, see:
Herhatter, Gail, Women in China’s Long Twentieth Century (Berkeley, CA, 2007).
Sommer, Matthew H., Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China (Stanford, CA, 2000).
Yeung, Sau-Chu Alison, “Fornication in the Late Qing Legal Reforms: Moral Teachings and Legal Principles,” Modern China, 29 (2003): 297–328.
On the role of indenture, contract labor, and political violence in migration, see:
Irick, Robert L., Ch’ing Policy toward the Coolie Trade: 1847–1878 (Taipei, 1982).
Patterson, Wayne, The Korean Frontier in America: Immigration to Hawaii, 1896–1910 (Honolulu, 1988).
On the forced laborer’s experiences, see:
Glick, Clarence, Sojourners and Settlers: Chinese Migrants in Hawaii (Honolulu, 1980).
Glosser, Susan L., Chinese Visions of Family and State, 1915–1953 (Berkeley, CA, 2003).
Ling, Huping, Chinese Chicago: Race, Transnational Migration, and Community Since 1870 (Stanford, CA, 2012).
Rojas, Carlos, Homesickness: Culture, Contagion and National Transformation in Modern China (Cambridge, MA, 2015).
Yun, Lisa, The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves in Cuba (Philadelphia, PA, 2008).