Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: May 2012

2 - The bipolar spectrum

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Akiskal, H. S. and Benazzi, F. (2006). Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar II: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 45–54.
Akiskal, H. S. and Mallya, G. (1987). Criteria for the ‘soft’ bipolar spectrum: treatment implications. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 23, 68–73.
Akiskal, H. S. and Pinto, O. (1999). The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22, 517–534.
American Psychiatric Association. (2011). Cross-Cutting Dimensional Assessment in DSM-5. Accessed 5/6/2011.
Amsterdam, J. D. and Brunswick, D. J. (2003). Antidepressant monotherapy for Bipolar Type II major depression. Bipolar Disorders, 5, 388–395.
Amsterdam, J. D. and Shults, J. (2010). Efficacy and safety of long-term fluoxetine versus lithium monotherapy of bipolar II disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-substitution study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 792–800.
Angst, J. and Cassano, G. (2005). The mood spectrum: improving the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7 (Suppl. 4), S4–S12.
Angst, J., Gamma, A., Benazzi, F. et al. (2003). Toward a re-definition of sub-threshold bipolarity: epidemiology and proposed criteria for Bipolar-II, minor bipolar disorders and hypomania. Journal of Affective Disorders, 73, 133–146.
Benazzi, F. (2003). Bipolar II Disorder and major depressive disorder: continuity or discontinuity? World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 4, 166–171.
Berk, M. and Dodd, S. (2005). Are treatment emergent suicidality and decreased response to antidepressants in younger patients due to bipolar disorder being misdiagnosed as unipolar depression? Medical Hypotheses, 65, 39–43.
Campos-de-Sousa, S., Guindalini, C., Tondo, L. et al. (2010). Nuclear receptor rev-erb-{alpha} circadian gene variants and lithium carbonate prophylaxis in bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 25, 132–137.
Cassano, G. B., Rucci, P., Frank, E. et al. (2004). The mood spectrum in unipolar and bipolar disorder: arguments for a unitary approach. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1264–1269.
Dunner, D. L. (2003). Clinical consequences of under-recognized bipolar spectrum disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 5, 456–463.
El-Mallakh, R. S. and Karippot, A. (2005). Antidepressant-associated chronic irritable dysphoria (acid) in bipolar disorder: A case series. Journal of Affective Disorders, 84, 267–272.
El-Mallakh, R. S. and Ghaemi, S. N. (2006). Bipolar Depression. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
El-Mallakh, R. S., Gao, Y., Briscoe, B. T. and Roberts, R. J. (2011). Antidepressant-induced tardive dysphoria. Psychotherapeutics and Psychosomatics, 80, 57–59.
El-Mallakh, R. S., Ghaemi, S. N., Sagduyu, K. et al. (2008). Antidepressant-associated chronic irritable dysphoria (ACID) in STEP-BD patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 111, 372–377.
Frye, M. A., Helleman, G., McElroy, S. L. et al. (2009). Correlates of treatment-emergent mania associated with antidepressant treatment in bipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 164–172.
Ghaemi, S. N., Ko, J. Y. and Goodwin, F. K. (2002). ‘Cade’s disease’ and beyond: misdiagnosis, antidepressant use, and a proposed definition for bipolar spectrum disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 125–134.
Ghaemi, S. N., Miller, C. J., Berv, D. A. et al. (2005). Sensitivity and specificity of a new bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale. Journal of Affective Disorders, 84, 273–277.
Ghaemi, S. N., Saggese, B. A. and Goodwin, F. K. (2006). Diagnosis of bipolar depression. In Bipolar Depression, ed. R. S. El-Mallakh and N. S. Ghaemi. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Ghaemi, S. N., Gilmer, W. S., Goldberg, J. F. et al. (2007). Divalproex in the treatment of acute bipolar depression: a preliminary double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 1840–1844.
Ghaemi, S. N., Bauer, M., Cassidy, F. et al. (2008). ISBD Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force. Diagnostic guidelines for bipolar disorder: a summary of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders diagnostic guidelines task force report. Bipolar Disorders, 10(1 Pt 2):117–128.
