Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Online publication date: July 2015

Part III - Perception and Modality

References

Abel, S. M. (2008). Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations.Aviation, Space, and Environmental Science, 79, 591–598.
Agrawal, Y., Carey, J. P., Della Santina, C. C., Schubert, M. C. and Minor, L. B. (2009). Disorders of balance and vestibular function in US adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(10), 938–944.
Alho, K., Salonen, J., Rinne, T., Medvedev, S. V., Hugdahl, K. and Hämäläinen, H. (2012). Attention-related modulation of auditory-cortex responses to speech sounds during dichotic listening. Brain Research, 1442(9), 47–54.
Aring, A. M., Jones, D. E. and Falko, J. M. (2005). Evaluation and prevention of diabetic neuropathy. American Family Physician, 71, 2123–2128.
Azuma, R., Daily, M. and Krozel, J. (1996). Advanced human-computer interfaces for air traffic management and simulation. Proceedings from AIAA Flight Simulation Technologies Conference 1996, San Diego, CA.
Bach-y-Rita, P. L. (1972). Brain mechanisms in sensory substitution. New York: Academic Press.
Bach-y-Rita, P. L. (1999). Theoretical aspects of sensory substitution and neurotransmission-related reorganization in spinal cord injury. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 23(4), 302.
Bach-y-Rita, P., Carter, C. C., Saunders, F. A., White, B. and Scadden, L. (1969). Vision substitution by tactile image projection. Nature, 221, 963–964.
Bach-Y-Rita, P., Tyler, M. E. and Kaczmarek, K. A. (2003). Seeing with the brain. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 15(2), 285–295.
Bark, K., McMahan, W., Remington, A., Gewirtz, J., Wedmid, A., Lee, D. I. and Kuchenbecker, K. J. (2013). In vivo validation of a system for haptic feedback of tool vibrations in robotic surgery. Surgical endoscopy, 27(2), 656–664.
Bechly, K. E., Carender, W. J., Myles, J. D. and Sienko, K. H. (2012). Determining the preferred modality for real-time biofeedback during balance training. Gait & Posture, 37(3), 391–396.
Benali-Khoudja, M., Hafez, M., Alexandre, J. M. and Kheddar, A. (2004). Tactile interfaces: A state-of-the-art survey. Proceedings from the 35th International Symposium on Robotics, Paris.
Bertram, C., Evans, M. H., Javaid, M., Stafford, T. and Prescott, T. (2013). Sensory augmentation with distal touch: The tactile helmet project. In Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems, 24–35.
Bethea, B. T., Okamura, A. M., Kitagawa, M., Fitton, T. P., Cattaneo, S. M., Gott, V. L. et al. (2004). Application of haptic feedback to robotic surgery. Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques, 14(3), 191–195.
Brown, L. M., Brewster, S. A. and Purchase, H. C. (2006). Multidimensional tactons for non-visual information presentation in mobile devices. Proceedings of MobileHCI 2006. Helsinki, Finland. 231–238.
Byrn, J. C., Schluender, S., Divino, C. M., Conrad, J., Gurland, B., Shlasko, E. and Szold, A. (2007). Three-dimensional imaging improves surgical performance for both novice and experienced operators using the da Vinci Robot System. The American Journal of Surgery, 193, 519–522.
Cassinelli, A., Reynolds, C. and Ishikawa, M. (2006). Augmenting spatial awareness with haptic radar. Proceedings from the 10th IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Montreux, pp. 61–64.
Calvo, A. A., Finomore, V. S., Burnett, G. M. and McNitt, T. C. (2013). Evaluation of a mobile application for the multimodal land navigation. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 57, No. 1, SAGE.
Carter, T., Seah, S. A., Long, B., Drinkwater, B. and Subramanian, S. (2013). UltraHaptics: multi-point mid-air haptic feedback for touch surfaces. In Proceedings of the 26th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ‘13). ACM, New York, 505–514. DOI=10.1145/2501988.2502018. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2501988.2502018.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112(10), 155–159.
Colgate, J. E. and Peshkin, M. A. (2013). Haptic Interface for Vehicular Touch Screens. Center for the Commercialization of Innovative Transportation Technology Final Report.
Danilov, Y. P., Tyler, M. E., Skinner, M. E., Hogle, R. A. and Bach-Y-Rita, P. (2007). Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with peripheral and central vestibular loss. Journal of Vestibular Research, 17(2–3), 119–130.
Diamond, D. D., Kass, S. J., Andrasik, F., Raj, A. K. and Rupert, A. H. (2002). Vibrotactile cueing as a master caution system for visual monitoring. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 2, 339–354.
Dodgson, N. A. (2005). Autostereoscopic 3D displays. IEEE Computer, 38(8), 31–36.
Eid, M., Saad, U. and Afzal, U. (2013). A real time vibrotactile biofeedback system for optimizing athlete training. In Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Games (HAVE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 1–6). IEEE.
Elliott, L. R., Duistermaat, M., Redden, E. S., van Erp, J. and U.S. Army Research Laboratory (2007). Multimodal guidance for land navigation (101.133:4295). Army Research Laboratory website: Downloaded from http://utils.louislibraries.org.libezp.lib.lsu.edu/cgi-bin/lz0050.x?sitecode=LALU?http://purl.access.gpo.gov.libezp.lib.lsu.edu/GPO/LPS109906.
Flanagan, J. R. and Lederman, S. J. (2001). Neurobiology: Feeling bumps and holes, news and views. Nature, 26(412), 389–391.
Fuster, J. M., Bodner, M. and Kroger, J. (2000). Cross-modal and cross-temporal association neurons of frontal cortex. Nature, 405, 347–351.
Giang, W., Masnavi, E. and Burns, C. M. (2011, September). Perceptions of Temporal Synchrony in Multimodal Displays. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 1165–1169.
Glumm, M. M., Kehring, K. L. and White, T. L. (2007). Effects of multimodal displays about threat location on target acquisition and attention to visual and auditory communications. Army Research Laboratory, TR 4074, 1–46.
Haase, S. J. and Kaczmarek, K. A. (2005). Electrotactile perception of scatterplots on the fingertips and abdomen. Medical & Biological Engineering and Computing, 43, 283–289.
Hafidh, B., Osman, H. A., Alowaidi, M., El-Saddik, A. and Liu, X. P. (2013). F-Glove: A glove with force-audio sensory substitution system for diabetic patients. In Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Games (HAVE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium (pp. 34–38). IEEE.
Hagen, M. E., Meehan, J. J., Inan, I. and Morel, P. (2008) Visual clues act as a substitute for haptic feedback in robotic surgery. Surgery and Endoscopy, 22, 1505–1508
Hameed, S., Jayaraman, S., Ballard, M. and Sarter, N. (2007). Guiding visual attention by exploiting crossmodal spatial links: An application in air traffic control. Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Baltimore, pp. 220–224.
Hasegawa, Y., Sasaki, M. and Tsukahara, A. (2012). Pseudo-proprioceptive motion feedback by electric stimulation. Proceedings from the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science (MHS), Nagoya, pp. 409–414.
Ho, C., Tan, H. Z. and Spence, C. (2005). Using spatial vibrotactile cues to direct visual attention in driving scenes. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 8(6), 397–412.
Hollerer, T., Kuchera-Morin, J. and Amatriain, X. (2007). The Allosphere: a large-scale immersive surround-view instrument. Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Emerging Displays Technologies: Images and Beyond: the Future of Displays and Interaction, New York.
Hosoi, H., Yanai, S., Nishimura, T., Sakaguchi, T., Iwakura, T. and Yoshino, K. (2010). Development of cartilage conduction hearing aid. Archives of Materials Science and Engineering. 42, 104–110.
International Organization for Standardization. (2011). ISO 9241-910:2011 Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
Iwamoto, T., Tatezono, M. and Shinoda, H. (2008). Non-contact method for producing tactile sensation using airborne ultrasound. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Haptics: Perception, Devices and Scenarios, Madrid, pp. 504–513.
Jewell, C. (2012). A glimpse into the future of paralympic sports. WIPO Magazine, pp. 125–130.
Johannsen, G. (2006). Human-Machine Interaction. In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Vol. 21. Oxford: Eolss Publishers.
Jones, L. A., and Sarter, N. B. (2008). Tactile displays: Guidance for their design and application. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 50, 90–111.
Kaczmarek, K., Webster, J., Bach-y Rita, P. and Tompkins, W. (1991). Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 38(1), 1–16.
Kajimoto, H., Kanno, Y. and Tachi, S. (2006). Forehead electro-tactile display for vision substitution. Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2006, Paris, pp. 75–79.
Kawai, T. (2002). 3D displays and applications. Displays, 23, 49–56.
Kawamata, A., Ariji, Y. and Langlais, R. P. (2000). Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging in dentistry. Dental Clinics of North America, 44, 395–410.
Kennedy, R. S. and Fowlkes, J. E. (1992). Simulator sickness is polygenic and polysymptomatic: Implications for research. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2(1): 23–38.
King, C. H., Higa, A. T., Culjat, M. O., Han, S. H., Bisley, J. W., Carman, G. P. et al. (2007). A pneumatic haptic feedback actuator array for robotic surgery or simulation. Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 15, Long Beach, CA.
