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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: August 2012

4 - OPTICAL SYSTEMS

Summary

Physical, chemical, and biological phenomena are regularly studied or induced optically. Such experiments can involve light absorption, light emission, or light scattering. We can characterize any experimental arrangement where light is used, produced, measured, modified, or detected as an overall optical system. Any such optical system will always be reducible to three parts: a source of light, a detector of that light, and everything in between. We will frequently refer to this important and varied intermediary arrangement as the optical system. Consequently, our discussion of overall optical system design and construction will involve three key topics: sources, optical systems, and detectors (to be discussed in detail inChapter 7). The light source may be a laser, lamp, light-emitting diode, or the Sun. The detector may be a vacuum tube, solid-state device, or even the eye. Light intensity may vary from continuous wave (CW) to pulsed, and these pulses may have durations as short as a few femtoseconds. Passive elements in the system may transmit, reflect, combine, polarize, or separate light according to its spectral content. Nonlinear optical elements change the spectral content of light.

It is our aim in this chapter to explain the basic concepts that need to be understood by the experimentalist who uses optical techniques. In addition, we will provide examples of useful techniques for producing, controlling, analyzing, and modulating light.

OPTICAL TERMINOLOGY

Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation, the many categories of which make up the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Filters
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Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
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Incoherent Light Sources
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Photometry
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Interferometers and Interferometry
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Fourier Optics and Holography
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Lasers
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Nonlinear Optics
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Bloembergen, N., Nonlinear Optics, Benjamin, New York, 1965.
Harper, P. G. and Wherrett, B. S. (Eds.), Nonlinear Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1977.
Tang, C. L. and Rabin, H., (Eds.), Quantum Electronics, Vols. 1A and 2A Nonlinear Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1975.
Zernike, F. and Midwinter, J. E., Applied Non-Linear Optics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1973.
Shen, Y. R., The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1984.
Optical Component and Instrument Design
Heel, A. C. S. (Ed.), Advanced Optical Techniques, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1967.
Kingslake, R. (Ed.), Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Academic Press, New York, Vol. 3, 1965; Vol. 4, 1967; Vol. 5, 1969.
Optical Detectors
Rogalksi, A., Infrared Detectors, Gordon and Breadh, Amsterdam, 2000.
Gowar, J., Optical Communication Systems, 2nd edn., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.
Dereniak, E. L. and Boreman, G. D., Infrared Detectors and Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996.
Dereniak, E. L. and , G., Optical Radiation Detectors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1984.
Graeme, J., Photodiode Amplifiers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.
Dance, J. B., Photoelectronic Devices, Iliffe, London, 1969.
Kruse, P. W., McGlauchlin, L. D., and McQuistan, R. B., Elements of Infrared Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962.
Levi, L., Applied Optics, Vol. 2, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.
Keyes, R. S. (Ed.), Optical and Infrared Detectors, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 19, Springer, Berlin, 1977.
Optical Materials
Kingslake, R. (Ed.), Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, 1965.
Weber, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Vols. III–V, Optical Materials, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986–87.
Kruse, P. W., McGlauchlin, L. D., and McQuistan, R. B., Elements of Infrared Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962.
Moses, A. J., Optical Material Properties, IFI/Plenum, New York, 1971.
Optical Safety
Weber, M. J. (Ed.), Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Vol. 1, Lasers and Masers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1982.
Sliney, D. and Wolbarsht, M., Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources: A Comprehensive Handbook, Plenum, New York, 1980.
