Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bornstein, Marc H. 2015. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. p. 1.

    Hawes, David J. 2017. The Wiley Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology. p. 287.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: October 2012

Chapter 10 - Parental Care and Attachment

from Part III - Environments

Summary

The teacher-pupil relationship represents an important dyadic model, which focuses on information exchange and holds that the fundamental process through which information is disseminated is a dyadic one, defined as two people: a teacher and a learner. The teacher-pupil dyad model suffers from some of the same problems as are found in the mother-child dyad model. The focus on dyadic interactions enables the investigator to easily explore the direct consequences of the action of one member on the behavior of another. The history of the measurement of dyadic interactions should immediately alert one to the major problems they face when they measure the more complete effect of the social environment on the child. Investigations of the effects of birth order on caregiver-infant interaction have also considered extradyadic influences. The need to go beyond the dyad is clear if one can understand the infant and child's social and emotional development.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development
  • Online ISBN: 9781139016827
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139016827
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×

References

Aber, J. L., Slade, A., Berger, B., Bresgi, I., & Kaplan, M. (1985). The parent development interview. Unpublished manuscript.
Abrams, K., Rifkin, A., & Hesse, E. (2006). Dissociative “FR” parental behavior observed in a laboratory play session predicts infant disorganization. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 345–361.
Adam, E. K., Gunnar, M. R., & Tanakar, A. (2004). Adult attachment, parent emotion, and observed parenting behavior: Mediator and moderator models. Child Development, 75(1), 110 – 122.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1976). System for rating maternal-care behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & IJzendoorn, M. H. v. (2007). Research review: Genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility in child development: the case of attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(12), 1160–1173.
Barry, R. A., Kochanska, G., & Philibert, R. A. (2008). G × E interaction in the organization of attachment: mothers’ responsiveness as a moderator of children’s genotypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(12), 1313–1320.
Baumrind, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In J. Brooks-Gunn, R. Lerner & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), The encyclopedia on adolescence, pp. 746–758. New York: Garland.
Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: A moderational analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 293–310.
Benoit, D., & Parker, K. (1994). Stability and transmission of attachment across three generations. Child Development, 65, 1444–1457.
Biringen, Z., Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (1993). Emotional Availability Scales. Boulder: University of Colorado, Health Science Center.
Biringen, Z., Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (2000). Emotional Availability Scales (3rd ed.). Attachment and Human Development, 2, 257–270.
Biringen, Z., Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (2008). Emotional Availability Scales (4th ed.). University of Colorado.
Bokhorst, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., Fearon, P., Van ijzendoorn, M., Fonagy, P., & Schuengel, C. (2003). The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: A behavioral genetic study. Child Development, 74(6), 1769–1782.
Bosquet, M., & Egeland, B. (2006). The development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms from infancy through adolescence in a longitudinal sample. Dev Psychopathol, 18(2), 517–550.
Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39(5), 350–373.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Clinical applications of attachment theory. London: Routledge.
Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (2008). Internal working models in attachment relationships: Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Bretherton, I., Ridgeway, D., & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing internal working models of the attachment relationship: An attachment story completion task. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention, pp. 273–308. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
Bronfman, E., Parsons, E., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (1999). Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE): Manual for coding disrupted affective communication, version 2. Unpublished manuscript. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Medical School.
Buccino, G., Binkofski, F., Fink, G. R., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V. et al. (2001). Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in a somatotopic manner: an fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci, 13(2), 400–404.
Bugental, D. B., & Schwartz, A. (2009). A cognitive approach to child mistreatment prevention among medically at-risk infants. Dev Psychol, 45(1), 284–288.
Carlson, E. A. (1998). A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation. Child Development, 69, 1107–1128.
Caspers, K., Yucuis, R., Troutman, B., Arndt, S., & Langbehn, D. (2007). A sibling adoption study of adult attachment: the influence of shared environment on attachment states of mind. Attach Hum Dev, 9(4), 375–391.
Cassidy, J. (1988). Child-mother attachment and the self in six-year-olds. Child Development, 59, 121–134.
Cassidy, J., & Marvin, R. S. (1992). Attachment organization in preschool children: Coding guidelines. Seattle: MacArthur Working Group on Attachment. Unpublished Coding Manual. Seattle, WA.
Clarke, A. M., & Clarke, A. D. B. (1976). Early experience: Myth and evidence. London: Open Books.
