Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Fuller, Robert J. Williamson, Tom Barnes, Gerry Dolman, Paul M. and Mac Nally, Ralph 2017. Human activities and biodiversity opportunities in pre-industrial cultural landscapes: relevance to conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 459.

    Kirk, David Anthony Park, Allysia C. Smith, Adam C. Howes, Briar J. Prouse, Brigid K. Kyssa, Naschelly G. Fairhurst, Elizabeth N. and Prior, Kent A. 2018. Our use, misuse, and abandonment of a concept: Whither habitat?. Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 8, Issue. 8, p. 4197.

    Melin, M. Hinsley, S. A. Broughton, R. K. Bellamy, P. and Hill, R. A. 2018. Living on the edge: utilising lidar data to assess the importance of vegetation structure for avian diversity in fragmented woodlands and their edges. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 33, Issue. 6, p. 895.

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier Herrera, José M and Arizaga, Juan 2018. Mature non-native plantations complement native forests in bird communities: canopy and understory effects on avian habitat preferences. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 91, Issue. 2, p. 177.

  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: December 2012

Chapter Nineteen - Birds in cultural landscapes: actual and perceived differences between northeastern North America and western Europe


This chapter presents an intercontinental comparison of studies on bird–habitat relationships in three types of cultural landscapes: those created by forestry (managed forests), agriculture (farmed land and remnant native habitats in a matrix of farmed land) and urbanisation. The geographical emphasis is on temperate and boreal regions of eastern Canada (hereafter referred to as ‘North America’) and western Europe/Fennoscandia. We seek out differences and similarities in patterns and discuss responses of birds to processes of landscape change. We consider the influence of human perception of landscapes on the development of research ideas and the extent to which there has been intercontinental exchange and application of ideas and research findings.

One of the most striking differences in the history of habitats in North America and Europe often put forward is the timing and rate of land clearing. The clearing of a predominantly forested landscape has often been described as one of the major tasks European settlers faced arriving in North America (Whitney, 1994), whereas in Europe land clearing had started around 6000 years ago (Williams, 2003).

However, the common picture of eastern North America as a vast forested wilderness before European colonisation is coming into question. Aboriginal people probably managed the landscape quite extensively through permanent or shifting agriculture and the use of fire to clear land for cultivation, to create parklands favourable to game and to open forest understorey to facilitate travel (Williams, 2003, 2008). These managed landscapes disappeared with the annihilation of over 90% of aboriginal populations starting in the 1500s, mainly due to diseases transmitted by Europeans. In southern Ontario, for instance, the extent of forested lands probably reached a low just before these epidemics (Pyne, 1982; Williams, 1989).

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Birds and Habitat
  • Online ISBN: 9781139021654
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Aebischer, N. J.Green, R. E.Evans, A. D. 2000 From science to recovery: four cases of how research has been translated into conservation action in the UKEcology and Conservation of Lowland Farmland BirdsAebischer, N. J.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V.Vickery, J. A.43TringBOU
Anderies, J. M.Katti, M.Shochat, E. 2007 Living in the city: Resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areasJ. Theor. Biol. 247 36
Andrén, H. 1992 Corvid density and nest predation in relation to forest fragmentation: a landscape perspectiveEcology 73 794
Andrén, H. 1994 Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a reviewOikos 71 355
Andrén, H.Angelstam, P. 1988 Elevated predation rates as an edge effect in habitat islandsEcology 69 544