Gijsman, H. J., Geddes, J. R., Rendell, J. M., Nolen, W. A. and Goodwin, G. M. (2004). Antidepressants for bipolar depression: A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1537–1547.
Goldberg, J. F. and Truman, C. J. (2003). Antidepressant-induced mania: an overview of current controversies. Bipolar Disorders, 5, 407–420.
Katzow, J. J., Hsu, D. J. and Ghaemi, S. N. (2003). The bipolar spectrum: A clinical perspective. Bipolar Disorders, 5, 436–442.
Kessler, R. (2005). Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on role performance in the United States. Presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, Pittsburgh, PA.
Klerman, G. L. (1981). The spectrum of mania. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 22, 11–20.
Leverich, G. S., Altshuler, L. L., Frye, M. A. et al. (2006). Risk of switch in mood polarity to hypomania or mania in patients with bipolar depression during acute and continuation trials of venlafaxine, sertraline, and bupropion as adjuncts to mood stabilisers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 232–239.
Mackinnon, D. F. and Pies, R. (2006). Affective instability as rapid cycling: theoretical and clinical implications for borderline personality and bipolar spectrum disorders. Bipolar Disorders, 8, 1–14.
Mitchell, P., Goodwin, G., Johnson, G. and Hirschfeld, R. (2008). Diagnostic guidelines for bipolar I depression: A probabilistic approach. Bipolar Disorders, 10, 144–152.
Moller, H. J. and Curtis, V. A. (2004). The bipolar spectrum: diagnostic and pharmacologic considerations. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4 (Suppl. 2), S3–S8.
Mondimore, F. M. (2005). Unipolar depression/bipolar depression: connections and controversies. International Review of Psychiatry, 17, 39–47.
Parker, G., Tully, L., Olley, A. and Hadzi-Pavlovic, D. (2006). SSRIs as mood stabilisers for bipolar II disorder? A proof of concept study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 205–214.
Perlis, R., Uher, R., Ostacher, M. et al. (2011). Association between bipolar spectrum features and treatment outcomes in outpatients with major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 351–360.
Phelps, J. R. (2005). Agitated dysphoria after late-onset loss of response to antidepressants: A case report. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86, 277–280.
Phelps, J. (2006). Depression is not a moral weakness., accessed 12/7/06.
Phelps, J. (2006a). Mood Swings without Mania: Bipolar II., accessed 12/1/06.
Phelps, J. (2006b). Why Am I Still Depressed? Recognising and Managing the Ups and Downs of Bipolar II and Soft Bipolar Disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Phelps, J. R. and Ghaemi, S. N. (2006). Improving the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: predictive value of screening tests. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 141–148.
Phelps, J. R., Angst, J., Katzow, J. and Sadler, J. (2008). Validity and utility of bipolar spectrum models. Bipolar Disorders, 10 (1 Pt 2):179–193.
Phelps, J. R. (2011a). Screening for bipolarity: MoodCheck. ; accessed 5/6/2011.
Phelps, J. (2011b). Bipolar disorder – a focus on depression. Letter to the Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 1580–1581.
Pies, R. (2007). WHIPLASHED: A mnemonic for recognizing bipolar depression. Psychiatric Times, 24.
Quitkin, F. M., Kane, J., Rifkin, A., Ramos-Lorenzi, J. R. and Nayak, D. V. (1981). Prophylactic lithium carbonate with and without imipramine for Bipolar I patients. A double-blind study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 902–907.
Sachs, G. S., Nierenberg, A. A., Calabrese, J. R. et al. (2007). Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 1711–1722.
Skeppar, P. and Adolfsson, R. (2006). Bipolar II and the bipolar spectrum. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 7–26.
Valentí, M., Pacchiarotti, I., Rosa, A. R. et al. (2011). Bipolar mixed episodes and antidepressants: A cohort study of bipolar I disorder patients. Bipolar Disorders, 13, 145–154.
Wehr, T. and Goodwin, F. K. (1979). Tricyclics modulate frequency of mood cycles. Chronobiologia, 6, 377–385.
Zimmerman, M., Ruggero, C. J., Chelminski, I. and Young, D. (2008). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 935–940.