Cohn, D., Cowan, P., Cowan, C., & Pearson, J. (1992). Mothers’ and fathers working models of childhood attachment relationships, parenting style, and child behaviorDev Psychopathol, 4, 417–431.
Cote, S. M., Boivin, M., Nagin, D. S., Japel, C., Xu, Q., Zoccolillo, M. et al. (2007). The role of maternal education and nonmaternal care services in the prevention of children’s physical aggression problems. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 64(11), 1305–1312.
Cote, S. M., Vaillancourt, T., LeBlanc, J. C., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 68–82.
Cowan, P. A., Bradburn, I., & Cowan, C. P. (2005). Parents’ working models of attachment: The intergenerational context of parenting and childrens’ adaptation to school. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crowell, J. A., & Feldman, S. S. (1988). Mothers’ internal models of relationships and children’s behavioral and developmental status: A study of mother-child interaction. Child Development, 59, 1273–1285.
Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2006). Social learning and social cognition: The case for pedagogy. In M. H. Johnson & Y. M. Munakata (Eds.), Processes of chanage in brain and cognitive development: Attention and Performance, pp. 249–274, Vol. XXI. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2007). Infant-mother attachment security and children’s anxiety and aggression at first grade. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 477–492.
Das Eiden, R., Teti, D. M., & Corns, K. M. (1995). Maternal working models of attachment, marital adjustment, and the parent-child relationship. Child Development, 66, 1504–1518.
De Wolff, M. S., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68, 571–591.
Deater-Deckard, K., Fulker, D. W., & Plomin, R. (1999). A genetic study of the family environment in the transition to early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 769–795.
Decety, J., Chaminade, T., Grezes, J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2002). A PET exploration of the neural mechanisms involved in reciprocal imitation. Neuroimage, 15(1), 265–272.
DeOliveira, C. A., Moran, G., & Pederson, D. R. (2005). Understanding the link between maternal adult attachment classifications and thoughts and feelings about emotions. Attachment & Human Development, 7(2), 153–170.
Dunn, J., Davies, L. C., O’Connor, T. G., & Sturgess, W. (2000). Parents’ and partners’ life course and family experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 41(8), 955–968.
Dunn, J., Deater-Deckard, K., Pickering, K., O’Connor, T. G., & Golding, J. (1998). Children’s adjustment and prosocial behaviour in step-, single-parent, and non- stepfamily settings: findings from a community study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) Study Team. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 39(8), 1083–1095.
Dutra, L., Bureau, J., Holmes, B., Lyubchik, A., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2009). Quality of early care and childhood trauma: Prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation. J Nerv Ment Dis, 197(6), 383–390.
Dutra, L., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2005). Maltreatment, maternal and child psychopathology, and quality of early care as predictors of adolescent dissociation. In J. Borelli (ed.), Interrelations of attachment and trauma symptoms: A developmental perspective. Paper presented at the Symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.
East, P. L., & Khoo, S. T. (2005). Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(4), 571–580.
Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A. et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 38(8), 965–980.
Edwards, E. P., Eiden, R. D., & Leonard, K. E. (2006). Behaviour problems in 18- to 36-month old children of alcoholic fathers: secure mother-infant attachment as a protective factor. Dev Psychopathol, 18(2), 395–407.
Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K. D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302(5643), 290–292.
Ekblad, S. (1988). Influence of child-rearing on aggressive behavior in a transcultural perspective. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 344(Supplement), 133–139.
Fearon, P., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Fonagy, P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Schuengel, C., & Bokhorst, C. L. (2006). In search of shared and nonshared environmental factors in security of attachment: A behavior-genetic study of the association between sensitivity and attachment security. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1026–1040.
Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. New York: Other Press.
Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., & Target, M. (2007). The parent-infant dyad and the construction of the subjective self. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 288–328.
Fonagy, P., Sadie, C., & Allison, E. (2002). The Parent-Infant Project (PIP) Outcome Study. London: Anna Freud Centre.
Fonagy, P., & Sharp, C. (2008). Treatment outcome of childhood disorders: The perspective of social cognition In C. Sharp, P. Fonagy & I. Goodyer (Eds.), Social cognition and developmental psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fonagy, P., Steele, H., Moran, G., Steele, M., & Higgitt, A. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 200–217.
Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1991). Maternal representations of attachment during pregnancy predict the organization of infant-mother attachment at one year of age. Child Development, 62, 891–905.
Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1996). Associations among attachment classifications of mothers, fathers, and their infants: Evidence for a relationship-specific perspective. Child Development, 67, 541–555.
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., & Target, M. (1997). Reflective-Functioning Manual, version 4.1, for Application to Adult Attachment Interviews. London: University College London.
Fonagy, P., Stein, H., Allen, J., & Fultz, J. (2003). The relationship of mentalization and childhood and adolescent adversity to adult functioning. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL.
Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1998). Reflective-Functioning Manual, version 5.0, for Application to Adult Attachment Interviews. London: University College London.
Franz, C. E., McClelland, D. C., & Weinberger, J. (1991). Childhood antecedents of conventional social accomplishment in midlife adults: A 36-year prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 586–595.
Franz, C. E., McClelland, D. C., Weinberger, J. & Peterson, C. (1994). Parenting antecedents of adult adjustment: A longitudinal sudy. In C. Perris, W.A. Arrindell, M. Eisemann (Eds). Parenting and Psychopathology, pp. 127–124. New York: Wiley.
Gable, S., Belsky, J., & Crnic, K. (1992). Marriage, parenting, and child development: Progress and prospects. Journal of Family Psychology, 5, 276–294.
Gallese, V. (2005). Embodied simulation: From neurons to phenomenal experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 4(23–48).
Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 119 (Pt 2), 593–609.
Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Cadoret, R., Neiderhiser, J., & Yates, W. (1996). The developmental interface between nature and nurture: a mutual influence model of child antisocial behavior and parent behavior. Developmental Psychology, 32, 574–589.
George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). The Adult Attachment Interview. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (1990/1996/2000). Six-year attachment doll play classification system. Unpublished manuscript. Oakland, CA: Mills College.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (1996). Representational models of relationships: Links between caregiving and attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 198–216.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (1999). The development of caregiving: A comparison of attachment and psychoanalytic approaches to mothering. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 618–646.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (2008a). The caregiving behavioral system: A behavioral system approach to parenting In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical application (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (2008b). Internal Working Models of Caregiving Rating Manual. Unpublished manuscript. Oakland, CA: Mills College.
Gergely, G., & Csibra, G. (2005). The social construction of the cultural mind: Imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interaction Studies, 6, 463–481.
Gergely, G., & Csibra, G. (2006). Sylvia’s recipe: Human culture, imitation, and pedagogy. In N. J. Enfield & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Roots of human sociality: Culture, cognition, and human interaction, pp. 229–255. Berg Press: London.
Gergely, G., Koós, O., & Watson, J. S. (2002). Contingency perception and the role of contingent parental reactivity in early socio- emotional development [Perception causale et role des comportements imitatifs des parents dans le développement socio-émotionnel précoce]. In J. Nadel & J. Decety (Eds.), Imiter pour découvrir l’human: Psychologie, neurobiology, robotique et philosophie de l’esprit, pp. 59–82. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Gergely, G., & Unoka, Z. (2008). Attachment, affect regulation and mentalization: The developmental origins of the representational affective self. In C. Sharp, P. Fonagy & I. Goodyer (Eds.), Social cognition and developmental psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gergely, G., & Watson, J. (1996). The social biofeedback model of parental affect-mirroring. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 77, 1181–1212.
Gergely, G., & Watson, J. (1999). Early social-emotional development: Contingency perception and the social biofeedback model. In P. Rochat (Ed.), Early social cognition: Understanding others in the first months of life, pp. 101–137. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Goldberg, S., Benoit, D., Blokland, K., & Madigan, S. (2003). Atypical maternal behavior, maternal representations, and infant disorganized attachment. Dev Psychopathol, 15(2), 239–257.
Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Green, J. (2000). A new method of evaluating attachment representations in young school-age children: The Manchester Child Evaluation Story Task. Attachment and Human Development, 2(1), 48–70.
Greenberg, M. T. (1999). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, pp. 469–496. New York: Guilford.
Grienenberger, J. F., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication, and infant attachment: exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attach Hum Dev, 7(3), 299–311.
Grossman, K., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Rudolph, J., & Grossman, K. E. (1988). Maternal attachment representations as related to patterns of infant-mother attachment and maternal care during the first year. In R. A. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships within families: Mutual influences, pp. 241–260. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Hamilton, C. E. (2000). Continuity and discontinuity of attachment from infancy through adolescence. Child Development, 71(3), 690–694.