Angelstam, P.Boutin, S.Schmiegelow, F. 2004 Targets for boreal forest biodiversity conservation – a rationale for macroecological research and adaptive managementEcol. Bull. 51 487
Angelstam, P.Mikusiński, G. 1994 Woodpecker assemblages in natural and managed boreal and hemiboreal forest: a reviewAnn. Zool. Fenn. 31 157
Askins, R. A. 1993 Population trends in grassland, shrubland, and forest birds in eastern North AmericaCurr. Ornithol. 11 1
Askins, R. A. 1999 History of grassland birds in eastern North AmericaStud. Avian Biol. 19 60
Askins, R. A.Chavez-Ramirez, F.Dale, B. C. 2007 Conservation of grassland birds in North America: understanding ecological processes in different regionsOrnithol. Monogr. 64 1
Askins, R. A.Zuckerberg, B.Novak, L. 2007 Do the size and landscape context of forest openings influence the abundance and breeding success of shrubland songbirds in southern New EnglandFor. Ecol. Manage. 250 137
Baillie, S. R.Marchant, J. H.Leech, D. I. 2010
Barbero, L.Couzi, L.Bretagnolle, V.Nezan, J.Vétillard, F. 2008 Multi-scale habitat selection and foraging ecology of the Eurasian hoopoe () in pine plantationsBiodivers. Conserv. 17 1073
Bayne, E. M.Hobson, K. A. 1997 Comparing the effects of landscape fragmentation by forestry and agriculture on predation of artificial nestsConserv. Biol. 11 1418
Bélisle, M.Desrochers, A.Fortin, M.-J. 2001 Influence of forest cover on the movements of forest birds: a homing experimentEcology 82 1893
Bergeron, Y.Cyr, D.Drever, R. 2006 Past, current and future fire frequency in Québec’s commercial forests: implications for the cumulative effects of harvesting and fire on age-class structure and natural disturbance-based managementCan. J. For. Res. 36 2737
Bergeron, Y.Gauthier, S.Leduc, A.Harvey, B. 2002 Natural fire regime: a guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forestSilva Fenn. 36 81
Best, L. B. 1986 Conservation tillage: ecological traps for nesting birdsWildlife Soc. Bull. 14 308
Best, L. B.Freemark, K. E.Dinsmore, J. J.Camp, M. 1995 A review and synthesis of habitat use by breeding birds in agricultural landscapes of IowaAm. Midl. Nat. 134 1
Best, L. B.CampaIII, K. E.Kemp, R. J. 1997 Bird abundance and nesting in CRP fields and cropland in the Midwest: a regional approachWildlife Soc. Bull. 25 864
Betts, M. G.Villard, M.-A. 2009 Landscape thresholds in species occurrence as quantitative targets in forest management: generality in space and time?Setting Conservation Targets in Managed Forest LandscapesVillard, M.-A.Jonsson, B.-G.185CambridgeCambridge University Press
Billeter, R.Liira, J.Bailey, D. 2007 Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European studyJ. Appl. Ecol. 45 141
Blair, R. B. 1996 Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradientEcol. Appl. 6 506
Blair, R. B. 2004 The effects of urban sprawl on birds at multiple levels of biological organizationEcol. Society 9 21
Boal, C. W.Mannan, R. W. 1999 Comparative breeding ecology of Cooper’s hawks in urban and exurban areas of southeastern ArizonaJ. Wildlife Manage. 63 77
Bock, C. E.Jones, Z. F.Bock, J. H. 2008 The oasis effect: response of birds to exurban development in a southwestern savannaEcol. Appl. 18 1093
Böhning-Gaese, K.Oberrath, R. 2003 Macroecology of habitat choice in long-distance migratory birdsOecologia 137 413
Boitani, L.Falcucci, A.Maiorano, L.Rondinini, C. 2007 Ecological networks as conceptual frameworks or operational tools in conservationConserv. Biol. 21 1414
Bonier, F.Martin, P. R.Wingfield, J. C. 2007 Urban birds have broader environmental toleranceBiol. Lett. 3 670
Boutin, C.Freemark, K. E.Kirk, D. A. 1999 Farmland birds in southern Ontario: field use, activity patterns and vulnerability to pesticide useAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 72 239
Brennan, L. A.Kuvlesky, W. P. 2005 North American grassland birds: an unfolding conservation crisisJ. Wildlife Manage. 69 1
Brittingham, M. C.Temple, S. A. 1992 Use of winter bird feeders by Black-capped ChickadeesJ. Wildlife Manage. 56 7
Brotons, L.Mönkkönen, M.Martin, J. L. 2003 Are fragments islands? Landscape context and density-area relationships in boreal forest birdsAm. Nat. 162 343
Burke, D. M.Elliott, K.Moore, L. 2004 Patterns of nest predation on artificial and natural nests in forestsConserv. Biol. 18 381
Burke, D. M.Nol, E. 2000 Landscape and fragment size effects on reproductive success of forest-breeding birds in OntarioEcol. Appl. 10 1749