Polarized Light and Crystal Optics
Azzam, R. M. A. and Bashara, N. M., Ellipsometry and Polarized Light, North-Bouand, Amsterdam, 1977.
Goldstein, D., Polarized Light, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2003.
Shurcliff, W. A., Polarized Light, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1962.
Wahlstrom, E., Optical Crystallography, 5th edn., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1979.
Yariv, A. and Yeh, P., Optical Waves in Crystals, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1983.
Spectrometers
Colthup, N. B., Daly, L. H., and Wiberley, S. E., Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, 2nd edn., Academic Press, New York, 1975.
Francis, M. Mirabella Jr., (Ed.), Internal Reflection Spectroscopy. Theory and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993.
James, J. F. and Sternberg, R. S., The Design of Optical Spectrometers, Chapman & Hall, London, 1969.
Strobel, H. S. and Heineman, W. R., Chemical Instrumentation, 3rd edn., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1989.
Spectroscopy
Pinta, M. (Ed.), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1975.
Edisbury, J. R., Practical Hints on Absorption Spectrometry, Hilger and Watts, London, 1966.
Reynolds, R. J. and Aldous, K., Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1970.
Smith, A. Lee, Applied Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals, Techniques and Analytical Problem-Solving, Vol. 54 (Chemical Analysis, Vol. 21), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1979.
Sawyer, R. A., Experimental Spectroscopy, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1951.
Williams, D. (Ed.), Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 13, Spectroscopy, Parts A and B, Academic Press, New York, 1968.
Walker, S. and Straw, H., Spectroscopy, Vol. I, Microwave and Radio Frequency Spectroscopy; Vol. II, Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Macmillan, New York, 1962.
Submillimeter Wave Techniques
Button, K. J., Infrared and Millimeter Waves: Submillimeter Techniques, Academic Press, New York, 1980.
Chantry, G. W., Submillimeter Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York, 1971.
Kollberg, E. (Ed.), Instrumentation for submillimeter spectroscopy, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 598, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1986.
Martin, D. H. (Ed.), Spectroscopic Techniques, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967.
Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants
Kaye, G. W. C. and Laby, T. H., Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, 16th edn., Longman, London, 1995. Now available free online at http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/
Tables of Spectral and Laser Lines
Weber, M. J., Handbook of Lasers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001.
Weber, M. J., Handbook of Laser Wavelengths, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999.
Harrison, G. R., MIT Wavelength Tables, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1969.
Striganov, A. R. and Sventitskii, N. S., Tables of Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms, IFI/Plenum, New York, 1968.
Zaidel', A. N., Prokof'ev, V. K., Raiskii, S. M., Slavnyi, V. A., and Shreider, E. Ya., Tables of Spectral Lines, IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970.
Ultraviolet and Vacuum-Ultraviolet Technology
Green, A. E. S. (Ed.), The Middle Ultraviolet: Its Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966.
, J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967.
Suppliers of Optical Windows
Several of the suppliers listed will supply lenses, prisms, and other components fabricated from these materials:
AMTIR (GeAsSe Glass): Harrick Scientific, Janos, REFLEX Analytical
Arsenic trisulfide: Infrared Optical Products, REFLEX Analytical, Spectrum Thin Films Corp.
Arsenic triselenide: Infrared Optical Products, REFLEX Analytical, Spectrum Thin Films Corp.
Barium fluoride: Crystran, Del Mar Photonics, Harrick Scientific, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, Koch Crystal Finishing, Molecular Technology.
Cadmium sulfide: Cleveland Crystals, Molecular Technology.
Cadmium selenide: Cleveland Crystals, Molecular Technology.
Cadmium telluride (Irtran 6): Cleveland Crystals, ISP Optics, Janos, Laser Research Optics, Molecular Technology.
Calcium carbonate (calcite): Crystran, Karl Lambrecht Corp (KLC), Photox, Thin Film Lab.
Calcium fluoride (Irtran 3): Argus International, Coherent, Inc., Crystran, Edmund Optics, EKSPLA, Gooch and Housego, Hellma International, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, KLC, Koch Crystal Finishing, Lambda Research Optics, Meller Optics, Molecular Technology, Newport, Optimax, Opto-Sigma, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Spectrum Thin Films, Thorlabs.