Heinicke, C. M., Goorsky, M., Levine, M., Ponce, V., Ruth, G., Silverman, M. et al. (2006). Pre- and post-natal antecedents of a home visiting intervention and family developmental outcome. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 91–119.
Hesse, E. (2008). The Adult Attachment Interview: Protocol, method of analysis, and empirical studies. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, pp. 552–598 (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (1999). Second-generation effects of unresolved trauma in nonmaltreating parents: Dissociated, frightened, and threatening parental behavior. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 481–540.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2000). Disorganized infant, child, and adult attachment: Collapse in behavioral and attentional strategies. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1097–1127.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2006). Frightened, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in low-risk samples: Description, discussion, and interpretations. Dev Psychopathol, 18(2), 309–343.
Hodges, J. (1992). Little Piggy Story Stem Battery. Unpublished manuscript.
Hodges, J., Hillman, S., & Steele, M. (2007). Story Stem Assessment Profile Rating Manual. Unpublished Document.
Hooley, J. M., & Richters, J. E. (1995). Expressed emotion: a developmental perspective. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Emotion, cognition and representation, Vol. VI. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Hooven, C., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1995). Parental meta-emotion structure predicts family and child outcomes. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 229–264.
Hughes, C., Deater-Deckard, K., & Cutting, A. (1999). “Speak roughly to your little boy?” Sex differences in the relations between parenting and preschoolers’ understanding of mind. Social Development, 8, 143–160.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Mcgauley, G. A., & Fonagy, P. (2006). Factors that predict infant disorganization in mothers classified as U in pregnancyAttachment & Human Development, 8(2), 113–122.
Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J. C., & Rizzolatti, G. (2005). Grasping the intentions of others with one’s own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol, 3(3), e79.
Jacobvitz, D., Leon, K., & Hazen, N. (2006). Does expectant mothers’ unresolved trauma predict frightened/frightening maternal behavior? Risk and protective factors. Dev Psychopathol, 18(2), 363–379.
Kaplan, N. (1987). Individual differences in 6-year-olds thoughts about separation: Predicted from attachment to mother at age 1. Berkeley: University of California.
Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1986). The meta-emotion interview. Unpublished manual, Seattle: University of Washington.
Katz, L. F., Gottman, J. M., Shapiro, A. F., & Carrere, S. (1997). The meta-emotion interview for parents of toddlers. Unpublished manual, University of Washington, Seattle.
Kobak, R., Cassidy, J., Lyons-Ruth, K., & Ziv, Y. (2006). Attachment, stress and psychopathology: A developmental pathways model. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Development and psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method, pp. 334–369 (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Kochanska, G. (1997). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: Implications for early socialization. Child Development, 68(1), 94–112.
Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Prisco, T. R., & Adams, E. E. (2008). Mother-child and father-child mutually responsive orientation in the first 2 years and children’s outcomes at preschool age: mechanisms of influence. Child Development, 79(1), 30–44.
Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., Dolev, S., Sher, S., & Etzion-Carasso, A. (2002). Mother’s insightfulness regarding their infants’ internal experience: Relations with maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. Developmental Psychology, 38, 534–542.
Krueger, R. F., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bleske, A., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: developmental and methodological implications. Behav Genet, 28(3), 173–186.
Legerstee, M., & Varghese, J. (2001). The role of maternal affect mirroring on social expectancies in 2–3 month-old infants. Child Development, 72, 1301–1313.
Locke, J. (1693). Some thoughts concerning education. In P. Gay (Ed.), John Locke on Education. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teacher’s College, Columbia University (1964).
Losoya, S. H., Callor, S., Rowe, D. C., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1997). Origins of familial similarity in parenting: a study of twins and adoptive siblings. Developmental Psychopathology, 33, 1012–1023.