Cabe, P. R. 1993 European Starling ()The Birds of North America OnlinePoole, A.Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Cantor, N. F. 1994 The Civilization of the Middle AgesNew YorkHarper Perennial
Carlson, A. 2000 The effect of habitat loss on a deciduous forest specialist species: the White-backed Woodpecker ()For. Ecol. Manage. 131 215
Caula, S.Marty, P.Martin, J. L. 2008 Seasonal variation in species composition of an urban bird community in Mediterranean FranceLandscape Urban Plan. 87 1
Chase, J. F.Walsh, J. J. 2006 Urban effects on native avifauna: a reviewLandscape Urban Plan. 74 46
Chiron, F.Julliard, R. 2007 Responses of songbirds to magpie reduction in an urban habitatJ. Wildlife Manage. 71 2624
Clergeau, P.Croci, S.Jokimäki, J. 2004 How useful are urban island ecosystems for defining invader patternsEnviron. Conserv. 31 181
Clergeau, P.Croci, S.Jokimäki, J.Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M. L.Dinetti, M. 2006 Avifauna homogenisation by urbanisation: analysis at different European latitudesBiol. Conserv. 127 336
Clergeau, P.Jokimäki, J.Savard, J. P. L. 2001 Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapesJ. Appl. Ecol. 38 1122
Clergeau, P.Savard, J. P. L.Mennechez, G.Falardeau, G. 1998 Bird abundance and diversity along an urban-rural gradient: A comparative study between two cities on different continentsCondor 100 413
Cooke, F. 2003 Ornithology and bird conservation in North America – a Canadian perspectiveBird Study 50 211
Croci, S.Butet, A.Clergeau, P. 2008 Does urbanization filter birds on the basis of their biological traitsCondor 110 223
Cyr, D.Gauthier, S.Bergeron, Y.Carcaillet, C. 2009 Forest management is driving the eastern North American boreal forest outside its natural range of variabilityFront. Ecol. Environ. 7 519
Davis, S. K. 2004 Area sensitivity in grassland passerines: effects of patch size, patch shape, and vegetation structure on bird abundance and occurrence in southern SaskatchewanAuk 121 1130
Davis, S. K.Duncan, D. C.Skeel, M. 1999 Distribution and habitat associations of three endemic grassland songbirds in southern SaskatchewanWilson Bull. 111 389
Laet, J.Summers-Smith, J. D. 2007 The status of the urban house sparrow in north-western Europe: a reviewJ. Ornithol. 148 S275
Debussche, M.Lepart, J. 1992 Establishment of woody plants in Mediterranean old fields: opportunity in space and timeLandscape Ecol. 6 133
Desrochers, A.Hannon, S. J. 1997 Gap crossing decisions by forest songbirds during the post-fledging periodConserv. Biol. 11 1204
Donald, P. F.Sanderson, F. J.Burfield, I. J. 2007 International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in EuropeScience 317 810
Downes, C. M.Collins, B. T. 2008 Canadian Bird TrendsGatineauCanadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada
Drapeau, P.Leduc, A.Bergeron, Y. 2009 Bridging ecosystem and multiple species approaches for setting conservation targets in managed boreal landscapesSetting Conservation Targets in Managed Forest LandscapesVillard, M.-A.Jonsson, B.-G.129CambridgeCambridge University Press
Drapeau, P.Leduc, A.Giroux, J.-F. 2000 Landscape scale disturbances and changes in bird communities of boreal mixed-wood forestsEcol. Monogr. 70 423
Drapeau, P.Nappi, A.Imbeau, L.Saint-Germain, M. 2009 Standing deadwood for keystone bird species in the eastern boreal forest: managing for snag dynamicsForest. Chron. 85 227
Driscoll, M. L.Donovan, T. M. 2004 Landscape context moderates edge effects: nesting success of Wood Thrushes in central New YorkConserv. Biol. 18 1330
Dunford, W.Freemark, K. E. 2004 Matrix matters: effects of surrounding land uses on forest birds near Ottawa, CanadaLandscape Ecol. 20 497
Dunning, J. B.Danielson, B. J.Pulliam, H. R. 1992 Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapesOikos 65 169
Edenius, L.Elmberg, J. 1996 Landscape level effects of modern forestry on bird communities in North Swedish boreal forestsLandscape Ecol. 11 325
Engelmark, O. 1984 Forest fires in the Muddus National Park (northern Sweden) during the past 600 yearsCan. J. Bot. 62 893
Enoksson, B.Anglestam, P.Larsson, K. 1995 Deciduous forest and resident birds: the problem of fragmentation within coniferous forest landscapeLandscape Ecol. 10 267