Kitagawa, M., Dokko, D., Okamura, A. M. and Yuh, D. D. (2005). Effect of sensory substitution on suture-manipulation forces for robotic surgical systems. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 129(1), 151–158.
Lee, B. C., Kim, J., Chen, S. and Sienko, K. H. (2012). Cell phone based balance trainer. J Neuroeng Rehabil, 9(10), 003–9.
Lescal, D., Rouat, J. and Voix, J. (2013). Sensorial substitution system from vision to audition using transparent digital earplugs. In Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, Vol. 19, p. 040014.
Marois, R. and Ivanoff, J. (2005). Capacity limits of information processing in the brain. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 9(6), 296–305.
McDaniel, T., Krishna, S., Balasubramanian, V., Colbry, D., and Panchanathan, S. (2008). Using a haptic belt to convey non-verbal communication cues during social interactions to individuals who are blind. Proceedings from IEEE International Workshop on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Their Applications, Ottowa.
McDaniel, T., Villanueva, D., Krishna, S., Colbry, D. and Panchanathan, S. (2010). Heartbeats: A methodology to convey interpersonal distance through touch. Proceedings from CHI 2010 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Atlanta, pp. 3985–3990.
McGrath, B. J., Estrada, A., Braithwaite, M. G., Raj, A. K. and Rupert, A. H. (2004). Tactile situation awareness system flight demonstration final report. USAARL Report No. 2004–10, 1–43.
Meijer, P. B. L. (1992) An experimental system for auditory image representations. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39(2), 112–121.
Merlo, J. L., Gilson, R. and Hancock, P. A. (2008). Crossmodal congruency benefits for tactile and visual signaling. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 52(18), 1297–1301. SAGE.
Morrell, J. and Wasilewski, K. A. (2010). Design and evaluation of a vibrotactile seat to improve spatial awareness while driving. Proceedings from Haptics Symposiums, 2010 IEEE, Waltham, MA, pp. 281–288.
Myles, K. and Binseel, M. S. (2007). The tactile modality: A review of tactile sensitivity and human tactile interfaces, (ARL-TR-4115). Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.
Nagel, S. K., Carl, C., Kringe, T., Martin, R., Konig, P. (2005). Beyond sensory substitution-learning the sixth sense. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2, 13–26.
Okamura, A. M. (2004). Methods for haptic feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted surgery. Industrial Robot: An International Journal, 31(6), 499–508.
Raj, A. K., Kass, S. J. and Perry, J. F. (2000). Vibrotactile displays for improving spatial awareness. Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association XIV Triennial Congress/44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 44(1), 181–184.
Raj, A. K., Moucheboeuf, A., Holmgren, A., Hutchenson, T. L., Cameron, J. D., Lecoutre, D. V. and Vassiliades, T. A. (2011). An anthro-centric multisensory interface for sensory augmentation of tele-surgery. Sages 2011 Annual meeting, San Antonio, TX.
Raj, A. K., Neuhaus, P. D., Moucheboeuf, A. M., Noorden, J. H. and Lecoutre, D. V. (2011). Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance. Journal of Robotics Vol. 2011. Article ID 284352.
Redden, E. S., Pettitt, R. A., Carstens, C. B., Elliot, L. R., Rudnick, D. and U.S. Army Research Laboratory (2009). Scaling robotic displays: visual and multimodal options for navigation by dismounted soldiers (No. ARL-TR-4708). Army Research Lab Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, Human Research and Engineering Directorate.
Reynolds, C., Cassinelli, A. and Ishikawa, M. (2008). Aural antennae. Ubicomp Workshop W1- Devices that Alter Perception, Seoul, Korea.
Rupert, A. (2000). Tactile situation awareness system: proprioceptive prostheses for sensory deficiencies. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 71(Suppl 9), A92–A99.
Rupert, A. H., McTrusty, T. J. and Peak, J. (1999). Haptic Interface Enhancements for Navy Divers. Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering, 246–252.
Sampaio, E., Maris, S. and Bach-Y-Rita, P. (2001). Brain plasticity: “Visual” acuity of blind persons via the tongue. Brain Research, 908, 204–207.
Sarter, N. B. (2007). Multiple-resource theory as a basis for multimodal interface design: success stories, qualifications and research needs. Attention: from Theory to Practice, 187–195.
Saunders, F. (1973). An electrotactile sound detector for the deaf. IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics, 21(3), 285–287.
Schmorrow, D. D. and Kruse, A. A. (2004). Augmented cognition. In W.S. Bainbridge (Ed.), Berkshire encyclopedia of human-computer interaction (pp. 54–59). Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire.
Schorr, S. B., Quek, Z. F., Romano, R. Y., Nisky, I., Provancher, W. R. and Okamura, A.M. (2013). Sensory substitution via cutaneous skin stretch feedback. Proceedings of the 2013 IEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Karlsruhe, Germany. pp. 2341–2346.
Shipton, M. S., John, A. J. and Robinson, D. W. (1980) Air-radiated sound from bone vibration transducers and its implications for bone conduction audiometry. British Journal of Audiology, 14, 86–99.
Smith, C. F., Fadden, S. and Boehm-Davis, D. A. (2005). Use of a functional aviation display under varying workload conditions. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 49(1), 59–63.
Sodnik, J., Dicke, C., Tomažič, S. and Billinghurst, M. (2008). A user study of auditory versus visual interfaces for use while driving. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(5), 318–332.
Sparks, D. W., Kuhl, P. K., Edmonds, A. E. and Gray, G. P. (1978). Investigating the MESA (multipoint electrotactile speech aid): The transmission of segmental features of speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 63(1), 246–257.
Spelzeman, D. and Borchers, J. (2008). Real-time snowboard training system. Proceedings of CHI 2008, Florence, Italy.
Stegner-Wilson, M., Balough, B. J., Gottshall, K., Raj, A. K. and Hoffer, M. E. (2010) Preliminary Results using Sensory Substitution for Balance Disorders. Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 23rd Midwinter Meeting, Abstract 408, Anaheim, CA.
Striem-Amit, E., Cohen, L., Dehaene, S. and Amedi, A. (2012). Reading with sounds: sensory substitution selectively activates the visual word form area in the blind. Neuron, 76(3), 640–652.
Uchiyama, H., Covington, M. A. and Potter, W. D. (2008). Vibrotactile glove guidance for semi-autonomous wheelchair operations. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Southeast Regional Conference of the Association for Computing Machinery. Auburn, AL.
Van Erp, J. B. F., Jansen, C., Dobbins, T. and Van Veen, H. A. H. C. (2004). Vibrotactile waypoint navigation at sea and in the air: Two case studies. Proceedings of Eurohaptics 2004. University of Munchen, Munchen, Germany.
Van Erp, J. B., Saturday, I. and Jansen, C. (2006). Application of tactile displays in sports: where to, how and when to move. In Proceedings of Eurohaptics 2006. University of Munchen, Paris, France, pp. 105–109
Van Erp, J. B. F. and Van Veen, H. A. H. C. (2004). Vibrotactile in-vehicle navigation system. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 7(4), 247–256.
Velazquez, R. and Pissaloux, E. (2008). Tactile displays in human-machine interaction: Four case studies. The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 7(2), 51–58.
Visell, Y. (2009). Tactile sensory substitution: Models for enaction in HCI. Interacting with Computers 21, 38–53.
Walker, S. C., Helm, P. A. and Lavery, L. A. (1997). Gait pattern alteration by functional sensory substitution in healthy subjects and in diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy. Archives of Physical Medical Rehabilitation, 853–856.
Wicab, Inc. (2006). BrainPortTM underwater Sensory Substitution System (BUDS3). (Unpublished document) Wicab, Inc.
Wicab, Inc (2010). BrainPort technology tongue interface characterization, AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2010–0081. Downloaded from http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA523883&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf.
Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 3, 159–177.
Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning. In Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL.
Xing, J., Xu, B., Xue, Y. and Zhu, J. (2012). Design and implementation of tactile auditory substitution system based on Gammatone filter. Proceedings of the 2012 5th IEEE International Conference on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics. Chongqing, China, pp. 477–481.
Yang, G., Kyung, K., Srinivasan, M. A. and Kwon, D. (2006). Quantitative Tactile Display Device with Pin-Array Type Tactile Feedback and Thermal Feedback. Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Orlando, FL, pp. 3917–3922.
Zelek, J. S., Bromley, S., Asmar, D. and Thompson, D. (2003). A haptic glove as a tactile-vision sensory substitution for wayfinding. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 621–632.
Zemlin, W. R. (1968). Speech and hearing science anatomy and physiology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

References

Baldwin, C. L. (2002). Designing in-vehicle technologies for older drivers: Application of sensory-cognitive interaction theory. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3(4), 307–329.
Baldwin, C. L. (2011). Verbal collision avoidance messages during simulated driving: Perceived urgency, annoyance, and alerting effectiveness. Ergonomics, 54(4), 328.
Baldwin, C. L. (2012). Auditory Cognition and Human Performance: Research and Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press – Taylor and Francis Group.