Lyons-Ruth, K. (2001). The two-person construction of defenses: Disorganised attachment strategies, unintegrated mental states, and hostile/helpless relational processes. Newsletter of the Division of Psychoanalytic Psychology of the American Psychological Association.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, 572–585.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Atwood, G. (1999). A relational diathesis model of hostile-helpless states of mind: Expressions in mother-infant interaction. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.), Attachment disorganization, pp. 33–70. New York: Guilford Press.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Parsons, E. (1999). Atypical attachment in infancy and early childhood among children at developmental risk: IV. Maternal frightened, frightening, or atypical behavior and disorganized infant attachment patterns. In J. Vondra & D. Barnett (Eds.), Typical patterns of infant attachment: Theory, research and current directions, pp. 67–96 Vol. 64. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Dutra, L., Schuder, M. R., & Bianchi, I. (2006). From infant attachment disorganization to adult dissociation: relational adaptations or traumatic experiences?Psychiatr Clin North Am, 29(1), 63–86, viii.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., Davidson Cibelli, C. E., & Bronfman, E. (April 1995). Predicting school-age externalising symptoms from infancy: Contributions of disorganised attachment strategies and mild mental lag. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis.
Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (2008). Attachment disorganization: Genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from infancy to adulthood. In J. C. P. Shaver (Ed.), Handbook of Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Yellin, C., Melnick, S., & Atwood, G. (2005). Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: hostile/helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization. Dev Psychopathol, 17(1), 1–23.
Maccoby, E. E. (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behaviour genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 1–27.
Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialisation in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality and social development (Vol. 4). New York: Wiley.
MacDonald, H. Z., Beeghly, M., Grant-Knight, W., Augustyn, M., Woods, R. W., Cabral, H. et al. (2008). Longitudinal association between infant disorganized attachment and childhood posttraumatic stress symptoms. Dev Psychopathol, 20(2), 493–508.
Macfie, J., McElwain, N. L., Houts, R. M., & Cox, M. J. (2005). Intergenerational transmission of role reversal between parent and child: dyadic and family systems internal working models. Attach Hum Dev, 7(1), 51–65.
Madigan, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Moran, G., Pederson, D. R., & Benoit, D. (2006). Unresolved states of mind, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment: a review and meta-analysis of a transmission gap. Attach Hum Dev, 8(2), 89–111.
Madigan, S., Moran, G., & Pederson, D. R. (2006). Unresolved states of mind, disorganized attachment relationships, and disrupted interactions of adolescent mothers and their infants. Dev Psychol, 42(2), 293–304.
Madigan, S., Moran, G., Schuengel, C., Pederson, D. R., & Otten, R. (2007). Unresolved maternal attachment representations, disrupted maternal behavior and disorganized attachment in infancy: links to toddler behavior problems. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 48(10), 1042–1050.
Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1993). Adult Attachment Classification System. University of California, Berkeley.
Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention, pp. 161–182. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1992). Disorganized/disoriented infant behaviour in the Strange Situation, lapses in the monitoring of reasoning and discourse during the parent’s Adult Attachment Interview, and dissociative states. In M. Ammaniti & D. Stern (Eds.), Attachment and Psychoanalysis, pp. 86–140. Rome: Gius, Latereza and Figli.
Main, M., Hesse, E., & Kaplan, M. (2005). Predictability of attachment behavior and representational processes at 1, 6 and 19 years of age. In K. E. Grossmann, K. Grossmann & E. Waters (Eds.), Attachment from infancy to adulthood: The major longitudinal studies. New York: Guilford.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. In T. B. Brazelton & M. W. Yogman (Eds.), Affective Development in Infancy, pp. 95–124. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment during the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention, pp. 121–160. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Martorell, G. A., & Bugental, D. B. (2006). Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 641–647.
McClelland, D. C., & Franz, C. E. (1992). Motivational and other sources of work accomplishments in mid-life. Journal of Personality, 60, 679–707.
Meins, E., & Fernyhough, C. (1999). Linguistic acquisitional style and mentalising development: The role of maternal mind-mindedness. Cognitive Development, 14, 363–380.
Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2001). Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on infants mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 637–648.
Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Russel, J., & Clark-Carter, D. (1998). Security of attachment as a predictor of symbolic and mentalising abilities: a longitudinal study. Social Development, 7, 1–24.
Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Clark-Carter, D., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E. et al. (2003). Pathways to understanding mind: construct validity and predictive validity of maternal mind-mindedness. Child Dev, 74(4), 1194–1211.
Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2002). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 1715–1726.
Meltzoff, A. N. (1990). Foundations for developing a concept of self: The role of imitation in relating self to other and the value of social mirroring, social modeling and self practice in infancy. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), The self in transition: Infancy to childhood. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mitchell, R. W. (1993). Mental models of mirror self-recognition: Two theories. New Ideas in Psychology, 11, 295–325.
Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., & Hetherington, E. M. (2007). The Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (NEAD) project: a longitudinal family study of twins and siblings from adolescence to young adulthood. Twin Res Hum Genet, 10(1), 74–83.
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Type of child care and children’s development at 54 months. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(2), 203–230.
O’Connor, T. G., Caspi, A., DeFries, J. C., & Plomin, R. (2003). Genotype–environment interaction in children’s adjustment to parental separation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 849–856.
O’Connor, T. G., & Croft, C. M. (2001). A twin study of attachment in preschool children. Child Dev, 72(5), 1501–1511.
O’Connor, T. G., Thorpe, K., Dunn, J., & Golding, J. (1999). Parental divorce and adjustment in adulthood: findings from a community sample. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(5), 777–789.
Ogawa, J. R., Sroufe, L. A., Weinfield, N. S., Carlson, E. A., & Egeland, B. (1997). Development and the fragmented self: Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatology in a nonclinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 855–879.
Olds, D. L., Sadler, L., & Kitzman, H. (2007). Programs for parents of infants and toddlers: recent evidence from randomized trials. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 48(3–4), 355–391.
Oppenheim, D., Goldsmith, D., & Koren-Karie, N. (2004). Maternal insightfulness and preschoolers’ emotion and behavior problems: Reciprocal influences in a therapeutic preschool program. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25(4), 352–367.
Oppenheim, D., & Koren-Karie, N. (2002). Mothers’ insightfulness regarding their children’s internal worlds: The capacity underlying secure child-mother relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 593–605.
Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., Dolev, S., & Yirmiya, N. (2009). Maternal insightfulness and resolution of the diagnosis are associated with secure attachment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Child Development, 80(2), 519–527.
Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., Etzion-Carasso, A., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (April 2005). Maternal insightfulness but not infant attachment predicts 4 year olds’ theory of mind (poster). Paper presented at the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, Georgia.
Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., & Sagi, A. (2001). Mothers’ empathic understanding of their preschoolers’ internal experience: Relations with early attachment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 16–26.
Parker, G. (1982). Re-searching the schizophrenogenic mother. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170(8), 452–462.
Parker, G. (1983). Parental overprotection: a risk factor in psychosocial development. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Parker, G. (1990). The Parental Bonding Instrument: A decade of research. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 25(6), 281–282.
Parker, G. B., Barrett, E. A., & Hickie, I. B. (1992). From nurture to network: examining links between perceptions of parenting received in childhood and social bonds in adulthood. Am J Psychiatry, 149(7), 877–885.
Plomin, R. (1994). Genetics and Experience: The interplay between nature and nurture. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.
Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci, 27, 169–192.
Roth, A., & Fonagy, P. (2005). What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Rousseau, J. J. (1762). Emile, or Education (translated by B. Foxley). London: J. M. Dent and Sons (1948).
Rowe, D. (1994). The limits of family influence: Genes, experience and behaviour. New York: Guilford Press.
Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63, 1–19.
Schneider-Rosen, K., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Early self-knowledge and emotional development: Visual self-recognition and affective reactions to mirror self-image in maltreated and non-maltreated toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 481–488.
Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van IJzendoorn, M. (1999). Frightening maternal behaviour linking unresolved loss and disorganised infant attachment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 54–63.
Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Blom, M. (1999). Unresolved loss and infant disorganisation: Links to frightening maternal behavior. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.), Attachment Disorganization, pp. 71–94. New York: Guilford.
Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., & Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of child-rearing. Evanston, IL: Row Peterson.
Sharp, C., & Fonagy, P. (2008). The parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 17(3), 737–754.
Sharp, C., Fonagy, P., & Goodyer, I. (2006). Imagining your child’s mind: Psychosocial adjustment and mothers’ ability to predict their children’s attributional response styles. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(1), 197–214.
Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M., & Nagin, D. S. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Dev Psychol, 39(2), 189–200.
Slade, A. (2005). Parental reflective functioning: an introduction. Attachment and Human Development, 7(3), 269–281.
Slade, A., Aber, J. L., Bresgi, I., Berger, B., & Kaplan, M. (2004). The Parent Development Interview – Revised. Unpublished protocol. New York: The City University of New York.