Esseen, P.-A.Ehnström, B.Ericson, L.Sjöberg, K. 1997 Boreal forestsEcol. Bull. 46 16
Fahrig, L. 1997 Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on species extinctionJ. Wildlife Manage. 61 603
Farina, A. 1997 Landscape structure and breeding bird distribution in a sub-Mediterranean agro-ecosystemLandscape Ecol. 12 365
Fernandez-Juricic, E.Jokimäki, J. 2001 A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern EuropeBiodivers. Conserv. 10 2023
Fernandez-Juricic, E.Telleria, J. L. 2000 Effects of human disturbance on spatial and temporal feeding patterns of Blackbird in urban parks in Madrid, SpainBird Study 47 13
Flaspohler, D. J.Temple, S. A.Rosenfield, R. N. 2001 Species-specific edge effects on nest success and breeding bird density in a forested landscapeEcol. Appl. 11 32
Flather, C. H.Bevers, M. 2002 Patchy reaction-diffusion and population abundance: the relative importance of habitat amount and arrangementAm. Nat. 159 40
Foster, D. R.Motzkin, G.Slater, B. 1998 Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New EnglandEcosystems 1 96
Franklin, J. F. 1993 Preserving biodiversity: Species, ecosystems or landscapesEcol. Appl. 3 202
Frawley, B. J.Best, L. B. 1991 Effects of mowing on breeding bird abundance and species composition in alfalfa fieldsWildlife Soc. Bull. 19 135
Freemark, K. E.Boutin, C. 1995 Impacts of agricultural herbicide use on terrestrial wildlife in temperate landscapes: a review with special reference to North AmericaAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 52 67
Freemark, K. E.Kirk, D. A. 2001 Birds breeding on organic and nonorganic farms in Ontario: partitioning effects of habitat and practices on species composition and abundanceBiol. Conserv. 101 337
Fridman, J.Walheim, M. 2000 Amount, structure, and dynamics of dead wood on managed forestland in SwedenFor. Ecol. Manage. 131 23
Friesen, L. E.Eagles, P. F. J.MacKay, R. J. 1995 Effects of residential development on forest dwelling neotropical migrant songbirdsConserv. Biol. 9 1408
Gauthier, S.Leduc, A.Bergeron, Y. 1996 Forest dynamics modelling under a natural fire cycle: a tool to define natural mosaic diversity in forest managementEnviron. Monit. Assess. 39 417
Gering, J. C.Blair, R. B. 1999 Predation on artificial bird nests along an urban gradient: predatory risk or relaxation in urban environmentsEcography 22 532
Germaine, S. S.Rosenstock, S. S.Schweinsburg, R. E.Richardson, W. S. 1998 Relationships among breeding birds, habitat, and residential development in Greater Tucson, ArizonaEcol. Appl. 8 680
Gobeil, J.-F.Villard, M.-A. 2002 Permeability of three boreal forest landscape types to bird movements as determined from experimental translocationsOikos 98 447
Grant, T. A.Madden, E. M.Berkey, G. B. 2004 Tree and shrub invasion in northern mixed-grass prairie: implications for breeding grassland birdsWildlife Soc. Bull. 32 807
Guénette, J.-S.Villard, M.-A. 2005 Thresholds in forest bird response to habitat alteration as quantitative targets for conservationConserv. Biol. 19 1168
Haddon, B. 1997 The status of forest regeneration in CanadaForest Chron. 73 586
Haila, Y.Järvinen, O. 1990 Northern conifer forests and their bird species assemblagesBiogeography and Ecology of Forest Bird CommunitiesKeast, A.61The HagueSPB Academic Publishing
Haila, Y.Hanski, I. K.Niemelä, J. 1994 Forestry and the boreal fauna: matching management with natural forest dynamicsAnn. Zool. Fenn. 31 187
Hedblom, M.Söderström, B. 2008 Woodlands across Swedish urban gradients: status, structure, and management implicationsLandscape Urban Plan. 84 62
Helle, P.Järvinen, O. 1986 Population trends of North Finnish land birds in relation to their habitat selection and changes in forest structureOikos 46 107
Herkert, J. R.Reining, D. L.Weidenfeld, D. A. 2003 Effects of prairie fragmentation on the nest success of breeding birds in the midcontinental United StatesConserv. Biol. 17 587
Hobson, K. A.Bayne, E. 1999 Breeding bird communities in boreal forests of western Canada: consequences of “unmixing” the mixedwoodsCondor 102 759
Hodder, K. H.Buckland, P. C.Kirby, K. J.Bullock, J. M. 2009 Can the pre-Neolithic provide suitable models for re-wilding the landscape of BritainBrit. Wildlife 20 4
Holmes, R. T.Sherry, T. W. 2001 Thirty-year bird population trends in an unfragmented temperate deciduous forest: importance of habitat changeAuk 118 589
