Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: October 2012

Chapter 25 - Children and Electronic Media

from Part III - Environments

Summary

The health and quality of the marital relationship are important aspects of the family to consider as environments for child development. Associations between the quality of the marital relationship and child development outcomes have long been demonstrated. This chapter presents the definition of marital health, and focuses on explicating the components of marital health, including distinctions between destructive and constructive interparental conflict from the children's perspective. It reviews the findings concerning pathways of the effects of marital health on children, including influences following from exposure to marital functioning (i.e., direct effects), and changes in family functioning, illustrated by parenting, linked with qualities of marital functioning (i.e., indirect effects). The chapter examines additional interrelated family contexts associated with marital health, including parental psychological adjustment, and divorced and divided families as well as blended families. Finally, it presents future directions for understanding marital health as a developmental context for child development.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

Alvy, E., & Calvert, S. L. (2008). Food marketing on popular children’s websites: A content analysis. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, 710–713.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (1999). Media education. Pediatrics, 104, 341–342.
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2001). Effects of violent videogames on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353–359.
Anderson, D. R., Bryant, J., Wilder, A., Crawley, A., Santomero, A., & Williams, M. E. (2000). ResearchingBlue’s Clues: Viewing behavior and impact. Media Psychology, 2, 179–194.
Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, D. R., & Hale, K. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 1204–1219.
Anderson, D. R., Huston, A. C., Schmitt, K. L., Linebarger, D. L., & Wright, J. C. (2001). Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: The recontact study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 66.
Anderson, D. R., Lorch, E. P., Field, D. E., Collins, P. A., & Nathan, J. G. (1986). Television viewing at home: Age trends in visual attention and time with TV. Child Development, 57, 1024–1033.
Anderson, D. R., & Pempek, T. (2005). Television and very young children. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 505–522.
Ball, S., & Bogatz, G. A. (1970). The first year of Sesame Street: An evaluation. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Barr, R., Lauricella, A., Zack, E. & Calvert, S. L. (2010). Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: Relations with cognitive skills at age four. Merrill Palmer Quarter, 56, 21–48.
Barr, R., Muentener, P., Gracia, A., Fujimoto, M., & Chávez, V. (2007). The effect of repetition on imitation from television during infancy. Developmental Psychology, 49, 196–207.
Barr, R. & Wyss, N. (2008). Reenactment of televised content by 2-year-olds: Toddlers use language learned from television to solve a difficult imitation problem. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 696–703.
Bogatz, G. A., & Ball, S. (1971). The second year of Sesame Street: A continuing evaluation. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Cahn, A., Kalagian, T. & Lyon, C. (2008). Business models for children’s media. In S. L. Calvert & B. J. Wilson (Eds). The handbook of children, media, and development. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Calvert, S. L. (1999). Children’s journeys through the information age. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Calvert, S. (2006). Media and early development. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development, pp. 508–530. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Calvert, S. L. (2008). The Children’s Television Act. In S. L. Calvert & B. J. Wilson (Eds). The handbook of children, media, and development, pp. 455–478. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Calvert, S. L., & Conger, E. A. (2007, March). Empathy for children’s learning of DVD content. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA.
Calvert, S. L., Huston, A. C., Watkins, B. A., & Wright, J. C. (1982). The relation between selective attention to television forms and children’s comprehension of content. Child Development, 53, 601–610.
Calvert, S. L., Mahler, B. A., Zehnder, S. M., Jenkins, A. & Lee, M (2003). Gender differences in preadolescent children’s online interactions: Symbolic modes of self- presentation and self-expression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 627–644.
Calvert, S. L., Rideout, V., Woolard, J., Barr, R., & Strouse, G. (2005). Age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic patterns in early computer use: A national survey. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 590–607.
