Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: October 2014

9 - Language, society, and history Towards a unified approach?

from Part II - Process and formation

Summary

This chapter describes what happens to the manual modality under two distinct circumstances: (1) when it accompanies speech, and thus forms part of language; and (2) when it is used instead of speech as the primary modality for communication, and thus is itself language. It turns to the form co-speech gesture assumes and then explores its communicative and cognitive functions. Co-speech gesture is thus not structured like a conventional linguistic system. It has its own representational properties, which work together with speech to form an integrated system. The information gesture conveys can be quite different from the information conveyed in the speech it accompanies. The chapter describes the hand movements people produce in the absence of speech, deals with conventional sign languages created by deaf communities. Sign languages of the deaf are autonomous languages, independent of the spoken languages of hearing cultures.

References

Abu El Haj, Nadia. 2002. Facts on the Ground: Archaeological Practice and Territorial Self-Fashioning in Israeli Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Agha, Asif. 2007. Language and Social Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Agha, Asif. 2011. Meet Mediatization. Language and Communication 31(3): 163–70.
Alcock, Susan. 2001. Archaeologies of the Greek Past: Landscape, Monuments and Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. University of Texas Press.
Basso, Keith. 1996. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Bauman, Richard. 2004. A World of Others’ Words: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Intertextuality. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Bauman, Richard, and Charles L. Briggs. 2003. Voices of Modernity: Language Ideologies and the Politics of Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Besnier, Niko. 1995. Literacy, Emotion, and Authority: Reading and Writing on a Polynesian Atoll. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blythe, Joe. 2013. Preference Organization Driving Structuration: Evidence from Australian Aboriginal interaction for pragmatically motivated grammaticalization. Language 89(4): 883–919.
Boone, Elizabeth, and Walter Mignolo. 1994. Writing Without Words: Alternative Literacies in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Durham: Duke University Press.
Boone, Elizabeth, and Gary Urton. 2011. Their Way of Writing: Scripts, Signs, and Pictographies in Pre-Columbian America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burkhart, Louise M. 1989. The Slippery Earth: Nahuatl–Christian Moral Dialogue in Sixteenth-Century Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Campbell, Lyle. 1998. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Campbell, Lyle, and Terrence Kaufman. 1976. A Linguistic Look at the Olmec. American Antiquity 41(1): 80–9.
Campbell, Lyle, and Richard Janda. 2000. Introduction: conceptions of grammaticalization and their problems. Language Sciences 23(2–3): 93–112.
Canger, Una. 2011. El nauatl urbano de Tlatelolco/Tenochtitlan, resultado de convergencia entre dialectos, con un esbozo brevísimo de la historia de los dialectos. Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl 42: 243–58.
Chuchiak, John F. 2010. Writing as Resistance: Maya Graphic Pluralism and Indigenous Elite Strategies for Survival in Colonial Yucatán 1550–1750. Ethnohistory 57(1): 87–116.
Coe, Michael D. 1968. America’s First Civilization. New York: American Heritage.
Crossland, Zoe. 2009. Of Clues and Signs: The dead body and its evidential traces. American Anthropologist 111(1):69–80.
Dick, H. P. 2010. Imagined Lives and Modernist Chronotopes in Mexican Nonmigrant Discourse. American Ethnologist 37: 275–90.
Dinwoodie, David W. 2006. Time and the Individual in Native North America. In New Perspectives on Native North America: Cultures, Histories, And Representations, ed. Sergei Kan, Pauline Turner Strong, and Raymond Fogelson, 327–50. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.
Durston, Alan. 2007. Pastoral Quechua: The History of Christian Translation in Colonial Peru, 1550–1650. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Durston, Alan. 2008. Native-Language Literacy in Colonial Peru: The question of mundane Quechua writing revisited. Hispanic American Historical Review 88(1): 41–70.
Eisenlohr, Patrick. 2007. Little India: Diaspora, Time, and Ethnolinguistic Belonging in Hindu Mauritius. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 2000. The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Brooks Atkinson. New York: Modern Library.
Enfield, N. J., ed. 2002. Ethnosyntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Errington, Joseph. 2008. Linguistics in a Colonial World: A Story of Language, Meaning, and Power. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Context, Culture, and Structuration in the Languages of Australia. Annual Review of Anthropology 32: 13–40.
Fabian, J. 1983. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object. New York: Columbia University Press.
Farriss, Nancy M. 1987. Remembering the Future, Anticipating the Past: History, Time, and Cosmology among the Maya of Yucatan. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29: 566–93.
Faudree, Paja. 2012. Performativity and the Temporal Pragmatics of Power: Speech acts of the conquest. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 22(3): 182–200.