Cesium bromide: Argus International, Crystran, Harrick Scientific, Janos.
Cesium iodide: Crystran, Koch Crystal Finishing, Molecular Technology, REFLEX Analytical.
Diamond: Argus International, Gist Optics, Coherent Photonics Group, II-VI Infrared, ISP Optics, Laser Power Optics, REFLEX Analytical, Optics for Research, Newport/Oriel.
Gallium arsenide: Argus International, Crystran, Infrared Optical Products, II-VI Infrared, ISP Optics, Lambda Research Optics, Laser Power Optics, Laser Research Optics, Meller Optics, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Sterling Precision Optics.
Germanium: Argus International, Coherent, Inc., Crystran, Edmund Optics, Gooch and Housego, II-VI Infrared, ISP Optics, Janos, Laser Power Optics, Laser Research Optics, Meller Optics, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Spectrogon, Spectrum Thin Films Corporation, Sterling Precision Optics, Unicore.
Glasses: Coherent, Ealing, Edmund Optics, Newport, Opto-Sigma, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Rolyn, Schott, Sterling Precision Optics, Thorlabs.
Lithium fluoride: Argus International, Crystran, Coherent, Inc., EKSPLA, Hellma International, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Lambda Research Optics, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology, OPCO, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instrument Co., Sterling Precision Optics.
Magnesium fluoride (Irtran 1): Argus International, Coherent, Inc., Crystran, Edmund Optics, EKSPLA, Gooch and Housego, Hellma International, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, KLC, Lambda Research Optics, Macrooptica, Meller Optics, Molecular Technology, Newport, Optimax, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Sterling Precision Optics.
Magnesium oxide (Irtran 5): Crystran, Harrick Scientific.
Potassium bromide: Argus International, Crystran, EKSPLA, Hilger Crystals, Infrared Optical products, ISP Optics, Janos, Koch Crystal Finishing, Lambda Research Optics, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology, OPCO, Photox, REFLEX Analytical Corp., Spectrum Thin Films Corp., Thorlabs.
Potassium chloride: Crystran, ISP Optics, Janos, Koch Crystal Finishing, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology, Optovac, Photox.
Potassium iodide: Crystran.
Quartz (crystalline): Crystran, Esco, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, Meller Optics, Molecular Technology, Newport, Opto-Sigma, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Sterling Precision Optics, Continental Optical, Optics for Research, Newport/Oriel, Adolf Meller.
Sapphire: Crystran, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Laser Power Optics, Meller Optics, Newport, Opto-Sigma, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Rolyn, Sterling Precision Optics.
Silica (fused): Esco, ISP Optics, Janos, Macrooptica, Meller Optics, Newport, Opto-Sigma, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rolyn, Schott, Sterling Precision Optics, Thorlabs, Continental Optical, Optical Coating Lab (OCLI).
Silicon: Crystran, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, Laser Power Optics, Macrooptica, Meller Optics, Molecular Technology, Photox, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Sterling Precision Optics.
Silver bromide: Crystran, Harrick Scientific, ISP Optics, REFLEX Analytical.
Silver chloride: Crystran, Harrick Scientific, ISP Optics, REFLEX Analytical.
Sodium chloride: Crystran, ISP Optics, Koch Crystal Finishing, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology, Photox.
Sodium fluoride: Crystran.
Strontium fluoride: Crystran, Harrick Scientific.
Strontium titanate: Commercial Crystal Labs, Harrick Scientific, Hibshman-Pacific Optical, Photox.
Tellurium: Molecular Technology.
Thallium bromide: Crystran, Korth Kristalle GmbH.
Thallium bromoiodide (KRS-5): Argus International, Crystran, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, Koch Crystal Finishing, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology, Perkin-Elmer.
Thallium chlorobromide (KRS-6): Crystran, Macrooptica, Molecular Technology.
Titanium dioxide (rutile): Commercial Crystal Labs, Crystran, Harrick Scientific, ISP Optics, Molecular Technology, Thin Film Lab.
Zinc selenide (Irtran 4): Argus International, Coherent, Inc., Crystran, CVI Laser, Edmund Optics, EKSPLA, Gooch and Housego, Harrick Scientific, Hellma International, II-VI Infrared, Infrared Optical Products, ISP Optics, Janos, Laser Power Optics, Laser Research Optics, Meller Optics, Molecular Technology, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Sterling Precision Optics.
Zinc sulfide (Irtran 2): Crystran, Gooch and Housego, Infrared Optical Products, Laser Power Optics, Laser Research Optics, Meller, OPCO, Optimax, REFLEX Analytical, Rocky Mountain Instruments, Sterling Precision Optics,
Zirconium dioxide: Insaco.