Calvert, S. L., Strong, B. L., Jacobs, E. L. & Conger, E. E. (2007). Interaction and participation for young Hispanic and Caucasian children’s learning of media content. Media Psychology, 9, 431–445.
Calvert, S. L., Strouse, G. & Murray, K. (2006). The role of empathy in adolescents’ role model selection and learning of DVD content. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 444–455.
Calvert, S. L., Strouse, G. A., Strong, B. & Huffaker, D. A. & Lai, S. (2008). Preadolescent boys’ and girls’ virtual MUD play. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 250–264.
Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L., & McCarty, C. A. (2004). Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children. Pediatrics, 113, 708–713.
Collins, W. A.Wellman, H., Keniston, A. & Westby, S. (1978). Age-related aspects of comprehension and inference from a televised dramatic narrative. Child Development, 49, 389–399.
Common Sense Media (Fall 2011). Zero to Eight: Children’s Media Use in America. Available at http://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/zero-eight-childrens-media-use-america.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Kubey, R. (1981). Television and the rest of life: A systematic comparison of subjective experience. Public Opinion Quarterly, 45, 317–328.
Eron, L. (1963). Relationship of TV viewing habits and aggressive behavior in children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 193–196.
Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., Huesmann, L. R., & Walder, L. O. (1972). Does television violence cause aggression?American Psychologist, 27, 253–263.
Evans, M. K., Pempek, T. A., Kirkorian, H. L., Frankenfield, A. E., & Anderson, D. R. (May 2004). The impact of background television on complexity of play. Presented at the biennial International Conference for Infant Studies, Chicago, IL.
Friedrich, L. K., & Stein, A. H. (1973). Aggressive and prosocial television programs and the natural behavior of preschool children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38(4), 1–63, Serial No. 151.
Friedrich-Cofer, L. K., Huston-Stein, A., Kipnis, D., Susman, E. & Clewit, A. (1979). Environmental enhancement of prosocial television content: Effect on interpersonal behavior, imaginative play, and self-regulation in a natural setting. Developmental Psychology, 15, 637–646.
GravesL., StrattonG., RidgersN. D., CableN. T. (2007). Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: a cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 335, 1282–1284.
Greenfield, P. M. & Subramanyam, K. (2003). Online discourse in a teen chatroom: New codes and new modes of coherence in a visual medium. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 713–738.
Hearold, S. (1986). A synthesis of 1043 effects of television on social behavior. In G. Comstock (Ed.), Public communication and behavior, pp. 65–133, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press.
Hoffner, C. (2008). Parasocial and online social relationships. In S. L. Calvert & B. J. Wilson (Eds). The handbook of children, media, and development. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Huesmann, L. R., & Eron, L. D. (Eds.) (1986). Television and the aggressive child: A cross-national comparison. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Huesmann, L. R., Lagerspetz, K. & Eron, L. (1984). Intervening variables in the TV-violence-aggression relation: Evidence from two countries. Developmental Psychology, 20, 746–755.
Huesmann, L. R. & Miller, L. (1994). Long-term effects of repeated exposure to media violence in childhood. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed)., Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives. New York: Plenum.
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977–1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201–221.
Huffaker, D. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2005). Gender, identity, and language use in teenage blogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.
Huston, A. C., Wright, J. C., Rice, M. L., Kerkman, D., & St. Peters, M. (1990). Development of television viewing patterns in early-childhood – a longitudinal investigation. Developmental Psychology, 26(3), 409–420.
Jackson, L. A., von Ey, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (2006). Does home internet use influence the academic performance of low-income children?Developmental Psychology, 42, 429–435.
Kaplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T. & Kraak, V. I. (Eds.) and the Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth (2005). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Lauricella, A., Barr, R. & Calvert, S. L. (2009). Emerging computer skills: Influences of young children’s executive functioning abilities and parental scaffolding techniques, Journal of Children and Media, 3, 217–233.
Lefkowitz, M., Eron, L., Walder, L. & Huesmann, R. (1972). Television violence and child aggression: A follow-up study. In G. A. Comstock & E. A. Rubenstein (Eds.), Television and social behavior, Vol, III. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Mares, M. L., & Woodard, E. (2005). Positive effects of television on children’s social interactions: A meta-analysis. Media Psychology, 7, 301–322.
