Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: June 2012

L

Summary

Laity The Greek word laikos, from which the word ‘lay’ derives, does not occur in the Bible, although the noun laos, meaning ‘people’, is frequent, specifically designating the people of God as distinct from the Gentiles. Thus, the word laos properly refers to a sacred or consecrated people, distinct from a people who are not so consecrated. Several scholarly studies have shown that, although laikos is philologically related to laos, the use of the former term suggests that it refers to a further distinction within the people of God, according to which the laikos is opposed to the priest and Levite as one who is not consecrated for leadership in worship. In short, laikos designated a segment of the Christian population that were not leaders of the community and who exercised no cultic function. It referred to those who were not priests, deacons, or clerics.

Y. Congar (1904–95) argued that in 1 Peter the priestly themes and levitical ethic of the OT are carried over to the people of God as a whole (see, e.g., 1 Pet. 2:9). By contrast, Clement of Rome (fl. 95) is the first to contrast laikos to ‘priest’ (1Clem. 40:5), and uses the former term to refer to that part of the people which is neither priestly nor levitical; nevertheless, for him laikos refers to the non-priestly, non-levitical element among the holy people.

Congar, Y., Lay People in the Church (Geoffrey Chapman, 1965).
Doohan, L., The Laity: A Bibliography (Michael Glazier Books, 1987).
Paul, John II, apostolic exhortation, Christifideles laici (1988).
Gutiérrez, G., Las Casas: In Search of the Poor of Jesus Christ (Orbis, 1993 [1992]).
Boff, L. and Boff, C., Introducing Liberation Theology (Orbis, 1987).
González, O. E. and González, J. L., Christianity in Latin America: A History (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Hennelly, A. T., Liberation Theology: A Documentary History (Orbis, 1990).
Petrella, I., The Future of Liberation Theology: An Argument and Manifesto (Ashgate, 2004).
Rowland, C. and Corner, M., Liberating Exegesis: The Challenge of Liberation Theology to Biblical Studies (John Knox Press, 1989).
Tombs, D., Latin American Liberation Theology (Brill, 2002).
Elizondo, V., Guadalupe: Mother of the New Creation (Orbis, 1997).
Espín, O. O., The Faith of the People: Theological Reflections on Popular Catholicism (Orbis, 1997).
Goizueta, R. S., Caminemos Con Jesús: A Latino/a Theology of Accompaniment (Orbis, 1995).
González, J., Mañana: Christian Theology from a Hispanic Perspective (Abingdon Press, 1990).
Blomberg, C. L. and Robinson, S. E., How Wide the Divide? A Mormon and an Evangelical in Conversation (IVP, 1997).
Davies, D. J., The Mormon Culture of Salvation (Ashgate, 2000).
Berman, H. J., Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition (Harvard University Press, 1983).
Fuller, L. L., The Morality of Law, revised edn (Yale University Press, 1969).
McConnell, M. W., Cochran, Jr R. F., and Carmella, A. C., eds., Christian Perspectives on Legal Thought (Yale University Press, 2001).
Witte, J., Law and Protestantism: The Legal Teachings of the Lutheran Reformation (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Witte, J. and Alexander, F. S., eds., Christianity and Law: An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Irwin, K., ‘Lex orandi, lex credendi – Origins and Meaning: State of the Question’, Liturgical Ministry 11 (spring 2002), 57–69.
Averill, L. J., American Theology in the Liberal Tradition (Westminster Press, 1967).
Cauthen, K., The Impact of American Religious Liberalism (Harper & Row, 1962).
Fergusson, D., ed., Blackwell Companion to the 19th Century Theologians (Blackwell, 2009).
Hutchison, W. R., ed., American Protestant Thought in the Liberal Era (University Press of America, 1981).
Reardon, B., Liberal Protestantism (Stanford University Press, 1968).
