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  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: October 2013

Chapter 38 - Sepsis-associated encephalopathy

from Section 6 - Clinical Encephalopathy Syndromes


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33. BarichelloT, MachadoRA, ConstantinoL, et al. Antioxidant treatment prevented late memory impairment in an animal model of sepsis. Crit Care Med 2007;35:2186–90.
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35. ElyEW, InouyeSK, BernardGR, et al. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA 2001;286:2703–10.
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42. NguyenDN, SpapenH, SuF, et al. Elevated serum levels of S-100beta protein and neuron-specific enolase are associated with brain injury in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006;34:1967–74.
43. LucidarmeO, SeguinA, DaubinC, et al. Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients. Crit Care 2010;14:R58.
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46. PisaniMA, KongSY, KaslSV, et al. Days of delirium are associated with 1-year mortality in an older intensive care unit population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;180:1092–7.
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50. HopkinsRO, JacksonJC. Short- and long-term cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors. Clin Chest Med 2009;30:143–53, ix.
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52. BoerKR, van RulerO, van EmmerikAA, et al. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms in a prospective cohort of patients after abdominal sepsis: a nomogram. Intensive Care Med 2008;34:664–74.
53. IwashynaTJ, ElyEW, SmithDM, LangaKM. Long-term cognitive impairment and functional disability among survivors of severe sepsis. JAMA 2010;304:1787–94.
54. GirardTD, JacksonJC, PandharipandePP, et al. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1513–20.
55. IwashynaTJ, CookeCR, WunschH, KahnJM. Population burden of long-term survivorship after severe sepsis in older Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:1070–7.
56. GirardTD, PandharipandePP, ElyEW. Delirium in the intensive care unit. Crit Care 2008;12(Suppl 3):S3.
57. SpapenH, NguyenDN, TroubleynJ, HuyghensL, SchiettecatteJ. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) may attenuate severe sepsis-associated encephalopathy in clinical septic shock. Crit Care 2010;14:R54.
58. SchellingG, RoozendaalB, KrauseneckT, et al. Efficacy of hydrocortisone in preventing posttraumatic stress disorder following critical illness and major surgery. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1071:46–53.
59. SonnevilleR, den HertogHM, GuizaF, et al. Impact of hyperglycemia on neuropathological alterations during critical illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:2113–23.
60. KadoiY, GotoF. Selective inducible nitric oxide inhibition can restore hemodynamics, but does not improve neurological dysfunction in experimentally-induced septic shock in rats. Anesth Analg 2004;99:212–20.
61. EsenF, ErdemT, AktanD, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate administration on blood-brain barrier in a rat model of intraperitoneal sepsis: a randomized controlled experimental study. Crit Care 2005;9:R18–23.
62. TokluHZ, UysalMK, KabasakalL, et al. The effects of riluzole on neurological, brain biochemical, and histological changes in early and late term of sepsis in rats. J Surg Res 2009;152:238–48.
63. AvtanSM, KayaM, OrhanN, et al. The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on blood-brain barrier permeability in septic rats. Brain Res 2011;1412:63–72.
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65. EsenF, SenturkE, OzcanPE, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulins prevent the breakdown of the blood–brain barrier in experimentally induced sepsis. Crit Care Med 2012;40:1214–20.
66. BozzaFA, GarteiserP, OliveiraMF, et al. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy: a magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2010;30:440–8.
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68. MorandiA, RogersBP, GuntherML, et al. The relationship between delirium duration, white matter integrity, and cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors as determined by diffusion tensor imaging: the VISIONS prospective cohort magnetic resonance imaging study. Crit Care Med 2012;40:2182–9.
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