Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: August 2012

3 - Biogeography of prokaryotes

from Part II - Prokaryotes

Summary

Introduction

Prokaryotic microorganisms are critical to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem function due to their involvement in key biogeochemical processes and interaction with macroorganisms (Bell et al., 2005a). The Bacteria are assumed to occur ubiquitously as a result of their large population sizes, rapid generation times and high dispersal rates. Increasingly the Archaea are also being recognised as key components of many biomes (Auguet et al., 2010). The long-held tenet in microbiology that ‘everything is everywhere, the environment selects’ (Baas Becking, 1934) has been employed as a de facto null hypothesis against which to test the existence of spatio-temporal patterns in prokaryotic distribution. Demonstrating the existence of such patterns and their underlying drivers is key to understanding microbial biogeography. This has wide-reaching implications for understanding ecosystem function, conservation value for microorganisms and bioprospecting for strains with biotechnology potential (Prosser et al., 2007).

The prokaryotic species concept

A major limitation to the elucidation of prokaryotic biogeography lies with the species concept as applied to prokaryotes. It is necessary to be able to recognise the diversity of species in community-level studies, and also the abundance of a given species in population studies. The traditional view of a species as a group of individuals that interbreed and are isolated from other species by barriers to recombination (Mayr, 1957) is generally assumed not to be applicable to the asexual lifestyle of prokaryotes, although it is emerging that recombinant events may be more widespread than earlier assumed for some microorganisms (Fraser et al., 2007).

References
Auguet, J-C., Barberan, A., Casamayor, E.O. (2010). Global ecological patterns in uncultured archaea. ISME Journal 4, 182–190.
Baas Becking, L.G.M. (1934). Geobiologie of inleiding tot de milieukunde. The Hague: Van Stockum and Zoon.
Bahl, J., Lau, M.C.Y., Smith, G.J.D. et al. (2011). Ancient orgins determine global biogeography of hot and cold desert cyanobacteria. Nature Communications2, 163.
Bell, T., Newman, J.A., Silverman, B.W., Turner, S.L., Lilley, A.K. (2005a).The contribution of species richness and composition to bacterial services. Nature 436, 1157–1160.
Bell, T., Ager, D., Song, J.-I.et al. (2005b). Larger islands house more bacterial taxa. Science 308, 1884.
Cho, J.-C., Tiedje, J.M. (2000). Biogeography and degree of endemicity of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains. Applied Environmental Microbiology 66, 5448–5456.
Cohan, F.M. (2002). What are bacterial species?Annual Review of Microbiology 56, 457–487.
Edwards, R.A., Rodriguez-Brito, B., Wegley, L. et al. (2006). Using pyrosequencing to shed light on deep mine microbial ecology. BMC Genomics 7, 57.
Fierer, N., Jackson, R.B. (2006). The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 626–631.
Fierer, N., Morse, J.L., Berthrong, S.T., Bernhardt, E.S. (2007). Environmental controls on the landscape-scale biogeography of stream bacterial communities. Ecology 88, 2162–2173.
Franklin, R.B., Mills, A.L. (2003). Multi-scale variation in spatial heterogeneity for microbial community structure in an eastern Virginia agricultural field. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 44, 335–346.
Fraser, C., Hanage, W.P., Spratt, B.G. (2007). Recombination and the nature of bacterial speciation. Science 315, 476–480.
Gans, J., Wolinsky, M., Dunbar, J. (2005). Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high toxicity in soil. Science 309, 1387–1390.
Green, J., Bohannan, B.J.M. (2006). Spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 501–507.
Horner Devine, C., Lange, M., Hughes, J.B., Bohannan, B.J.M. (2004). A taxa–area relationship for bacteria. Nature 152, 750–753.
Hughes Martiny, J.B., Bohannan, B.J.M., Brown, J.H. et al. (2006). Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 102–112.
Koeppel, A., Perry, E.B., Sikorski, J. et al. (2008). Identifying the fundamental units of bacterial diversity: A paradigm shift to incorporate ecology into bacterial systematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 2504–2509.
Lacap, D.C., Barraquio, W., Pointing, S.B. (2007). Thermophilic microbial mats in a tropical geothermal location display pronounced seasonal changes but appear resilient to stochastic disturbance. Environmental Microbiology 9, 3065–3076.
Lozupone, C.A., Knight, R. (2007). Global patterns in bacterial diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 11436–11440.
Mayr, E. (ed.) (1957). The Species Problem. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Papke, R.T., Ramsing, N.B., Bateson, M.M., Ward, D.M. (2003). Geographical isolation in hot spring cyanobacteria. Environmental Microbiology 5, 650–659.
Pointing, S.B., Chan, Y., Lacap, D.C. et al. (2009). Highly specialized microbial diversity in hyper-arid polar desert. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 19964–19969.
Prosser, J.I., Bohannan, B.J.M., Curtis, T.P. et al. (2007). The role of ecological theory in microbial ecology. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5, 384–392.
Reche, I., Pulido-Villena, E., Morales-Bacquero, R., Casamayor, E.O. (2005). Does ecosystem size determine aquatic bacterial richness?Ecology 86, 1715–1722.
Rosenzweig, M.L. (1995). Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shi, T., Fakowlski, P.G. (2008). Genome evolution in cyanobacteria: The stable core and the variable shell. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 2510–2515.
Sogin, M.L., Morrison, H.G., Huber, J.A. et al. (2006). Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the unexplored ‘rare’ biosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 12115–12120.
Takacs-Vesbach, C., Mitchell, K., Jackson-Weaver, O., Reysenbach, A.-L. (2008). Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles. Environmental Microbiology 10, 1681–1689.
Gast, C.J., Ager, D.A., Lilley, A.K. (2008). Temporal scaling of bacterial taxa is influenced by both stochastic and deterministic ecological factors. Environmental Microbiology 10, 1411–1418.
Warren-Rhodes, K.A., Rhodes, K.L., Pointing, S.B. et al. (2006). Hypolithic cyanobacteria, dry limit of photosynthesis and microbial ecology in the hyperarid Atacama Desert, Chile. Microbial Ecology 52, 389–398.
Whitaker, R.J., Grogan, D.W., Taylor, J.W. (2003). Geographic barriers isolate endemic populations of hyperthermophilic archaea. Science 301, 976–978.