Faudree, Paja. 2013. Singing for the Dead: The Politics of Indigenous Revival in Mexico. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Geertz, Armin W. 1994. The Invention of Prophesy: Continuity and Meaning in Hopi Indian Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Graham, Laura. 1995. Performing Dreams: Discourses of Immortality among the Xavante Indians of central Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Hanks, William. F. 2010. Converting Words: Maya in the Age of the Cross. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Harris, Alice C., and Lyle Campbell. 1995. Historical Syntax in Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haskett, Robert. 1991. Indigenous Rulers: An Ethnohistory of Town Government in Colonial Cuernavaca. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Hill, Jane H. 2001. Proto-Uto-Aztecan: A Community of Cultivators in Central Mexico?American Anthropologist 103(4): 913–34.
Hill, Jane H. 2005. Intertextuality as Source and Evidence for Indirect Indexical Meanings. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 15: 113–24.
Houston, Stephen, ed. 2004. The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Houston, Stephen, 2008. The Small Deaths of Maya Writing. In The Disappearance of Writing Systems, ed. John Baines, John Bennett, and Stephen Houston. London: Equinox.
Inoue, M. 2004. Introduction: Temporality and Historicity in and through Linguistic Ideology. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14: 1–5.
Irvine, Judith T. 2004. Say When: Temporalities in language ideology. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14: 99–109.
Irvine, Judith T., and Susan Gal. 2000. Language Ideology and Linguistic Differentiation. In Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities, ed. Paul Kroskrity, 35–83. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
Jansen, Maarten. 1990. The Search for History in Mixtec Codices. Ancient Mesoamerica 1: 99–112.
Kaufman, Terrence, and John Justeson. 2009. Historical linguistics and pre-columbian Mesoamerica. Ancient Mesoamerica 20(2): 221–31.
Kellogg, Susan, and Matthew Restall, eds. 1998. Dead Giveaways: Indigenous Testaments of Colonial Mesoamerica and the Andes. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Kockelman, Paul, and A. Bernstein. 2012. Semiotic Technologies, Temporal Reckoning, and the Portability of Meaning, Or: Modern modes of temporality – just how abstract are they?Anthropological Theory 12(3): 320–48.
Kroskrity, Paul V. 1993. Language, History, and Identity: Ethnolinguistic Studies of the Arizona Tewa. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Kulick, Don. 1992. Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self, and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinean Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Labov, William. 1994–2010. Principles of Linguistic Change, Vols. 1–3. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Lempert, Michael. 2007. Conspicuously Past: Distressed discourse and diagrammatic embedding in a Tibetan represented speech style. Language and Communication 27(3): 258–71.
Lempert, Michael, and Sabina Perrino. 2007. Entextualization and the ends of temporality. Language and Communication 27(3): 205–11.
Lockhart, James. 1992. The Nahuas After the Conquest: A Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lockhart, James. ed. 1993. We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lockhart, James. 1999. Of Things of the Indies: Essays Old and New in Early Latin American History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lockhart, James. 2007. Introduction: Background and Course of the New Philology. In Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory, Provisional Version (e-book), ed. James Lockhart, Stephanie Wood, and Lisa Sousa. Eugene, OR: Wired Humanities Project, University of Oregon, 2007. Expanded in 2010. Accessed at http://whp.uoregon.edu/Lockhart/index.html on April 19, 2012.
Makihara, Miki. 2001. Book Reviews. Rongorongo: the Easter Island Script. History. Traditions. Text. Steven Roger Fischer. Oxford and N.Y.: Oxford University Press. Anthropological Linguistics 43(1): 111–15.
Malotki, Ekkehart. 1983. Hopi Time: A Linguistic Analysis of the Temporal Concepts in the Hopi Language. Berlin: Mouton.
Mannheim, Bruce. 1991. The Language of the Inka Since the European Invasion. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Matthew, Laura E., and Michel Oudijk. 2007. Indian Conquistadors. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Matras, Yaron. 2009. Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meek, Barbra. 2011. We Are Our Language: An Ethnography of Language Revitalization in a Northern Athabaskan Community. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Mignolo, Walter. 1992. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Miller, Flagg. 2007. The Moral Resonance of Arab Media: Audiocassette Poetry and Culture in Yemen. Harvard University Middle Eastern Monographs series. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Monaghan, Leila. 2011. Expanding Boundaries of Linguistic Anthropology: 2010 in perspective. American Anthropologist 113(2): 222–34.
Parmentier, Richard J. 1987. The Sacred Remains: Myth, History, and Polity in Belau. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Parmentier, Richard J. 1994. Signs in Society: Studies in Semiotic Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Parmentier, Richard J. 2007. It’s About Time: On the semiotics of temporality. Language and Communication 27(3): 272–7.
Perrino, Sabina. 2007. Cross-Chronotope Alignment in Senegalese Oral Narrative. Language and Communication 27(3): 227–44.
Perrino, Sabina. 2011. Chronotopes of Story and Storytelling Event in Interviews. Language in Society 40(1): 91–103.
Pizzigoni, Caterina, ed. and trans. 2007. Testaments of Toluca. UCLA Latin American Center Nahuatl Studies Series, 8. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
Preucel, Robert. 2006. Archaeological Semiotics. Oxford: Blackwell Press.