Baldwin, C. L., Eisert, J. L., Garcia, A., Lewis, B., Pratt, S. M., and Gonzalez, C. (2012). Multimodal urgency coding: Auditory, visual, and tactile parameters and their impact on perceived urgency. Work, 41, 3586–3591. DOI:10.3233/WOR-2012–0669–3586.
Baldwin, C. L. and May, J. F. (2011). Loudness interacts with semantics in auditory warnings to impact rear-end collisions. Transportation Research Part F, 14(1), 36–42.
Baldwin, C. L. and Struckman-Johnson, D. (2002). Impact of speech presentation level on cognitive task performance: Implications for auditory display design. Ergonomics, 45(1), 61–74.
Barrow, J. H. and Baldwin, C. L. (2010). Spatial audio vs. verbal directional cues: An examination of salience and disruptiveness within a simulated driving context. Paper Presented at the International Community of Auditory Display, Washington, DC, June 2010.
Begault, D. R. (1991). Challenges to the successful implementation of 3-D sound. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 39(11), 864–870.
Begault, D. R., Godfroy, M., Sandor, A. and Holden, K. (2007, June 26–29). Auditory alarm design for NASA CEV applications. Paper Presented at the 13th International Conference on Auditory Displays, Montreal, Canada.
Begault, D. R. and Pittman, M. T. (1996). Three-dimensional audio versus head-down Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System displays. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 6(1), 79–93.
Belz, S. M., Robinson, G. S. and Casali, J. G. (1999). A new class of auditory warning signals for complex systems: Auditory icons. Human Factors, 41(4), 608–618.
Beringer, D., Harris, H. C. and Joseph, K. M. (1998, October 5–9). Hearing thresholds among pilots and non-pilots: Implications for auditory warning design. Paper Presented at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Chicago.
Bliss, J. P. and Acton, S. A. (2003). Alarm mistrust in automobiles: How collision alarm reliability affects driving. Applied Ergonomics, 34(6), 499–509.
Blumenthal, T. D. (1988). The Startle Response to Acoustic Stimuli Near Startle Threshold: Effects of Stimulus Rise and Fall Time, Duration, and Intensity. Psychophysiology, 25(5), 607–611.
Blumenthal, T. D. (1996). Inhibition of the human startle response is affected by both prepulse intensity and eliciting stimulus intensity. Biological Psychology, 44(2), 85–104.
Blumenthal, T. D. and Berg, W. K. (1986). Stimulus rise time, intensity, and bandwidth effects on acoustic startle amplitude and probability. Psychophysiology, 23(635–641).
Blumenthal, T. D., Elden, A. and Arve Flaten, M. (2004). A comparison of several methods used to quantify prepulse inhibition of eye blink response. Psychophysiology 41, 326–332.
Blumenthal, T. D. and Gescheider, G. A. (1987). Modification of the acoustic startle response by a tactile prepulse: Effects of stimulus onset asynchrony and prepulse intensity. Psychophysiology, 24, 320–327.
Blumenthal, T. D. and Goode, C. T. (1991). The startle eyeblink response to low intensity acoustic stimuli. Psychophysiology, 28(3), 296–306.
Blumenthal, T. D. and Levey, B. J. (1989). Prepulse rise time and startle reflex modification: different effects for discrete and continuous prepulses. Psychophysiology, 26(2), 158–165.
Bolia, R. S. (2004). Special Issue: Spatial Audio Displays for Military Aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(3), 233–238.
Britt, T. W. and Blumenthal, T. D. (1993). Social anxiety and latency of response to startle stimuli. Journal of Research in Personality, 27, 1–14.
Bronkhorst, A. W. (1995). Localization of real and virtual sound sources. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 98(5), 2542–2553.
Bronkhorst, A. W., Veltman, J. A. and van Breda, L. (1996). Application of a three-dimensional auditory display in a flight task. Human Factors, 38(1), 23–33.
Chan, A. H. S. and Chan, K. W. L. (2006). Synchronous and asynchronous presentations of auditory and visual signals: Implications for control console design. Applied Ergonomics, 37(2), 131–140.
Colquhoun, W. P. (1975). Evaluation of auditory, visual, and dual-mode displays for prolonged sonar monitoring in repeated sessions. Human Factors, 17(5), 425–437.
Cummings, M. L., Kilgore, R. M., Wang, E., Tijerina, L. and Kochhar, D. S. (2007). Effects of single versus multiple warnings on driver performance. Human Factors, 49(6), 1097–1106. DOI:10.1518/001872007x249956.
Davies, D. R. and Parasuraman, R. (1982). The psychology of vigilance. London: Academic Press.
DelPezzo, E. M. and Hoffman, H. S. (1980). Attentional factors in the inhibition of a reflex by a visual stimulus. Science, 210, 673–674.
Dingus, T. A., Hulse, M. C., Mollenhauer, M. A. and Fleischman, R. N. (1997). Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an Advanced Traveler Information System. Human Factors, 39(2), 177–199.
Dunbar, M., McGann, A., Mackintosh, M. and Lozito, S. (2001). Re-examination of mixed media communication: The impact of voice, data-link, and mixed air traffic control environments on the flight deck. Moffet Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.
Edworthy, J. and Adams, A. (1996). Warning Design: A research prospective. London: Taylor and Francis.
Edworthy, J. and Hellier, E. (2006a). Alarms and human behaviour: implications for medical alarms. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97(1), 12–17. DOI:10.1093/bja/ael114.
Edworthy, J. and Hellier, E. (2006b). Complex Nonverbal Auditory Signals and Speech Warnings. In M. S. Wogalter (Ed.), Handbook of warnings. (pp. 199–220). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Edworthy, J., Hellier, E., Aldrich, K. and Loxley, S. (2004). Designing trend-monitoring sounds for helicopters: Methodological issues and an application. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied, 10(4), 203–218. DOI:10.1037/1076–898x.10.4.203.
Edworthy, J., Loxley, S. and Dennis, I. (1991). Improving auditory warning design: Relationship between warning sound parameters and perceived urgency. Human Factors, 33(2), 205–231.
Finomore, V., Matthews, G., Shaw, T. and Warm, J. (2009). Predicting vigilance: A fresh look at an old problem. Ergonomics, 52(7), 791–808. DOI:10.1080/00140130802641627.
Galinsky, T. L., Rosa, R. R., Warm, J. S. and Dember, W. N. (1993). Psychophysical determinants of stress in sustained attention. Human Factors, 35(4), 603–614.
Galinsky, T. L., Warm, J. S., Dember, W. N., Weiler, E. M. and Scerbo, M. W. (1990). Sensory alternation and vigilance performance – The role of pathway inhibition. Human Factors, 32(6), 717–728.
Graham, R. (1999). Use of auditory icons as emergency warnings: Evaluation within a vehicle collision avoidance application. Ergonomics, 42(9), 1233–1248.
Haas, E. C. and Casali, J. G. (1995). Perceived urgency of and response time to multi-tone and frequency-modulated warning signals in broadband noise. Ergonomics, 38(11), 2313–2326.
Haas, E. C. and Edworthy, J. (1996). Designing urgency into auditory warnings using pitch, speed, and loudness. Computing and Control Engineering Journal, (August 1996), 193–198.
Hatfield, J. L. and Loeb, M. (1968). Sense mode and coupling in a vigilance task. Perception and Psychophysics, 4(1), 29–36.
Hawkins, F. H. (1987). Human Factors in Flight. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Hellier, E. and Edworthy, J. (1999a). The Design and validation of attensons for a high workload environment. In N. A. Stanton and J. Edworthy (Eds.), Human factors in auditory warnings (pp. 283–303). Aldershot: UK: Ashgate.
Hellier, E. J. and Edworthy, J. (1999b). On using psychophysical techniques to achieve urgency mapping in auditory warnings. Applied Ergonomics, 30, 167–171.
Hellier, E. J., Edworthy, J. and Dennis, I. (1993). Improving auditory warning design: Quantifying and predicting the effects of different warning parameters on perceived urgency. Human Factors, 35(4), 693–706.
Ho, C. and Spence, C. (2005). Assessing the effectiveness of various auditory cues in capturing a driver’s visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(3), 157–174.
Ho, C. and Spence, C. (2008). The multisensory driver. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Issac, A. R. and Ruitenberg, B. (1999). Air Traffic control: Human performance factors. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
Kerns, K. (1999). Human factors in air traffic control/flight deck integration: Implications of data-link simulation research. In D. J. Garland, J. A. Wise and V. D. Hopkin (Eds.), Handbook of aviation human factors (pp. 519–546). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Koelega, H. S. (1992). Extraversion and vigilance performance – 30 years of inconsistencies. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 239–258.
Kohfeld, D. L. (1971). Simple reaction time as a function of stimulus intensity in decibels of light and sound. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88(2), 251–257.
Latorella, K. A. (1998). Effects of modality on interrupted flight deck performance: implications for data link. Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
MacDonald, J. A., Balakrishnan, J. D., Orosz, M. D. and Karplus, W. J. (2002). Intelligibility of speech in a virtual 3-D environment. Human Factors, 44(2), 272–286.
