Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: January 2011

Chapter 7 - Assessment of emotional functioning in persons with pain

from Section 2 - The assessment of pain


1. Turk DC. Efficacy of multidisciplinary pain centers in the treatment of chronic pain. In Pain Treatment Centers at a Crossroads: A practical and conceptual reappraisal, eds. MJM Mitchell and JN Campbell. (Seattle, WA: IASP Press, 1996).
2. Turk DC. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for patients with chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2002; 18: 355–65.
3. Flor H, Birbaumer N, Turk DC. The psychobiology of chronic pain. Adv Behav Res Ther 1990; 12: 47–84.
4. Atkinson JH, Slater MA, Patterson TL, Grant I, Garfin SR Prevalence, onset, and risk of psychiatric disorders in chronic pain patients: A controlled study. Pain 1991; 45: 111–21.
5. Banks SM, Kerns RD. Explaining high rates of depression in chronic pain: A diathesis-stress framework. Psychol Bull 1996; 119: 95–110.
6. Holroyd KA, Malinoski P, Davis, MK, Lipchik JL. The three dimensions of headache impact: Pain, disability, and affective distress. Pain 1999; 83: 571–8.
7. Jamison RN, Rudy TE, Penzein DB, Mosley TH. Cognitive-behavioral classifications of chronic pain: Replication and extension of empirically derived patient profiles. Pain 1994; 57: 277–92.
8. Klapow JC, Slater MA, Patterson TL, Atkinson JH, Weickgenant AL, Grant I, Garfin SR. Psychosocial factors discriminate multidimensional clinical groups of chronic low back pain patients. Pain 1995; 62; 349–55.
9. Robinson ME, Riley III, JL. The role of emotion in pain. In Psychosocial Factors in Pain: Critical perspectives, eds RJ Gatchell and DC Turk. (New York: Guilford Press, 1999).
10. Fernandez E, Kerns RD. Anxiety, Depression, and Anger: Core components of negative affect in medical populations. In The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Personality Theories and Models (Vol 1), eds. GJ Boyle, G Matthews and DH Saklofske. (Trowbridge: Cromwell Press Ltd, 2008).
11. Chaves J, Barber TX. Hypnotism and surgical pain. In Behavior Control and Modification of Psychological Activity, ed. DI Mostovsky. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1976).
12. Mersky, H. Pain and personality. In The Psychology of Pain, ed. R. Sternbach. (New York: Raven Press, 1978).
13. Asmundson GJ, Jacobson SJ, Allerdings MD, Norton GR. Social phobia in disabled workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 939–43.
14. Beitman BD, Mukerji V, Kushner M, et al. Validating studies for panic disorder in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Med Clin North Amer 1991; 75: 1143–55.
15. Beckham JC, Crawford AL, Feldman ME, et al. Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain in Vietnam combat veterans. J Psychosom Res 1997; 43: 379–89.
16. Kulich RJ, Mencher P, Bertrand C, Maciewicz R. Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and pain: Implications for clinical and forensic assessment. Curr Rev Pain 2000; 4: 36–48.
17. Fernandez, E. Anxiety, Depression, and Anger in Pain. (Dallas, TX: Advanced Psychological Resources, Inc, 2002).
18. Asmundson GJ, Jacobson SJ, Allerdings, MD. Fear and avoidance in dysfunctional chronic back pain patients. Pain 1997; 69, 231–6.
19. Lethem J, Slade, PO, Troup, JPG, Bentley G. Outline of a fear-avoidance model of exaggerated pain perception. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 401–8.
20. Romano JM, Turner JA. Chronic pain and depression: Does the evidence support a relationship? Psychol Bull 1985; 97: 18–34.
21. Haythornthwaite JA, Sieber WJ, Kerns RD. Depression and the chronic pain experience. Pain 1991; 46: 177–84.
22. Summers JD, Rapoff, MA, Varghese G, Porter K, Palmer RE. Psychosocial factors in chronic spinal cord injury pain. Pain 1991; 47: 183–9.
23. Feeney SL. The relationship between pain and negative affect in older adults: Anxiety as a predictor of pain. J Anx Disord 2004; 18: 733–44.
24. Fernandez E, Turk DC. The scope and significance of anger in the experience of chronic pain. Pain 1995; 61: 165–75.
25. Beutler LE, Engle D, Oro-Beutler, ME, Daldrup R. Inability to express intense negative affect: A common link between depression and pain? J Consult Clin Psychol 1986; 54: 752–9.
26. Catchlove RFH, Braha RED. A test to measure the awareness and expression of anger. Psychother Psychosom 1985; 43: 113–9.
27. Kerns RD, Rosenberg R, Jacob, MC. Anger expression and chronic pain. J Behav Med 1994; 17: 57–67.
28. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970).
29. McNair DM, Lorr M, Doppleman LF. Profile of Mood States. (San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1971).
30. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelsohn M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561–71.
31. Radloff LS. The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977; 1: 385–401.
32. Sullivan MD. Assessment of psychiatric disorders. In Handbook of Pain Assessment, 2nd edn., eds. DC Turk and R Melzack. (New York: Guilford Press, 2001).