Hoover, J. P.Brittingham, M. C. 1993 Regional variation in cowbird parasitism of wood thrushesWilson Bull. 105 228
Hoyt, J. S.Hannon, S. J. 2002 Habitat associations of Black-backed and Three-toed Woodpeckers in the boreal forest of AlbertaCan. J. For. Res. 32 1881
Huhta, E.Aho, T.Jantti, A. 2004 Forest fragmentation increases nest predation in the Eurasian TreecreeperConserv. Biol. 18 148
Hulse, D. W.Eilers, J.Freemark, K.Hummon, C.White, D. 2000 Planning alternative future landscapes in Oregon: evaluating effects on water quality and biodiversityLandscape J. 19 1
Hunt, G. L. 1972 Influence of food distribution and human disturbance on the reproductive success of Herring GullsEcology 53 10
Huntley, B. 1993 Species-richness in north-temperate zone forestsJ. Biogeogr. 20 163
Husté, A.Boulinier, T. 2007 Determinants of local extinction and turnover rates in urban bird communitiesEcol. Appl. 17 168
Imbeau, L.Mönkkönen, M.Desrochers, A. 2001 Long-term effects of forestry on birds of the eastern Canadian boreal forests: a comparison with FennoscandiaConserv. Biol. 15 1151
Jobin, B.DesGranges, J.-L.Boutin, C. 1998 Farmland habitat use by breeding birds in southern QuébecCan. Field Nat. 112 611
Johnson, D. H. 2005 Grassland bird use of Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Great PlainsFish and Wildlife Benefits of Farm Bill Conservation Programs: 2000–2005 UpdateHaufler, J. B.17The Wildlife Society Technical Review 05–02
Johnston, R. F. 2001 Synanthropic birds of North AmericaAvian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbanizing WorldMarzluff, J. M.Bowman, R.Donnelly, R.49Norwell, MAKluwer Academic Publishers
Jokimäki, J.Huhta, E. 2000 Artificial nest predation and abundance of birds along an urban gradientCondor 102 838
Jokimäki, J.Suhonen, J. 1998 Distribution and habitat selection of wintering birds in urban environmentsLandscape Urban Plan. 39 253
Jokimäki, J.Suhonen, J.Inki, K.Jokinen, S. 1996 Biogeographical comparison of winter bird assemblages in urban environments in FinlandJ. Biogeogr. 23 379
Kirk, D. A.Boutin, C.Freemark, K. E. 2001 A multivariate analysis of bird species composition and abundance between crop types and seasons in southern Ontario. CanadaEcoscience 8 173
Klem, D.Keck, D. C.Marty, K. L. 2004 Effects of window angling, feeder placement, and scavengers on avian mortality at plate glassWilson Bull. 116 69
Koper, N.Schmiegelow, F. K. A.Merrill, E. H. 2007 Residuals cannot distinguish between ecological effects of habitat amount and fragmentation: implications for the debateLandscape Ecol. 22 811
Korpilahti, E.Kuuluvainen, T. 2002 Disturbance dynamics in boreal forests: defining the ecological basis of restoration and management of biodiversitySilva Fenn. 36 1
Kouki, J.Löfman, S.Martikainen, P.Rouvinen, S.Uotila, A. 2001 Forest fragmentation in Fennoscandia: linking habitat requirements of wood-associated threatened species to landscape and habitat changesScand. J. Forest Res. S3 27
Kouki, J.Väänänen, A. 2000 Impoverishment of resident old-growth forest bird assemblages along an isolation gradient of protected areas in eastern FinlandOrnis Fennica 77 145
Kuitunen, M.Aleknonis, A. 1992 Nest predation and breeding success in common treecreepers nesting in boxes and natural cavitiesOrnis Fennica 69 7
Kuitunen, M.Mäkinen, M. 1993 An experiment on nest site choice of the common treecreeper in fragmented boreal forestOrnis Fennica 70 163
Kurki, S.Nikula, A.Helle, P.Linden, H. 2000 Landscape fragmentation and forest composition effects on grouse breeding success in boreal forestsEcology 81 1985
Lancaster, R. K.Rees, W. E. 1979 Bird communities and the structure of urban habitatsCan. J. Zool. 57 2358
Lens, L.Dhondt, A. A. 1994 Effect of habitat fragmentation on the timing of Crested Tit dispersalIbis 136 147
Leonard, T. D.Taylor, P. D.Warkentin, I. G. 2008 Landscape structure and spatial scale affect space use by songbirds in naturally patchy and harvested boreal forestsCondor 110 467
Lindenmayer, D. B.Fischer, J.Felton, A. 2007 The complementarity of single-species and ecosystem-oriented research in conservation researchConserv. Biol. 116 1220
Mann, C. C. 2005 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before ColumbusNew YorkKnopf