McGann, A., Morrow, D., Rodvold, M. and Mackintosh, M.-A. (1998). Mixed-media communication on the flight deck: A comparison of voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(2), 137–156.
Meredith, C. B. R. G. N. and Edworthy, J. B. A. P. C. E. (1995). Are there too many alarms in the intensive care unit? An overview of the problems. Journal of Advanced Nursing January, 21(1), 15–20.
Miller, J. (1982). Divided attention: Evidence for coactivation with redundant signals. Cognitive Psychology, 14(2), 247–279. DOI:10.1016/0010–0285(82)90010-x.
Miller, J. (1991). Channel interaction and the redundant-targets effect in bimodal divided attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17(1), 160–169. DOI:10.1037/0096–1523.17.1.160.
Niemi, P. and Naatanen, R. (1981). Foreperiod and simple reaction time. Psychological Bulletin, 89(1), 133–162.
Oving, A. B., Veltman, J. A. and Bronkhorst, A. W. (2004). Effectiveness of 3-D audio for warnings in the cockpit. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(3), 257–276.
Parker, S. P. A., Smith, S. E., Stephan, K. L., Martin, R. L. and McAnally, K. I. (2004). Effects of supplementing head-down displays with 3-D audio during visual target acquisition. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(3), 277–295.
Patterson, R. D. (1982). Guidelines for auditory warning systems. London: Civil Aviation Authority.
Patterson, R. D. (1990). Auditory warning sounds in the work environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 327(1241), 485–492.
Perlstein, W. M., Fiorito, E., Simons, R. F. and Graham, F. K. (1993). Lead stimulation effects on reflex blink, exogenous brain potentials, and loudness judgments. Psychophysiology, 30(4), 347–358.
Sanders, M. S. and McCormick, E. J. (1993). Human factors in engineering and design (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Shaw, T. H., Warm, J. S., Finomore, V., Tripp, L., Matthews, G., Weiler, E. and Parasuraman, R. (2009). Effects of sensory modality on cerebral blood flow velocity during vigilance. Neuroscience Letters, 461(3), 207–211. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.06.008.
Stanton, N. A. and Edworthy, J. (Eds.) (1999). Human factors in auditory warnings. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Szalma, J. L., Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., Dember, W. N., Weiler, E. M., Meier, A. and Eggemeier, F. T. (2004). Effects of sensory modality and task duration on performance, workload, and stress in sustained attention. Human Factors, 46(2), 219–233.
Tannen, R. S., Nelson, W. T., Bolia, R. S., Warm, J. S. and Dember, W. N. (2004). Evaluating adaptive multisensory displays for target localization in a flight task. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(3), 297–312.
Van Erp, J. B. F. and Van Veen, H. A. H. C. (2004). Vibrotactile in-vehicle navigation system. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 7(4–5), 247–256.
Veltman, J. A., Oving, A. B. and Bronkhorst, A. W. (2004). 3-D Audio in the Fighter Cockpit Improves Task Performance. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(3), 239–256.
Warm, J. S. and Alluisi, E. A. (1971). Influence of temporal uncertainty and sensory modality of signals on watchkeeping performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 87(3), 303–308.
Warm, J. S. and Jerison, H. J. (1984). The psychophysics of vigilance. In J. S. Warm (Ed.), Sustained attention in human performance (pp. 15–54). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Warm, J. S., Parasuraman, R. and Matthews, G. (2008). Vigilance requires hard mental work and is stressful. Human Factors, 50(433–441).
Watson, M. and Sanderson, P. (2004). Sonification supports eyes-free respiratory monitoring and task time-sharing. Human Factors, 46(3), 497–517.
Watson, M. O. and Sanderson, P. M. (2007). Designing for attention with sound: Challenges and extensions to ecological interface design. Human Factors, 49(2), 331–346.
Wickens, C. D. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman and R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 63–101). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3(2), 159–177.
Wickens, C. and Colcombe, A. (2007). Dual-task performance consequences of imperfect alerting associated with a cockpit display of traffic information. Human Factors, 49(5), 839–850.
Wickens, C. D. and Liu, Y. (1988). Codes and modalities in multiple resources: A success and a qualification. Human Factors, 30(5), 599–616.

References

Ackerley, R., McGlone, F., Olausson, H. and Wessberg, J. (2010). Mapping the sensation of wetness across the body. In Society for Neuroscience Abstracts (Program No. 285.4).
Basdogan C., De, S., Kim, J., Muniyandi, M., Kim, H. and Srinivasan, M. A. (2004). Haptics in minimally invasive surgical simulation and training. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24(2), 56–64.
Benali-Khoudja, M., Hafez, M., Alexandre, J.-M., Benachour, J. and Kheddar, A. (2003). Thermal feedback model for virtual reality. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Micromechatronics and Human Science, pp. 153–158.
Bensmaïa, S. and Hollins, M. (2005). Pacinian representations of fine surface texture. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 842–854.
Bensmaïa, S. J. and Hollins, M. (2003). The vibrations of texture. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 20, 33–43.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M. (2007). An experimentally verified model of the perceived ‘coldness’ of objects. In Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. Tsukuba, Japan: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 61–65.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2006). Analysis of haptic perception of materials by multidimensional scaling and physical measurements of roughness and compressibility. Acta Psychologica, 121, 1–20.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2008). Thermosensory reversal effect quantified. Acta Psychologica, 127, 46–50.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2009a). Cues for haptic perception of compliance. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2, 189–199.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2009b). Tactile perception of thermal diffusivity. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 481–489.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M., Kosters, N. D., Kappers, A. M. L. and Daanen, H. A. M. (2012). Haptic perception of wetness. Acta Psychologica, 141, 159–163.
Bergmann Tiest, W. M., Vrijling, A. C. L. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2013). Haptic discrimination and matching of viscosity. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 6, 24–34.
Bicchi, A., Scilingo, E. P. and De Rossi, D. (2000). Haptic discrimination of softness in teleoperation: The role of the contact area spread rate. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 16, 496–504.
Blumenfeld, W. (1937). The relationship between the optical and haptic construction of space. Acta Psychologica, 2, 125–174.
Cadoret, G. and Smith, A. M. (1996). Friction, not texture, dictates grip forces used during object manipulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75, 1963–1969.
Christensen, C. M. and Casper, L. M. (1987). Oral and nonoral perception of solution viscosity. Journal of Food Science, 52, 445–447.
Cornsweet, T. N. (1962). The staircase-method in psychophysics. The American Journal of Psychology, 75, 485–491.
Davidson, P. W. (1972). Haptic judgments of curvature by blind and sighted humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 43–55.
Ekman, G., Hosman, J. and Lindström, B. (1965). Roughness, smoothness and preference: A study of quantitative relations in individual subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 18–26.
Fernández-Díaz, M. and Travieso, D. (2011). Performance in haptic geometrical matching tasks depends on movement and position of the arms. Acta Psychologica, 136, 382–389.
Fleischer, C., Kondak, K., Wege, A. and Kossyk, I. (2009). Research on exoskeletons at the TU Berlin. In Advances in Robotics Research (pp. 335–346). Berlin: Springer.
Freyberger, F. K. B. and Färber, B. (2006). Compliance discrimination of deformable objects by squeezing with one and two fingers. In Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2006, pp. 271–276.
Gescheider, G. A. (1988). Psychophysical scaling. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 169–200.
Gibson, J. J. (1963). The useful dimensions of sensitivity. American Psychologist, 18, 1–15.
Goodwin, A. W., John, K. T. and Marceglia, A. H. (1991). Tactile discrimination of curvature by humans using only cutaneous information from the fingerpads. Experimental Brain Research, 86, 663–672.
Goodwin, A. W. and Wheat, H. E. (1992). Human tactile discrimination of curvature when contact area with the skin remains constant. Experimental Brain Research, 88, 447–450.
Gordon, I. A. and Morison, V. (1982). The haptic perception of curvature. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 446–450.
Greenspan, J. D., Roy, E. A., Caldwell, P. A. and Farooq, N. S. (2003). Thermosensory intensity and affect throughout the perceptible range. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 20, 19–26.
Grierson, L. E. M. and Carnahan, H. (2006). Manual exploration and the perception of slipperiness. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 1070–1081.
Hamza-Lup, F. G., Bogdan, C. M., Popovici, D. M. and Costea, O. D. (2011) A survey of visuo-haptic simulation in surgical training, In The third international conference on mobile, hybrid, and on-line learning. Gosier, Guadeloupe, France, pp. 57–62.
Harper, R. and Stevens, S. S. (1964). Subjective hardness of compliant materials. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16, 204–215.
Ho, H. and Jones, L. A. (2006a). Contribution of thermal cues to material discrimination and localization. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 118–128.
Ho, H. and Jones, L. A. (2006b). Thermal model for hand-object interactions. In Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator System. Alexandria, VA: IEEE, pp. 461–467
Hogema, J. H., De Vries, S. C., Van Erp, J. B. F. and Kiefer, R. J. (2009). A tactile seat for direction coding in car driving: Field evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2(4), 181–188.