Quilter, J., and G. D. Urton, eds. 2002. Narrative Threads: Accounting and Recounting in Andean Khipu. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Rabasa, Jose. 2010. Without History: Subaltern Studies, the Apatista Insurgency, and the Specter of History. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Rabasa, Jose. 2011. Tell Me the Story of how I Conquered You: Elsewheres and Ethnosuicide in the Colonial Mesoamerican World. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Rafael, Vicente. 1988. Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Early SpanishRule. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Rappaport, J., and T. Cummins. 2011. Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Restall, Matthew. 1997a. Heirs to the Hieroglyphics: Indigenous writing in Colonial Mesoamerica. The Americas 54(2): 239–67.
Restall, Matthew. 1997b. The Maya World: Yucatec Culture and Society, 1550–1850. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Restall, Matthew. 2003. A History of the New Philology and the New Philology in History. Latin American Historical Review 38: 113–34.
Reilly, F. Kent, III. 1991. Olmec Iconographic Influences on the Symbols of Maya Rulership: An examination of possible sources. In Sixth Palenque Round Table, 1986, ed. Virginia M. Fields, 151–66. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Salomon, Frank 2001. How an Andean “Writing Without Words” Works. Current Anthropology 42(1): 1–27.
Salomon, Frank 2004. The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Sapir, Edward. 1916. Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method. Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey, Memoir 90. Anthropological Series, No. 13.
Schiffrin, Debora. 2009. Crossing Boundaries: The nexus of time, space, person, and place in narrative. Language in Society 38: 421–45
Silverstein, Michael. 1993. Metapragmatic Discourse and Metapragmatic Function. In Reflexive Language: Reported Speech and Metapragmatics, ed. J. Lucy, 33–58. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silverstein, Michael. 2005. Axes of Evals. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 15: 6–22.
Silverstein, Michael, and Greg Urban, eds. 1996. Natural Histories of Discourse. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Stasch, Rupert. 2011. Textual Iconicity and the Primitivist Cosmos: Chronotopes of desire in travel writing about Korowai of West Papua. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 21: 1–21.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1988. Can the Subaltern Speak? In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, 271–313. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Tedlock, Dennis, and Bruce Mannheim, eds. 1995. The Dialogic Emergence of Culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Terraciano, Kevin. 2001. The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui History, Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terraciano, Kevin, Lisa Sousa, and Matthew Restall, eds. 2005. Mesoamerican Voices: Native-Language Writings from Colonial Mexico, Oaxaca, Yucatan, and Guatemala. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thomason, Sarah G. 1999. Speakers’ Choices in Language Change. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 29: 19–43.
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tomlinson, Gary. 2009. Singing of the New World: Indigenous Voice in the Era of European Contact. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Trouillot, Michel Rolph. 1995. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Beacon Press.
Trudgill, Peter. 2010. Investigations in Sociohistorical Linguistics: Stories of Colonization and Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tuite, Kevin. 2006. Interpreting Language Variation and Change. In Language, Culture and Society: Key Topics in Linguistic Anthropology, ed. Christine Jourdan and Kevin Tuite, 229–56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Urban, Greg. 1996. Metaphysical Community: The Interplay of the Senses and the Intellect. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Urban, Greg. 2001. Metaculture: How Culture Moves through the World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Urton, Gary. 2003. Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Van Dyke, Ruth M., and Susan E. Alcock, eds. 2003. Archaeologies of Memory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Van Young, Eric. 2004. Two Decades of Anglophone Historical Writing on Colonial Mexico: Continuity and change since 1980. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 20(2): 275–326.
White, Hayden. 1973. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1956. The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behavior to Language. In Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. Benjamin Carroll, 134–59. Cambridge, MA: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Wirtz, Kristina. 2007. Enregistered Memory and Afro-Cuban Historicity in Santería’s Ritual Speech. Language and Communication 27(3): 245–57.
Wolf, Eric. 2010[1982]. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wood, Stephanie. 2003. Transcending Conquest: Nahua Views of Spanish Colonial Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Woolard, K. A. 2004. Is the Past a Foreign Country?: Time, language origins, and the nation in early modern Spain. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14: 57–80.
Woolard, K. A. 2008. Why Dat Now? Linguistic-anthropological contributions to the explanation of sociolinguistic icons and change. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4): 432–52.
Yannakakis, Y. 2008. The Art of Being In-Between: Native Intermediaries, Indian Identity, and Local Rule in Colonial Oaxaca. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.