Welch, C., Protestant Thought in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols. (Yale University Press, 1985 [1972]).
Rowland, C., ed., The Cambridge Companion to Liberation Theology (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Sugirtharajah, R. S. and Fabella, V., eds., Dictionary of Third World Theologies (Orbis, 2000).
Baldovin, J. F., , S. J., ‘The Liturgical Movement and Its Consequences’ in The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer, ed. Hefling, C. and Shattock, C. (Oxford, 2006), 249–60.
Fenwick, J. and Spinks, B., Worship in Transition: The Liturgical Movement in the Twentieth Century (Continuum, 1995).
Fenwick, J., Spinks, B., and André Haquin, ‘The Liturgical Movement and Catholic Ritual Revision’ in The Oxford History of Christian Worship, ed. Wainwright, C. and Tucker, K. B. Westerfield (Oxford University Press, 2006), 696–720.
Wainwright, G., ‘Ecumenical Convergences’ in The Oxford History of Christian Worship, ed. Wainwright, G. and Tucker, K. B. Westerfied (Oxford University Press, 2006), 721–54.
Garrigan, S., Beyond Ritual: Sacramental Theology after Habermas (Ashgate, 2004).
Hughes, G., Worship as Meaning: A Liturgical Theology for Late Modernity (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Lathrop, G., Holy Things: A Liturgical Theology (Fortress Press, 1993).
Puglisi, J., ed., Liturgical Renewal as a Way to Christian Unity (Liturgical Press, 2005).
Schattauer, T., ‘Liturgical Studies: Disciplines, Perspectives, Teaching’, International Journal of Practical Theology 11 (2007), 106–37.
Vogel, D., ed., Primary Sources of Liturgical Theology: A Reader (Liturgical Press, 2000).
Dillon, J. M., The Middle Platonists (Duckworth, 1996).
Dunn, J. D. G., Christology in the Making: A New Testament Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of Incarnation (SCM, 1989).
Pollard, T. E., Johannine Christology and the Early Church (Cambridge University Press, 1970).
Hill, H., The Politics of Modernism: Alfred Loisy and the Scientific Study of Religion (Catholic University of America Press, 2002).
Coelho, I., Hermeneutics & Method: The ‘Universal Viewpoint’ in Bernard Lonergan (University of Toronto Press, 2001).
Mathews, W. A., Lonergan's Quest: A Study of Desire in the Authoring of Insight (University of Toronto Press, 2005).
Jeremias, J., The Lord's Prayer (Fortress Press, 1964).
Lochman, J., The Lord's Prayer (Eerdmans, 1990).
Barth, K., Church Dogmatics (T&T Clark, 1958), IV/2.
Canning, R., The Unity of Love for God and Neighbor in St. Augustine (Augustinian Historical Institute, 1993).
Nygren, A., Agape and Eros (University of Chicago Press, 1982 [1930–6]).
Outka, G., Agape: An Ethical Analysis (Yale University Press, 1972).
Rahner, K., ‘Reflections on the Unity of the Love of Neighbour and the Love of God’ in Theological Investigations, vol. VI (Helicon, 1969), 231–49.
Althaus, P., The Theology of Martin Luther (Fortress Press, 1967).
Arand, C. P. and Kolb, R., The Genius of Luther's Theology: A Wittenberg Way of Thinking for the Contemporary Church (Baker Academic, 2008).
Lohse, B., Martin Luther's Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development (Fortress Press, 1999).
Braaten, C. E., Forde, G. O., Hefner, P. R.et al., Christian Dogmatics, 2 vols. (Fortress Press, 1984).
Gassmann, G. and Hendrix, S. H., Fortress Introduction to the Lutheran Confessions (Fortress Press, 1999).
Gregerson, N. H., Peters, T., Holm, B., and Widman, P., eds., Gift of Grace: The Future of Lutheran Theology (Fortress Press, 2004).
Kolb, R. and Wengert, T. J., eds., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Fortress Press, 2000).
Lehmann, H. T. and Pelikan, J., eds., Luther's Works, 55 vols. (Fortress Press, 1955–86).
Lohse, B., Martin Luther's Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development (Fortress Press, 1999).