Martin, P. A.Forsyth, D. J. 2003 Occurrence and productivity of songbirds in prairie farmland under nonorganic versus minimum tillage regimesAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 96 107
Martin, T. E.Clobert, J. 1996 Nest predation and avian life-history evolution in Europe versus North America: a possible role of humansAm. Nat. 147 1028
Marzluff, J. M. 2001 Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birdsAvian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbanizing WorldMarzluff, J. M.Bowman, R.Donnelly, R.20Norwell, MAKluwer Academic Publishers
Mascarúa-López, L.Harper, K.Drapeau, P. 2006 Edge influence on forest structure in large forest remnants, cutblock separators and riparian buffers in managed black spruce forestsEcoscience 13 226
Matthysen, E.Currie, D. 1996 Habitat fragmentation reduces disperser success in juvenile nuthatches : evidence from patterns of territory establishmentEcography 19 67
McGarigal, K. J.McComb, W. C. 1995 Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast RangeEcol. Monogr. 65 235
McKinney, M. L. 2002 Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservationBioScience 52 883
McMaster, G. D.Devries, J. H.Davis, S. K. 2001 Grassland birds nesting in haylands of southern Saskatchewan: landscape influences and conservation prioritiesJ. Wildlife Manage. 69 211
Melles, S.Glenn, S.Martin, K. 2003 Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: Species-environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradientConserv. Ecol. 7 22
Mikusiński, G.Gromadski, M.Chylarecki, P. 2001 Woodpeckers as indicators of forest bird diversityConserv. Biol. 15 208
Mineau, P.Downes, C. M.Kirk, D. A.Bayne, E.Csizy, M. 2005 Patterns of bird species abundance in relation to granular insecticide use in the Canadian prairiesEcoScience 12 267
Møller, A. P. 2008 Flight distance of urban birds, predation, and selection for urban lifeBehav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 63 63
Mönkkönen, M.Reunanen, P. 1999 On critical thresholds in landscape connectivity – a management perspectiveOikos 84 302
Mönkkönen, M.Welsh, D. A. 1994 A biogeographical hypothesis on the effects of human caused landscape changes on the forest bird communities of Europe and North AmericaAnn. Zool. Fenn. 31 61
Mönkkönen, M.Helle, P.Welsh, D. A. 1992 Perspectives on Palearctic and Nearctic bird migration: comparisons and overview of life-history and ecology of migrant passerinesIbis 134 S7
Murgui, E.Valentín, A. 2003 Relationships between the characteristics of the urban landscape and the introduced bird community in the city of Valencia (Spain)Ardeola 50 201
Murphy, M. T. 2003 Avian population trends within the evolving agricultural landscape of eastern and central United StatesAuk 120 20
Nappi, A.Drapeau, P. 2009 Reproductive success of the black-backed woodpecker () in burned boreal forests: are burns source habitatsBiol. Conserv. 142 1381
Nappi, A.Drapeau, P.Savard, J.-P. L. 2004 Salvage logging after wildfire in the boreal forest: is it becoming a hot issue for wildlifeForest. Chron. 80 67
Newton, I. 2004 The recent declines of farmland bird populations in Britain: an appraisal of causal factors and conservation actionsIbis 146 579
Niemi, G.Hanowski, J.Helle, P. 1998 Ecological sustainability of birds in boreal forestsConserv. Ecol. 2 1
Norris, D. R.Stutchbury, B. J. 2001 Extraterritorial movements of a forest songbird in a fragmented landscapeConserv. Biol. 15 729
O’Connor, R. J.Shrubb, M. 1986 Farming and BirdsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Palomino, D.Carrascal, L. M. 2007 Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the bird community of a mosaic landscapeBiol. Conserv. 140 100
Paradis, E.Baillie, S. R.Sutherland, W. J.Gregory, R. D. 1998 Patterns of natal and breeding dispersal in birdsJ. Anim. Ecol. 67 518
Partecke, J.Gwinner, E. 2007 Increased sedentariness in European Blackbirds following urbanization: a consequence of local adaptationEcology 88 882
Peterjohn, B. G. 2003 Agricultural landscapes: can they support healthy bird populations as well as farm productsAuk 120 14
Pickett, S. T. A.Cadenasso, M. L.Grove, J. M. 2001 Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areasAnn. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32 127
Pyne, S. J. 1982 Fire in America: a Cultural History of Wildland and Rural FirePrincetonPrinceton University Press
