Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

19 - The western republics: Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and the Baltics

from Part II - Russia and the Soviet Union: Themes and Trends


The Soviet west came to the attention of scholars during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the late nineteenth century, Estonians and Latvians were overwhelmingly peasant peoples, albeit with the level of literacy that was one of the highest in Europe. The Revolution of 1905 escalated the political and cultural demands of Estonian activists. Eastern or Dnieper Ukraine, which was part of the Russian Empire, shared many characteristics with Lithuania and Belorussia. Bordering Dnieper Ukraine in the south-west was Bessarabia, which is currently known under its historical name of Moldova. Territorial changes at the end of the Second World War favoured the western republics. The post-war period saw a quick industrial expansion, particularly in the Baltics and eastern Ukraine. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Baltic republics demonstrated standards of living higher than elsewhere in the USSR, while the rest of the region was on a par with the European part of Russia.
Beissinger, Mark R., Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Bremmer, Ian, and Taras, Ray (eds.), New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Brubaker, Rogers, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Clem, Ralph S., The Soviet West: Interplay between Nationality and Social Organization (New York: Praeger, 1975).
Eley, Geoffrey, ‘Remapping the Nation: War, Revolutionary Upheaval, and State Formation in Eastern Europe, 1914–1923’, Ukrainian–Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1988).
Himka, John-Paul, Galician Villagers and the Ukrainian National Movement in the Nineteenth Century (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1988).
Hroch, Miroslav, Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the Social Composition of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations, trans. Ben, Fowkes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
King, Charles, The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2000).
Lubachko, Ivan S., Belorusia under Soviet Rule, 1917–1957 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1972).
Magocsi, Paul Robert, A History of Ukraine (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996).
Marples, David R., Belarus: A Denationalized Nation (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999).
Martin, Terry, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939 (Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 2001).
Plakans, Andrejs, The Latvians: A Short History (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1995).
Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1991).
Smith, Graham (ed.), The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (London: Macmillan, 1996).
Subtelny, Orest, Ukraine: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989; 3rd edn 2000).
Suny, Ronald Grigor, The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution and the Collapse of the Soviet Union (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1993).
Szporluk, Roman Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2000).
Szporluk, Roman (ed.), The Influence of East Europe and the Soviet West on the USSR (New York: Praeger, 1975).
Taagepera, Rein, Estonia: Return to Independence (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993).
Vardys, V. Stanley, and Sedaitis, Judith B., Lithuania: The Rebel Nation (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997).
Yekelchyk, Serhy, ‘Stalinist Patriotism as Imperial Discourse: Reconciling the Ukrainian and Russian “Heroic Pasts”, 1938–1945’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 3, 1 (2002).
Zaprudnik, Jan, Belarus: At a Crossroads in History (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993).