McGinnisJ. M., GootmanJ. A., KraakV. I. (Eds.) and the Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth, Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. (2006). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity?Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Montgomery, K., & Pasnik, S. (1996). Web of deception: Threats to children of online marketing. Washington, DC: Center for Media Education.
Pempek, T. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). Tipping the balance: Use of advergames to promote consumption of nutritious foods and beverages by low-income African American Children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 633–637.
Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 227–238.
Rice, M. L., Huston, A. C., Truglio, R., & Wright, J. C. (1990). Words from Sesame Street – learning vocabulary while viewing. Developmental Psychology, 26, 421–428.
Rideout, V., Foehr, U.G. & Robert, D.E. (January 2010) Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Rideout, V., & Hamel, E. (2006). The media family: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their parents. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Rideout, V., Roberts, D. F., & Foehr, U. G. (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of 8–18 year-olds. Executive Summary. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Rideout, V., Vandewater, E., & Wartella, E. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Rubin, A. (1994). Media uses and effects: A uses-and-gratification perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Singer, J. L., & Singer, D. G. (1998). Barney & Friends as entertainment and education. In J. K. Asamen & G. Berry (Eds.), Research paradigms, television, and social behavior, pp. 305–367. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Staiano, A. E., & Calvert, S. L. (2011). Wii tennis play for low-income African American adolescents’ energy expenditure. Cyberpsychology. Available at http://cyberpsychology.eu/view. php?cisloclanku=2011060801&article=1.
Thompson, D. A., & Christakis, D. A. (2005). The association between television viewing and irregular sleep schedules among children less than 3 years of age. Pediatrics, 116, 851–856.
Thornburgh, D., & Lin, H. S. (Eds.) and the Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and their Applicability to Other Internet Content (2002). Youth, pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Tynes, B., Reynolds, L., & Greenfield, P. M. (2004). Adolescence, race and ethnicity on the Internet: A comparison of discourse in monitored and unmonitored chat rooms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 667–684.
Vandewater, E., & Bickham, D. (2004). The impact of educational television on young children’s reading in the context of family stress. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 717–728.
Vandewater, E., Bickham, D. S., & Lee, J. H. (2006). Time well spent? Relating television use to children’s free-time activities. Pediatrics, 117, 181–191.
Vandewater, E. A., Bickham, D. S., Lee, J. H., Cummings, H. E., Wartella, E. A., & Rideout, V. J. (2005). When the television is always on: Heavy television exposure and young children’s development. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 562–577.
Vandewater, E., & Cummings, H. (2008). Media use and childhood obesity. In S. L. Calvert & B. J. Wilson (Eds). The handbook of children, media, and development. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Vandewater, E. A., & Lee, S. J. (2007, March). Can I have my own TV?: Relating bedroom television to adolescent activities and academic skills. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA.
Vandewater, E. A., & Lee, J. (2009). Measuring children’s media use in the digital age. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 1152–1176.
Vandewater, E. A., Park, S. E., Huang, X., & Wartella, E. A. (2005). “No – you can’t watch that”: Parental rules and young children’s media use. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 608–623.
Vandewater, E., Shim, M. & Caplovitz, A. (2004). Linking obesity and activity level with children’s television and video game use. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 71–85.
Wiegerman, O., Kuttschreuter, M., & Baarda, B. (1992). A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviors. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 147–164.
Wright, J. C., Huston, A. C., Murphy, K. C., St Peters, M., Pinon, M., Scantlin, R. (2001). The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: The early window project. Child Development, 72, 1347–1366.
Wright, J. C., Huston, S. C., Ross, R. P., Calvert, S. L., Rollandeli, D., Weeks, L. A.Raessi, P., & Potts, R. (1984). Pace and continuity of television programs: Effects on children’s attention and comprehension. Developmental Psychology, 20, 653–666.
Zielinska, I. E., & Chambers, B. (1995). Using group viewing of television to teach preschool children social skills. Journal of Educational Television, 21, 85–95.