Richardson, H. W.Bae, C. 2005 Globalization and Urban DevelopmentHeidelbergSpringer-Verlag
Robbins, C. S. 1973 Introduction, spread, and present abundance of the House Sparrow in North AmericaOrnithol. Monogr. 14 3
Robinson, S. K.Thompson, F. R.Donovan, T. M.Whitehead, D. R.Faaborg, J. 1995 Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birdsScience 267 1987
Robles, H.Ciudad, C.Vera, R.Baglione, V. 2007 No effect of habitat fragmentation on post-fledging, first-year, and adult survival in the middle spotted woodpeckerEcography 30 685
Robles, H.Ciudad, C.Vera, R.Olea, P. P.Matthysen, E. 2008 Demographic responses of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers () to habitat fragmentationAuk 125 131
Rodenhouse, N. L.Best, L. B.O’Connor, R. J.Bollinger, E. K. 1995 Effects of agricultural practices and farmland structuresEcology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds: A Synthesis and Review of Critical IssuesMartin, T. E.Finch, D. M.269New YorkOxford University Press
Rodewald, A. D.Yahner, R. H. 2001 Influence of landscape composition on avian community structure and associated mechanismsEcology 82 3493
Rolstad, J.Loken, B.Rolstad, E. 2000 Habitat selection as a hierarchical spatial process: the green woodpecker at the northern edge of its distribution rangeOecologia 124 116
Santelmann, M. V.White, D.Freemark Lindsay, K. 2008 An integrated assessment of alternative futures for Iowa watershedsFrom the Corn Belt to the Gulf: Societal and Ecological Implications of Alternative Agricultural FuturesNassauer, J. I.Santelmann, M. V.Scavia, D.162Washington, DCResources for the Future Press
Samson, F.Knopf, F. 1996 Prairie Conservation: Preserving North America’s Most Endangered EcosystemWashington, DCIsland Press
Sauer, J. R.Hines, J. E.Fallon, J. 2008 The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2007Laurel, MDUSGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Schlesinger, M. D.Manley, P. N.Holyoak, M. 2008 Distinguishing stressors acting on land bird communities in an urbanizing environmentEcology 89 2302
Schmidt, E.Bock, C. E. 2005 Habitat associations and population trends of two hawks in an urbanizing grassland region in ColoradoLandscape Ecol. 20 469
Schmiegelow, F. K. A.Machtans, C. S.Hannon, S. J. 1997 Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responsesEcology 78 1914
Schmiegelow, F. K. A.Stepnisky, D. P.Stambaugh, C. A.Koivula, M. 2006 Reconciling salvage logging of boreal forests with a natural-disturbance management modelConserv. Biol. 20 971
Schmiegelow, F. K. A.Mönkönnen, M. 2002 Habitat loss and fragmentation in dynamic landscapes: avian perspectives from the boreal forestEcol. Appl. 12 375
Schorger, A. W. 1952 Introduction of the domestic pigeonAuk 69 462
Shaw, L. M.Chamberlain, D.Evans, M. 2008 The House Sparrow in urban areas: reviewing a possible link between post-decline distribution and human socioeconomic statusJ. Ornithol. 149 293
Shochat, E.Warren, P. S.Faeth, S. H.McIntyre, N. E.Hope, D. 2006 From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecologyTrends Ecol. Evol. 21 186
Shutler, D.Mullie, A.Clark, R. G. 2000 Bird assemblages of prairie uplands and wetlands in relation to farming practices in SaskatchewanConserv. Biol. 14 1441
Sims, V.Evans, K. L.Newson, S. E.Tratalos, J. A.Gaston, K. J. 2008 Avian assemblage structure and domestic cat densities in urban environmentsDivers. Distrib. 14 387
Sirami, C.Brotons, L.Burfield, I.Fonderflick, J.Martin, J. 2008 Is land abandonment having an impact on biodiversity? A meta-analytical approach to bird distribution changes in the north-western MediterraneanBiol. Conserv. 141 450
Slabbekoorn, H.den Boer-Visser, A. 2006 Cities change the songs of birdsCurr. Biol. 16 2326
Slabbekoorn, H.Yeh, P.Hunt, K. 2007 Sound transmission and song divergence: A comparison of urban and forest acousticsCondor 109 67
Sohdi, N.Oliphant, N. 1992 Hunting ranges and habitat use and selection of urban-breeding MerlinsCondor 94 743
Suorsa, P.Helle, H.Koivunen, V. 2004 Effects of forest patch size on physiological stress and immunocompetence in an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (): an experimentProc. R. Soc. B 271 435
Suorsa, P.Huhta, E.Nikula, A. 2003 Forest management is associated with physiological stress in an old–growth forest passerineProc. R. Soc. B 270 963