Hollins, M., Bensmaïa, S., Karlof, K. and Young, F. (2000). Individual differences in perceptual space for tactile textures: Evidence from multidimensional scaling. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 1534–1544.
Hollins, M., Bensmaïa, S. J. and Washburn, S. (2001). Vibrotactile adaptation impairs discrimination of fine, but not coarse, textures. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 18, 253–262.
Hollins, M., Faldowski, R., Rao, S. and Young, F. (1993). Perceptual dimensions of tactile surface texture: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 697–705.
Hollins, M. and Risner, S. R. (2000). Evidence for the duplex theory of tactile texture perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 695–705.
Hunter, I. M. L. (1954). Tactile-kinaesthetic perception of straightness in blind and sighted humans. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6, 149–154.
Johansson, R. S. and Westling, G. (1984). Roles of glabrous skin receptors and sensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip when lifting rougher or more slippery objects. Experimental Brain Research, 56, 550–564.
Jones, L. A. (1986). Perception of force and weight: Theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 29–42.
Jones, L. A. and Ho, H.-N. (2008). Warm or cool, large or small? The challenge of thermal displays. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 1, 53–70.
Kaas, A. and Van Mier, H. (2006). Haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space. Experimental Brain Research, 170, 403–413.
Kahrimanovic, M., Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2010). Haptic perception of volume and surface area of 3-D objects. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72(2), 517–527.
Kahrimanovic, M., Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2011). Characterization of the haptic shape-weight illusion with 3-dimensional objects. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 4, 316–320.
Kappers, A. M. L. (1999). Large systematic deviations in the haptic perception of parallelity. Perception, 28(8), 1001–1012.
Kappers, A. M. L. (2007). Haptic space processing – allocentric and egocentric reference frames. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(3), 208–218.
Kappers, A. M. L. and Koenderink, J. J. (1999). Haptic perception of spatial relations. Perception, 28(6), 781–795.
Kappers, A. M. L., Koenderink, J. J. and Lichtenegger, I. (1994). Haptic identification of curved surfaces. Perception & Psychophysics, 56(1), 53–61.
Kenshalo, D. R., Holmes, C. E. and Wood, P. B. (1968). Warm and cool thresholds as a function of rate of stimulus temperature change. Perception & Psychophysics, 3, 81–84.
Klatzky, R. L. and Lederman, S. J. (1995). Identifying objects from a haptic glance. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 1111–1123.
Klatzky, R. L., Lederman, S. J. and Metzger, V. A. (1985). Identifying objects by touch: An “expert system.” Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 299–302.
Krishna, A. (2006). Interaction of senses: The effect of vision versus touch on the elongation bias. The Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 557–566.
Lederman, S. J. and Klatzky, R. L. (1987). Hand movements: A window into haptic object recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 342–368.
Lederman, S. J. and Klatzky, R. L. (1997). Relative availability of surface and object properties during early haptic processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1680–1707.
Lederman, S. J. and Klatzky, R. L. (2009). Haptic perception: A tutorial. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1439–1459.
Li, Y. (2005). Perceptions of temperature, moisture and comfort in clothing during environmental transients. Ergonomics, 48, 234–248.
Li, Y., Plante, A. M. and Holcombe, B. V. (1993). The physical mechanisms of the perception of dampness in fabrics. Journal of Thermal Biology, 18, 417–419.
Loomis, J. M. and Lederman, S. J. (1986). Tactual perception. In K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman and J. P. Thomas (Eds.), Cognitive Processes and Performance, Vol. 2, (pp. 31.1–31.41). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Louw, S., Kappers, A. M. L. and Koenderink, J. J. (2000). Haptic detection thresholds of Gaussian profiles over the whole range of spatial scales. Experimental Brain Research, 132, 369–374.
Moskowitz, H. R. (1972). Scales of subjective viscosity and fluidity of gum solutions. Journal of Texture Studies, 3, 89–100.
Murray, D., Ellis, R., Bandomir, C. and Ross, H. (1999). Charpentier (1891) on the size-weight illusion. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 1681–1685.
Plaisier, M. A., Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2008). Haptic pop-out in a hand sweep. Acta Psychologica, 128, 368–377.
Plaisier, M. A., Bergmann Tiest, W. M. and Kappers, A. M. L.(2009). Salient features in three-dimensional haptic shape perception. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 421–430.
Pont, S. C., Kappers, A. M. L. and Koenderink, J. J. (1997). Haptic curvature discrimination at several regions of the hand. Perception & Psychophysics, 59(8), 1225–1240.
Pont, S. C., Kappers, A. M. L. and Koenderink, J. J. (1999). Similar mechanisms underlie curvature comparison by static and dynamic touch. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 874–894.
Proske, U. and Gandevia, S. C. (2009). The kinaesthetic senses. The Journal of Physiology, 587, 4139–4146.
Provancher, W. R. and Sylvester, N. D. (2009). Fingerpad skin stretch increases the perception of virtual friction. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2(4), 212–223.
Sarda, A., Deterre, R. and Vergneault, C. (2004). Heat perception measurements of the different parts found in a car passenger compartment. Measurement, 35, 65–75.
Scilingo, E. P., Bianchi, M., Grioli, G. and Bicchi, A. (2010). Rendering softness: Integration of kinaesthetic and cutaneous information in haptic devices. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 3, 109–118.
Scott Blair, G. W. and Coppen, F. M. V. (1939). The subjective judgments of the elastic and plastic properties of soft bodies; the “differential thresholds” for viscosities and compression moduli. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 128, 109–125.
Smith, A. M. and Scott, S. H. (1996). Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75, 1957–1962.
Smith, C. H., Logemann, J. A., Burghardt, W. R., Carrell, T. D. and Zecker, S. G. (1997). Oral sensory discrimination of fluid viscosity. Dysphagia, 12, 68–73.
Srinivasan, M. A. and LaMotte, R. H. (1995). Tactual discrimination of softness. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73, 88–101.
Steele, C. M., Van Lieshout, P. H. H. M. and Goff, H. (2003). The rheology of liquids: A comparison of clinicians’ subjective impressions and objective measurement. Dysphagia, 18(3), 182–195.
Stevens, J. C. and Choo, K. K. (1998). Temperature sensitivity of the body surface over the life span. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 15, 13–28.
Stevens, J. C. and Marks, L. E. (1979). Spatial summation of cold. Physiology & Behavior, 22, 541–547.
Stevens, S. S. (1957). On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review, 64, 153–181.
Stevens, S. S. and Guirao, M. (1964). Scaling of apparent viscosity. Science, 144, 1157–1158.
Stevens, S. S. and Harris, J. R. (1962). The scaling of subjective roughness and smoothness. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 489–494.
Stone, L. A. (1967). Subjective roughness and smoothness for individual judges. Psychonomic Science, 9, 347–348.
Treisman, A. and Gormican, S. (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review, 95, 15–48.
Tritsch, M. F. (1988). The veridical perception of object temperature with varying skin temperature. Perception & Psychophysics, 43, 531–540.
Tsagarakis, N. G., Horne, T. and Caldwell, D. G. (2005). Slip aesthesis: A portable 2D slip/skin stretch display for the fingertip. In Proceedings of the 1st Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. Pisa, Italy: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 214–219.
Van Erp, J. B. F. and Van Veen, H. A. H. C. (2006). Touch down: The effect of artificial touch cues on orientation in microgravity. Neuroscience Letters, 404(1–2), 78–82.
Verrillo, R. T., Bolanowski, S. J. and McGlone, F. P. (1999). Subjective magnitude of tactile roughness. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 16, 352–360.
Van Polanen, V., Bergmann Tiest, W. M., and Kappers, A. M. L. (2012a) Haptic pop-out of movable stimuli, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 204–215.
Van Polanen, V., Bergmann Tiest, W. M., and Kappers, A. M. L. (2012b) Haptic search for hard and soft spheres, PLOS ONE, 7(10), e45398.
Vogels, I. M. L. C., Kappers, A. M. L. and Koenderink, J. J. (1996). Haptic aftereffect of curved surfaces. Perception, 25, 109–119.
Wang, Q. and Hayward, V. (2006). Compact, portable, modular, high-performance, distributed tactile transducer device based on lateral skin deformation. In Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. Arlington, VA: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 67–72.
Wang, Z., Li, Y., Kowk, Y. and Yeung, C. (2002). Mathematical simulation of the perception of fabric thermal and moisture sensations. Textile Research Journal, 72, 327–334.
Watson, A. and Fitzhugh, A. (1990). The method of constant stimuli is inefficient. Perception & Psychophysics, 47, 87–91.
Wijntjes, M. W. A., Sato, A., Hayward, V. and Kappers, A. M. L. (2009). Local surface orientation dominates haptic curvature discrimination. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2, 94–102.
Yamakawa, M. and Isaji, S. (1987). Factors affecting the clamminess. Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan, 33, 9–15.
Zigler, M. J. (1923). An experimental study of the perception of clamminess. American Journal of Psychology, 34, 550–561.

References

Christman, R. J. (1971). Sensory experience. Scranton, PA: Intext.
Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gottlieb, G. L., Song, Q., Hong, D. A., Almeida, G. L. and Corcos, D. (1996). Coordinating movement at two joints: A principle of linear covariance. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75, 1760–1764.
Hary, D. and Moore, G. P. (1987). On the performance and stability of human metronome-synchronization strategies. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 40, 109–124.
Hoffman, R. R. and Deffenbacher, K. (1992). A brief history of applied cognitive psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 1–48.
Hong, S. L. and Newell, K. M. (2008). Visual information gain and the regulation of constant force levels. Experimental Brain Research, 189, 61–69.
Hu, X., Loncharich, M. and Newell, K. M. (2011). Visual information interacts with neuromuscular factors in the coordination of bimanual isometric force. Experimental Brain Research, 209, 129–138.
Hu, X., Mazich, M. M. and Newell, K. M. (2012). Time gain modulates adaptive visual-motor isometric force control. Experimental Brain Research, 218, 73–80.
Jagacinski, R. J. and Flach, J. M. (2003). Control theory for humans: Quantitative approaches to modeling performance. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jones, R. D. (2000). Measurement of sensory-motor control performance capacities: Tracking tasks. In Josep D. Bronzino (Ed.), The biomedical engineering handbook, 2nd ed. (p. 149-1). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Keele, S. W. (1968). Movement control in skilled motor performance. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 387–403.
Kelso, J. A. S. (1984). Phase transitions and critical behavior in human bimanual coordination. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative, 15, R1000–R1004.
Kelso, J. A. S. (1995). Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.
Kugler, P. N. and Turvey, M. T. (1987). Information, natural law and the self-assembly of rhythmic movement. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mechsner, F. (2004). A psychological approach to human voluntary movements. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36, 371–417.
Mechsner, F., Kerzel, D., Knoblich, G. and Prinz, W. (2001). Perceptual basis of bimanual coordination. Nature, 414 (6859), 69–73.
Miall, R. C., Weir, D. J. and Stein, J. F. (1985). Visuomotor tracking with delayed visual feedback. Neuroscience, 16, 511–520.
Michael, J. A. and Jones, G. M. (1966). Dependence of visual tracking capability upon stimulus predictability. Vision Research, 6, 707–716.
Newell, K. M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M. G. Wade and H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor skill acquisition in children: Aspects of coordination and control (pp. 341–360). Amsterdam: Martinies NIJHOS.
Newell, K. M. and McDonald, P. V. (1994). Information, coordination modes, and control in a prehensile force task. Human Movement Science, 13, 375–392.
Pew, R. W. (1974). Levels of analysis in motor control. Brain Research, 71, 393–400.
Poulton, E. C. (1974). Tracking skill and manual control. New York: Academic Press.
Ranganathan, R. and Newell, K. M. (2008). Motor synergies: Feedback and error compensation within and between trials. Experimental Brain Research, 186, 561–570.
Rinkenauer, G., Ulrich, R. and Wing, A. M. (2001). Brief bimanual force pulses: Correlations between the hands in force and time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 1485–1497.
Shannon, C. E. and Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. New York: Wiley.
Sharp, W. E. and Newell, K. M. (2000). Coordination of grip configurations as a function of force output. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32, 73–82.
Slifkin, A. B., Vaillancourt, D. E. and Newell, K. M. (2000). Intermittency in continuous isometric force production. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84, 1708–1718.
Sosnoff, J. J., Jordan, K. and Newell, K. M. (2005). Information and force level interact in regulating force output during 2 and 3 digit grip configurations. Experimental Brain Research, 167, 76–85.
Sosnoff, J. J. and Newell, K. M. (2005). Intermittent visual information and the multiple timescales of visual motor control of continuous isometric force production. Perception and Psychophysics, 67, 335–344.
Sosnoff, J. J. and Newell, K. M. (2005). Intermittency of force production and the frequency of rhythmical force production. Journal of Motor Behavior, 37, 325–334.
Sosnoff, J. J. and Newell, K. M. (2006). Information processing limitations with aging in the visual scaling of isometric force. Experimental Brain Research, 170, 423–432.
Sosnoff, J. J. and Newell, K. M. (2009). The adaptive range of 1/f isometric force production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 439–436.
Sosnoff, J. J., Valantine, A. D., and Newell, K. M. (2009). The adaptive range of 1/f isometric force production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 439–446.
Steglich, C., Heuer, H., Spijkers, W. and Kleinsorge, T. (1999). Bimanual coupling during the specification of isometric forces. Experimental Brain Research, 129, 302–316.
Stephen, D. G., Stepp, N., Dixon, J. A. and Turvey, M. T. (2008). Strong anticipation: Sensitivity to long-range correlations in synchronization behavior. Physica A, 387, 5271–5278.
Stitt, J. P. and Newell, K. M. (2011). Classifying features of the intrinsic mode functions generated by empirical mode decomposition of isometric force response using a fuzzy classifier. Proceedings of the 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
Studenka, B. E. and Newell, K. M. (2013). Visual information for prospective control of tracking irregular target paths with isometric force production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 39, 1557–1567.
Turvey, M. T. (1990). Coordination. American Psychologist, 45, 938–953.
Vaillancourt, D. E., Haibach, P. S. and Newell, K. M. (2006). Visual angle is the critical variable mediating gain-related effects in manual control. Experimental Brain Research, 173, 742–750.
Vaillancourt, D., Slifkin, A. B. and Newell, K. M. (2001). Intermittency in the visual control of force in Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Brain Research, 138, 118–127.
Vaillancourt, D. E., Slifkin, A. B. and Newell, K. M. (2002). Inter-digit individuation and force variability in the precision grip of young, elderly, and Parkinson’s disease participants. Motor Control, 6, 113–128.
Von Hofsten, C. (1993). Prospective control: A basic aspect of action development. Human Development, 36, 253–270.
West, B. J. (2006). Where medicine went wrong: Rediscovering the path to complexity. Singapore: World Scientific.
Wickens, C. D. (1984). Engineering psychology and human performance. Columbus, OH: Bell and Howell.
Wimmers, R. H., Beek, P. J. and van Wieringen, P. C. W. (1992). Phase transitions in rhythmic tracking movements: A case of unilateral coupling. Human Movement Science, 11, 217–226.

References

Apkarian, A. V., Stea, R. A. and Bolanowski, S. J. (1994). Heat-induced pain diminishes vibrotactile perception: A touch gate. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 11, 259–267.
Baddeley, A. D., Thomson, N. and Buchanan, M. (1975). Word length and the structure of short term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575–589.
Bliss, J. P., Liebman, R. and Brill, J. C. (2012). Alert characteristics and identification of avatars on a virtual battlefield. Intelligent Decision Technologies, 6, 1–9.
Blumenthal, T. D. and Gescheider, G. A. (1987). Modification of the acoustic startle reflex by a tactile prepulse: the effects of stimulus onset asynchrony and prepulse intensity. Psychophysiology, 24, 320–327.
Bolanowski, S. J., Jr., Gescheider, G. A., Fontana, A. M., Niemiec, J. L. and Tromblay, J. L. (2001). The effects of heat-induced pain on the detectability, discriminability, and sensation magnitude of vibrotactile stimuli. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 18, 5–9.
Bolanowski, S. J., Jr., Gescheider, G. A., Verrillo, R. T. and Checkosky, C. M. (1988). Four channels mediate the mechanical aspects of touch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 1680–1694.
Bolanowski, S. J., Jr. and Verrillo, R. T. (1982). Temperature and criterion effects in a somatosensory subsystem: A neurophysiological and psychophysical study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 48, 836–855.
Brewster, S. A. and Brown, L. M. (2004). Tactons: Structured tactile messages for non-visual information display. Proceedings of the Australasian User Interface Conference, Australian Computer Society, pp. 15–23.
Brill, J. C. (2007). A comparison of attentional reserve capacity across three sensory modalities. Doctoral dissertation. University of Central Florida, Orlando.
Brill, J. C., Gilson, R. D., Mouloua, M., Hancock, P. A. and Terrence, P. I. (2004). Increasing situation awareness of dismounted soldiers via directional cueing. In D. A. Vincenzi, M. Mouloua and P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Human performance, situation awareness, and automation: Current research and trends, Vol. 1 (pp. 130–132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Brill, C. and Terrence, P. (2007). Discrete tactile versus auditory target cueing. In R. D. Gilson, E. S. Redden and L. R. Elliot (Eds.), Remote tactile displays for future soldiers (Report No. ARL-SR-0152). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Army Research Laboratory.
Brill, J. C., Terrence, P. I., Downs, J. L, Gilson, R. D., Hancock, P. A. and Mouloua, M. (2004). Search space reduction via multi-sensory directional cueing. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 48, 2134–2136.
Brill, J. C., Terrence, P. I., Stafford, S. and Gilson, R. D. (2006). A wireless tactile communication system for conveying U.S. Army arm-hand signals. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 50, 2247–2249.
Cholewiak, R. C., Brill, J. C. and Schwab, A. (2004). Vibrotactile localization on the abdomen: Effects of place and space. Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 970–987.