Slade, A., Bernbach, E., Grienenberger, J., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2004). Addendum to Fonagy, Target, Steele, & Steele reflective functioning scoring manual for use with the Parent Development Interview. Unpublished Manuscript. New York: The City College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York.
Slade, A., Grienenberger, J., Bernbach, E., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, attachment, and the transmission gap: a preliminary study. Attachment and Human Development, 7(3), 283–298.
Slough, N. M., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). 5-year-olds’ representations of separations from parents: Responses from the perspective of self and other. New Directions for Child Development, 48, 67–84.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1996). Defining the caregiving system: Toward a theory of caregiving. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 183–197.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999a). The caregiving behavioral system in mothers of infants: A comparison of divorcing and married mothers. Attachment & Human Development, 1, 171–190.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999b). The development of attachment in separated and divorced families. Effects of overnight visitation, parent and couple variables. Attach Hum Dev, 1(1), 2–33.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (2006). Intergenerational transmission of dysregulated maternal caregiving: Mothers describe their upbringing and child rearing. In O. Mayseless (Ed.), Parenting representations: Theory, research, and clinical implications, pp. 265–295. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spinath, F. M., & O’Connor, T. G. (2003). A behavioral genetic study of the overlap between personality and parenting. J Pers, 71(5), 785–808.
Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: a prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attach Hum Dev, 7(4), 349–367.
Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood. New York: Guilford.
Steele, H., Steele, M., & Fonagy, P. (1996). Associations among attachment classifications of mothers, fathers, and their infants. Child Development, 67, 541–555.
Swanson, G. E. (1961). Determinants of the individual’s defense against inner conflict: Review and reformation. In J. C. Glidwell (Ed.), Parental Attitudes and Child Behavior, pp. 5–41. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.
Thompson, R. (2008). Early Attachment and later development: Familiar questions, new answers. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, pp. 348–365 (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Thompson, R., & Meyer, S. (2007). The socialization of emotion regulation in the family. In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation, pp. 249–268. New York: Guilford Press.
Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Seguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M. et al. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114(1), e43–50.
Tronick, E. Z. (2001). Emotional connection and dyadic consciousness in infant-mother and patient-therapist interactions: Commentary on paper by Frank M. Lachman. Psychoanalytic Dialogue, 11, 187–195.
Tronick, E. (2003). “Of course all relationships are unique”: How co-creative processes generate unique mother-infant and patient-therapist relationships and change other relationships. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23, 473–491.
Tronick, E. Z. (2005). Why is connection with others so critical? The formation of dyadic states of consciousness: Coherence governed selection and the co-creation of meaning out of messy meaning making. In J. Nadel & D. Muir (Eds.), Emotional Development, pp. 293–315. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
True, M., Pisani, L., & Oumar, F. (2001). Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon in Mali. Child Development, 72(5), 1451–1466.
Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 387–403.
van IJzendoorn, M., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2009). The first 10,000 adult attachment interviews: Distributions of adult attachment representations in clinical and non-clinical groups. Attachment and Human Development, 11(3), 223–263.
van IJzendoorn, M., Scheungel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 225–249.
Wachs, T. D., & Gruen, G. E. (1982). Early experiences and human development. New York: Plenum Press.
Ward, M. J., & Carlson, E. A. (1995). Associations among adult attachment representations, maternal sensitivity, and infant-mother attachment in a sample of adolescent mothers. Child Development, 66, 69–79.
Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637–644.
Waters, E., Merrick, S. K., Treboux, D., Crowell, J., & Albersheim, L. (2000). Attachment security from infancy to early adulthood: a 20 year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71(3), 684–689.
Weinfield, N. S., Whaley, G. J., & Egeland, B. (2004). Continuity, discontinuity, and coherence in attachment from infancy to late adolescence: sequelae of organization and disorganization. Attach Hum Dev, 6(1), 73–97.
Wicker, B., Keysers, C., Plailly, J., Royet, J. P., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G. (2003). Both of us disgusted inMy insula: the common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron, 40(3), 655–664.
Zeanah, C. H., Benoit, D., Barton, M., Regan, C., Hirshberg, L. M., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1993). Representations of attachment in mothers and their one-year-old infants. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 278–286.
Zeanah, C. H., Benoit, D., Hirshberg, L., Barton, M. L., & Regan, C. (1994). Mothers’ representations of their infants are concordant with infant attachment classifications. Developmental Issues in Psychiatry and Psychology, 1, 1–14.