Sutter, G. C.Davis, S. K.Duncan, D. C. 2000 Grassland songbird abundance along roads and trails in southern SaskatchewanJ. Field Ornithol. 71 110
Tewksbury, J. J.Hejl, S. J.Martin, T. E. 1998 Breeding productivity does not decline with increasing fragmentation in a Western LandscapeEcology 79 2890
Thorington, K. K.Bowman, R. 2003 Predation rate on artificial nests increases with human housing density in suburban habitatsEcography 26 188
Trzcinski, M. K.Fahrig, L.Merriam, G. 1999 Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birdsEcol. Appl. 9 586
Tucker, G. M.Evans, M. I. 1997 Habitats for Birds in EuropeCambridgeBirdLife International
Tufto, J.Ringsby, T. H.Dhondt, A. A.Adriaensen, F.Matthysen, E. 2005 A parametric model for estimation of dispersal patterns applied to five passerine spatially structured populationsAm. Nat. 165 E13
Turner, W. R.Nakamura, T.Dinetti, M. 2004 Global urbanization and the separation of humans from natureBioScience 54 585
Vaillancourt, M.-A.Drapeau, P.Gauthier, S.Robert, M. 2008 Availability of standing trees for large cavity-nesting birds in the eastern boreal forest of QuébecFor. Ecol. Manage. 255 2272
Verheijen, F. J. 1981 Bird kills at tall lighted structures in the USA in the period 1935–1973 and kills at a Dutch lighthouse in the period 1924–1928 show similar lunar periodicityArdea 69 199
Vickery, J. A.Feber, R. E.Fuller, R. J. 2009 Arable field margins managed for biodiversity conservation: a review of food resource provision for farmland birdsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 133 1
Vickery, J. A.Tallowin, J. R.Feber, R. E. 2001 The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resourcesJ. Appl. Ecol. 38 647
Vickery, P. D.Jones, A. LZuckerberg, B.Shriver, W. G.Weik, A. 2005 Influence of fire and other anthropogenic practices on grassland and shrubland birds in New EnglandStud. Avian Biol. 30 139
Villard, M.-A.Jonsson, B.-G. 2009 Setting Conservation Targets in Managed Forest LandscapesCambridgeCambridge University Press
Villard, M.-A.Taylor, P. D. 1994 Tolerance to habitat fragmentation influences the colonization of new habitat by forest birdsOecologia 98 393
Villard, M.-A.Trzcinski, M. K.Merriam, G. 1999 Fragmentation effects on forest birds: relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancyConserv. Biol. 13 774
Virkkala, R. 1991 Population trends of forest birds in a Finnish Lapland landscape of large habitat blocks: consequences of stochastic environmental variations or regional habitat alterationBiol. Conserv. 56 223
Virkkala, R.Alanko, T.Laine, T.Tiainen, J. 1993 Population contraction of the White-backed Woodpecker () in Finland as a consequence of habitat alterationBiol. Conserv. 66 47
Waller, D.Rooney, T. P. 2008 The Vanishing Present: Wisconsin’s Changing Lands, Waters and WildlifeChicagoChicago University Press
Weldon, A. J.Haddad, N. M. 2005 The effects of patch shape on indigo buntings: evidence for an ecological trapEcology 86 1422
Wesołowski, T. 2007 Lessons from long-term hole-nester studies in a primaeval forestJ. Ornithol. 148 S395
Wesołowski, T.Stańska, M. 2001 High ectoparasite loads in hole-nesting birds: a nestbox biasJ. Avian Biol. 32 281
Wesołowski, T.Tomialojc, L. 1997 Breeding bird dynamics in a primaeval temperate forest: long-term trends in Białowieza National Park (Poland)Ecography 20 432
Whitney, G. G. 1994 From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America from 1500 to the PresentCambridgeCambridge University Press
Wilkinson, N. 2006 Factors influencing the small-scale distribution of House Sparrows in a suburban environmentBird Study 53 39
Williams, M. 1989 Americans and their ForestsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Williams, M. 2003 Deforesting the Earth: from Prehistory to Global CrisisChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press
Williams, M. 2008 A new look at global forest histories of land clearingAnnu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 33 345
Wilson, J. D.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V. 2009 Bird Conservation and AgricultureCambridgeCambridge University Press
Wilson, M. D.Watts, B. D. 2008 Landscape configuration effects on distribution and abundance of whip-poor-willsWilson J. Ornithol. 120 778