Cholewiak, R. W. and Collins, A. A. (1991). Sensory and physiological basis of touch. In M. A. Heller and W. Schiff (Eds.), The psychology of touch. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cholewiak, R. W. and Collins, A. A. (2003). Vibrotactile localization on the arm: Effects of place, space, and age. Perception and Psychophysics, 65, 1058–1077.
Cholewiak, R. W., Collins, A. A. and Brill, J. C. (2001). Spatial factors in vibrotactile pattern perception. In Eurohaptics Conference. Birmingham, UK, 1–4 July 2001, pp. 1–7. Downloaded from http://www.eurohaptics.vision.ee.ethz.ch/2001/cholewiak.pdf, 1 May 2012.
Cholewiak, R. W. and Wollowitz, M. (1992). The design of vibrotactile transducers. In I. R. Summers (Ed.), Tactile aids for the hearing impaired (pp. 57–82). London: Whurr.
Cincotti, F., Kauhanen, L., Aloise, F., Palomäki, T., Caporusso, N., Jylänki, P., Mattia, D., Babiloni, F., Vanacker, G., Nuttin, M., Marciani, M. G. and Millán, J. D. R. (2007). Vibrotactile feedback for brain-computer interface operation. Computer Intelligence and Neuroscience, art. 48937.
Coles, T. R., Meglan, D. and John, N. W. (2011). The role of haptics in medical training simulators: A survey of the state of the art. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 4, 51–66.
Craig, J. C. (1966). Vibrotactile loudness addition. Perception & Psychophysics, 1, 185–190.
Craig, J. C. (1968). Vibrotactile spatial summation. Perception & Psychophysics, 4, 351–354.
Craig, J. C. (1974). Vibrotactile difference thresholds for intensity and the effect of a masking stimulus. Perception & Psychophysics, 15, 123–127.
Craig, J. C. (1985). Attending to two fingers: Two hands are better than one. Perception & Psychophysics, 38, 496–511.
Craig, J. C. (1989). Interference in localizing tactile stimuli. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 343–355.
Craig, J. C. and Evans, P. M. (1987). Vibrotactile masking and the persistence of tactual features. Perception & Psychophysics, 42, 309–317.
Craig, J. C. and Qian, X. (1997). Tactile pattern perception by two fingers: Temporal interference and response competition. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 252–265.
Davis, B. R., Bahniuk, E., Young, J. K., Barnard, C. M. and Mansour, J. M. (1989). Age dependent changes in shear wave propagation through human skin. Experimental Gerontology, 24, 201–210.
Escoffier, C., de Rigal, J., Rochefort, A., Vasselet, R., Lévêque, J. L. and Agache, P. G. (1989). Age-related mechanical properties of human skin: An in vivo study. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 93, 353–357.
Gallace, A., Tan, H. Z. and Spence, C. (2007). The body surface as a communication system: The state of the art after 50 years of research. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 16, 655–676.
Geldard, F. A. (1957). Adventures in tactile literacy. American Psychologist, 12, 115–124.
Geldard, F. A. (1966). Cutaneous coding of optical signals: The optohapt. Perception & Psychophysics, 1, 377–381.
Gescheider, G. A., Capraro, A. J., Frisina, R. D., Hamer, R. D. and Verrillo, R. T. (1978). The effects of vibratory surround on vibrotactile thresholds. Sensory Processes, 2, 99–115.
Gescheider, G. A., O’Malley, M. J. and Verrillo, R. T. (1983). Vibrotactile forward masking: Evidence for channel independence. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 74, 474–485.
Gescheider, G. A., Thorpe, J. M., Goodarz, J. and Bolanowski, S. J. (1997). The effect of skin temperature on the detection and discrimination of tactile stimulation. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 14, 181–188.
Gescheider, G. A., Verrillo, R. T., McCann, J. T. and Aldrich, E. M. (1984). Effects of the menstrual cycle on vibrotactile sensitivity. Perception & Psychophysics, 36, 586–592.
Gescheider, G. A., Wright, J. H. and Verillo, R. T. (2009). Information-processing channels in the tactile sensory system: A psychophysical and physiological analysis. New York: Psychology Press.
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The sense considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gilson, R. D. (1969). Vibrotactile masking: Some spatial and temporal aspects. Perception & Psychophysics, 5, 176–180.
Gilson, R. D. and Brill, J. C. (2007). Tactor display selection and configuration. In R. D. Gilson, E. S. Redden and L. R. Elliot (Eds.), Remote tactile displays for future soldiers (Report No. ARL-SR-0152). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Army Research Laboratory.
Green, B. G. (1976). Vibrotactile temporal summation and the effect of frequency. Sensory Processes, 1, 138–149.
Green, B. G. (1977). The effect of skin temperature on vibrotactile sensitivity. Perception and Psychophysics, 21, 243–248.
Hahn, J. F. (1966). Vibrotactile adaptation and recovery by two methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 655–658.
Harazin, B. and Harazin-Lechowska, A. (2007). Effect of changes in finger skin temperature on vibrotactile perception threshold. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 20, 223–227.
Hollins, M., Goble, A. K., Whitsel, B. L. and Tommerdahl, M. (1990). Time course and action spectrum of vibrotactile adaptation. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 7, 205–221.
Ji, Y. G., Lee, K. and Hwang, W. (2011). Haptic perceptions in the vehicle seat. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 21, 305–325.
Jones, L. A., Lockyer, B. and Piateski, E. (2006). Tactile display and vibrotactile pattern recognition on the torso. Advanced Robotics, 20, 1359–1374.
Kunesch, E., Schmidt, R., Nordin, M., Wallin, U. and Hagbarth, K.-E. (1987). Peripheral neural correlates of cutaneous anaesthesia induced by skin cooling in man. Acta Physiologica Scandandavia, 129, 247–257.
Laskin, S. E. and Spencer, W. A. (1979). Cutaneous masking, I: Psychophysical observations on interactions of multipoint stimuli in man. Journal of Physiology, 42, 1048–1060.
Lewis, T. (1930). Observations upon the reactions of the vessels of the human skin to cold. Heart, 15, 177–180.
Loomis, J. M. and Lederman, S. J. (1986). Tactual perception. In K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman and J. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception an human performance, Vol. 2: Cognitive processes and performance (Ch. 31). New York: Wiley.
Maeda, S. and Shibata, N. (2008). Temporary threshold shifts (TTS) of fingertip vibrotactile perception thresholds from hand-held tool vibration exposures at working surface. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38, 693–696.
Perez, C. A., Holzmann, C. A. and Jaeschke, H. E. (2000). Two-point vibrotactile discrimination related to parameters of pulse burst stimulus. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 38, 74–79.
Piérard, G. E. (1999). EEMCO guidance to the in vivo assessment of tensile functional properties of the skin, Part 1: Relevance to the structures and ageing of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Skin Pharmacol and Applied Skin Physiology, 12, 352–362.
Rupert, A. H. (2000). Tactile situation awareness system: Proprioceptive prostheses for sensory deficiencies. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 71(suppl. 9), A92–A99.
Sherrick, C. E., Jr. (1964). Effects of double simultaneous stimulation on the skin. American Journal of Psychology, 77, 42–53.
Sherrick, C. E., Jr. and Cholewiak, R. W. (1986). Cutaneous sensitivity. In K. Boff, L. Kaufman and J. L. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance, pp. 12–1 –12–58. New York: Wiley.
Shuster, S., Black, M. M. and McVitie, E. (1975). The influence of age and sex on skin thickness, skin collagen and density. British Journal of Dermatology, 93, 639–643.
Steinberg, F. U. and Graber, A. L. (1963). The effect of age and peripheral circulation on the perception of vibration. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 44, 645–650.
Stevens, J. C. and Choo, K. K. (1996). Spatial acuity of the body surface over the life span. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 13, 153–166.
Swerdlow, N. R., Geyer, M. A., Blumenthal, T. D. and Hartman, P. L. (1999). Effects of discrete acoustic prestimuli on perceived intensity and behavioral responses to startling acoustic and tactile stimuli. Psychobiology, 27, 547–556.
Talbot, W. H., Darian-Smith, I., Kornhuber, H. H. and Mountcastle, V. B. (1968). The sense of flutter-vibration: Comparison of human capacity with response patterns of mechanoreceptive afferents from the monkey hand. Journal of Neurophysiology, 31, 301–334.
Tan, H. Z., Durlach, N. I., Rabinowitz, W. M., Reed, C. M. and Santos, J. R. (1997). Reception of Morse code through motional, vibrotactile, and auditory stimulation. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 1004–1017.
van Erp, J. B. F. (2000). Direction estimation with vibro-tactile stimuli presented to the torso: A search for the tactile ego-centre (TNO report TM-00-B012). Soesterberg, The Netherlands: TNO Human Factors.
van Erp, J. B. (2005). Vibrotactile spatial acuity on the torso: Effects of location and timing parameters. First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 80–85.
van Erp, J. B. F., van Veen, H. A. H. C., Jansen, C. and Dobbins, T. (2005). Waypoint navigation with a vibrotactile waist belt. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 2, 106–117.
Verrillo, R. T. (1962). Investigation of some parameters of the cutaneous threshold for vibration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 34, 1768–1773.
Verrillo, R. T. (1963). Effect of contactor area on the vibrotactile threshold. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 35, 1962–1966.
Verrillo, R. T. (1965). Temporal summation in vibrotactile sensitivity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 37, 843–846.
Verrillo, R. T. (1966a). Vibrotactile sensitivity and the frequency response of the Pacinian corpuscle. Psychonomic Science, 4, 135–136.
Verrillo, R. T. (1966b). Vibrotactile thresholds for hairy skin. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 47–50.
Verrillo, R. T. (1966c). Effect of spatial parameters on the vibrotactile threshold. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 570–575.
Verrillo, R. T. (1968). A duplex mechanism of mechanoreception. In D. R. Kensalo (Ed.), The skin senses (pp. 139–159). Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Verrillo, R. T. (1977). Comparison of child and adult vibrotactile thresholds. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 197–200.
Verrillo, R. T. (1979a). Changes in vibrotactile threshold as a function of age. Sensory Processes, 3, 49–59.
Verrillo, R. T. (1979b). Comparison of vibrotactile thresholds and suprathreshold responses in men and women. Perception & Psychophysics, 26, 20–24.
Verrillo, R. T. (1980). Age related changes in the sensitivity to vibration. Journal of Gerontology, 35, 185–193.
Verrillo, R. T. (1982). Effects of aging on the suprathreshold response to vibration. Perception & Psychophysics, 32, 61–68.
Verrillo, R. T. and Bolanowski, S. J., Jr. (1986). The effects of temperature on the psychophysical responses to vibration on glabrous and hairy skin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80, 528–532.
Verrillo, R. T. and Capraro, A. J. (1975). Effect of stimulus frequency on subjective vibrotactile magnitude estimation functions. Perception & Psychophysics, 17, 91–96.
Verrillo, R. T. and Ecker, A. D. (1977). Effects of root or nerve destruction on vibrotactile sensitivity in trigeminal neuralgia. Pain, 3, 239–255.
Verrillo, R. T. and Gescheider, G. A. (1975). Enhancement and summation in the perception of two successive vibrotactile stimuli. Perception & Psychophysics, 18, 128–136.
Verrillo, R. T., Gescheider, G. A., Calman, B. G. and Van Doren, C. L. (1983). Vibrotactile masking: Effects of one- and two-site stimulation. Perception & Psychophysics, 33, 379–387.
Vexler, A., Polyansky, I. and Gorodetsky, R., (1999). Evaluation of skin viscoelasticity and anisotropy by measurement of speed of shear wave propagation with viscoelasticity skin analyzer. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 113, 732–739.
Weinstein, S. (1968). Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex, and laterality. In D. R. Kensalo (Ed.), The skin senses (pp. 195–222). Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Weisenberger, J. M. (1986). Sensitivity to amplitude-modulated vibrotactile signals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80, 1707–1715.
Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 3, 159–177.
Wickens, C. D., Lee, J. D., Liu, Y. and Gordon, S. E. (2003). An introduction to human factors engineering. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.
Yarrow, K., Haggard, P. and Rothwell, J. C. (2008). Vibrotactile-auditory interactions are post-perceptual. Perception, 37, 1114–1130.

References

Amoore, J. E. (1970). Molecular basis of odor. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Buck, L. and Axel, R. (1991). A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: Molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell, 65, 175–187.
Burdea, G and Coiffet, P. (2003). Virtual reality technology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
Chandrashekar, J., Hoon, M. A., Ryba, N. J. P. and Zuker, C. S. (2006) The receptors and cells for mammalian taste, Nature, 444, 288–294.
Kawai, T. and Noro, K. (1996). Psychological effect of stereoscopic 3-D images with fragrances, Ergonomics, 39, 1364–1369.
Kaye, J. J. (2004). Making scents. Interactions, Jan+Feb, 49–61.
Keller, P. E., Kouzes, R. T., Kangas, L. J. and Hashem, S. (1995). Transmission of olfactory information for telemedicine. Morgan, K., Satava, R. M., Sieburg, H. B., Matteus, R. and Christensen, J. P. (Eds.), Interactive technology and the new paradigm for healthcare (pp. 168–172). Amsterdam: IOS Press and Ohmsha.
Kendal-Reed, M., Walker, J. C., Morgan, W. T., LaMacchio, M. and Lutz, R. W. (1998). Human responses to propionic acid, I: Quantification of within- and between-participant variation in perception by normosmics and anosmics. Chem., Senses, 23, 71.
King, W. H. (1964). Piezoelectric sorption detector. Anal. Chem., 36, 1735.
Kohonen, T. (1988). Self-Organization and Associative Memory. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Messager, J. (2002, September). The diffusion of fragrances in a multimedia environment. Paper Presented at 3rd Aroma Science Forum, 2002, Tokyo (in Japanese), p. 2
Nakaizumi, F., Yanagida, Y., Noma, H. and Hosaka, K. (2006, March). SpotScents: A novel method of natural scent delivery using multiple scent projectors. Proc. VR2006. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, p. 207.
Nakamoto, T. (2005a). Odor recorder. Sensor Letters, 3, 136–150.
Nakamoto, T. (2005b). Record of dynamical change of odor using odor recorder. Sensors and Materials, 17, 365–384.
Nakamoto, T. and Hai Dinh Minh, P. (2007, March). Improvement of olfactory display using solenoid valves. Proceeding of IEEE Virtual Reality 2007. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 171–178.
Nakamoto, T. and Moriizumi, T. (1990). A theory of a quartz crystal microbalance based upon a Mason equivalent circuit, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 29, 963–969.
Nakamoto, T. and Murakami, K. (2009, March). Selection method of odor components for olfactory display using mass spectrum database. IEEE Virtual Reality 2009, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 159–162.
Nakamoto, T., Nimsuk, N., Wyszynski, B., Takushima, H., Kinoshita, M. and Cho, N. (2008, December). Experiment on teleolfaction using odor sensing system and olfactory display synchronous with visual information. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence (ICAT). Tokyo: The Virtual Reality Society of Japan, pp. 85–92.
Nakamoto, T., Ohno, M., and Nihei, Y. (2012). Study of odor approximation by using mass spectrometer, IEEE Sensors Journal, 12, 3225–3231.
Nakamoto, T., Ohtaguro, S. Kinoshita, M., Nagahama, M., Ohnishi, K. and Ishida, T. (2008). Cooking up an interactive olfactory game display, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28, 75–78.
Nakamoto, T., Takigawa, H. and Yamanaka, T. (2004). Fundamental study of odor recorder using inkjet devices for low-volatile scents. Trans. on IEICE, E87-C, 2081–2086.
Nakamoto, T., Utsumi, S., Yamashita, N., Moriizumi, T. and Sonoda, Y. (1994). Active gas sensing system using automatically controlled gas blender and numerical optimization technique. Sensors and Actuators B, 20, 131.
Nakamoto, T., and Yamanaka, T. (2011). Odor reproduction with movie and its application to teleolfaction in Intelligent Systems for machine olfaction, Hines, E.L., and Lesson, M.S., Eds., IGI-Global, 126–152.
Nakamoto, T. and Yoshikawa, K. (2006). Movie with scents generated by olfactory display using solenoid valves. Trans. on IEICE, E89-A, 3327–3332.
Narumi, T., Kajinami, T., Nishizaka, S., Tanikawa, T. and Hirose, M. (2011, March). Pseudo-gustatory display system based on cross-modal integration of vision, olfaction and gustation. Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, 2011. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 127–130.
Pearce, T. C., Schiffman, S. S., Nagle, H. T. and Gardner, J. W. (Eds.) (2003). Handbook of machine olfaction. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Rasch, B., Buchel, C., Gais, S. and Born, J. (2007) Odor cues during slow-wave sleep prompt declarative memory consolidation, Science, 315, 1426–1429.
Scent air. Downloaded from http://www.scentair.com, 18 April 2011.
Somboon, P., Wyszynski, B. and Nakamoto, T. (2007). Novel odor recorder for extending range of recordable odor. Sensors and Actuators B, 121, 583–589.
Somboon, P., Wyszynski, B. and Nakamoto, T. (2009). Development of odor recorder with enhanced recording capabilities based on real-time mass spectrometry. Sensors and Actuators B, 141, 141–146.
Spirited away. Downloaded from http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/, 18 April 2011.
Yamada, T., Tanikawa, T., Hirota, K. and Hirose, M. (2006, March). Wearable olfactory display: Using odor in outdoor environment. Proc. VR2006. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, p. 199.
Yamanaka, T., Nimsuk, N. and Nakamoto, T. (2007). Concurrent recording and regeneration of visual and olfactory information using odor sensor. Presence, 16, 307–317.
Yossiri, A. and Nakamoto, T. (2010). Fundamental study of olfactory display using extremely small liquid pump and SAW atomizer (in Japanese). Trans. on Virtual Reality Society of Japan, 15, 589–594.
Zellner, D. A. and Whitten, L. A. (1995). The effect of color intensity and appropriateness on color-induced odor enhancement. American Journal of Psychology, 112, 585.