33. Brown GK. A causal analysis of chronic pain and depression. J Abnorm Psychol 1990; 99: 127–37.
34. Katon W, Egan K, Miller D. Chronic pain: Lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and family history. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142: 1156–60.
35. Von Korff M, Simon G. The relationship between pain and depression. Br J Psych 1996; 168(Supplement 30): 101–8.
36. Geisser ME, Roth RS, Robinson ME. Assessing depression among persons with chronic pain using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory: A comparative analysis. Clin J Pain 1997; 13: 163–70.
37. Rodin G, Voshart K. Depression in the medically ill: An overview. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143: 696–705.
38. Koenig HG, George LK, Peterson, BL, Pieper CF. Depression in medically ill hospitalized older adults: Prevalence, characteristics, and course of symptoms according to six diagnostic schemes. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 164: 1376–83.
39. McCracken, LM, Faber SD, Janeck AS. Pain-related anxiety predicts nonspecific physical complaints in persons with chronic pain. Behav Res Ther 1998; 34: 927–33.
40. Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD. Kinesiophobia: A new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Manage, January/February, 35–43.
41. Vlaeyen JW, de Jong J, Geilen M, Heuts PH, van Breukelen G. Graded exposure in vivi in the treatment of pain-related fear: A replicated single-case experimental design in four patients with chronic low back pain. Behav Res Ther 2001; 39: 151–66.
42. McCracken LM, Zayfert C, Gross RT. The Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale: Development and validation of a scale to measure fear of pain. Pain 1992; 50: 67–73.
43. Waddell G, Newton M, Henderson I, Somerville D, Main C. A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability. Pain 1993; 52: 157–68.
44. McNeil DW, Rainwater III AJ. Development of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire – III. J Behav Med 1998; 21: 389–410.
45. Polatin PB, Kinney RK, Gatchel RJ, Lillo E, Mayer TG. Psychiatric illness and chronic low-back pain. The mind and the spine – which goes first? Spine 1993; 18: 66–71.
46. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) (Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1983).
47. Mongini F, Defilippi N, Negro C. Chronic daily headache. A clinical and psychological profile before and after treatment. Headache 1997; 37: 83–7.
48. McCracken LM, Faber SD, Janeck AS. Pain-related anxiety predicts nonspecific physical complaints in persons with chronic pain. Behav Res Ther 1998; 36: 621–30.
49. McCracken LM, Gross RT, Aikens J, Carnrike CLM. The assessment of anxiety and fear in persons with chronic pain: A comparison of instruments. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 927–33.
50. Crombez G, Vlaeyen JWS, Heuts PHTG, Lysens R. Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: Evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic back pain disability. Pain 1999; 80: 329–39.
51. Larsen DK, Taylor S, Asmundson GJG. Exploratory factor analysis of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale in patients with chronic pain complaints. Pain 1997; 69: 27–34.
52. Vlaeyen JW, Seelen HA, Peters M, et al. Fear of movement/(re)injury and muscular reactivity in chronic low back pain patients: An experimental investigation. Pain 1999; 82: 297–304.
53. Pfingsten M, Kroner-Herwig B, Leibing E, Kronshage U, Hildebrandt J. Validation of a German version of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Eur J Pain 2000; 4: 259–66.
54. Pfingsten M, Leibing E, Harter W, et al. Fear-avoidance behavior and anticipation of pain in patients with chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled study. Pain Med 2001; 2: 259–66.
55. Buer N, Linton SJ. Fear-avoidance beliefs and catastrophizing: Occurrence and risk factor in back pain and ADL in the general population. Pain 2002; 99: 485–91.
56. Klenerman L, Slade PD, Stanley IM. The prediction of chronicity in patients with an acute attack of low back pain in a general medical practice. Spine 1995; 20: 478–84.
57. Beck AT, Steer RA. Beck Depression Inventory (San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 1983).
58. Yonkers, KA, Samson J. Mood disorders measures. In American Psychiatric Association: Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
59. Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev 1988; 8: 77–100.
60. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition Manual (San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace, 1986).
61. Moran PW, Lambert MJ. A review of current assessment tools for monitoring changes in depression. In The Assessment of Psychotherapy and Outcomes, eds. MD Lamber, ER Christiensen and SS Dejolie. (New York: Wiley, 1983).
62. Applebaum KA, Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, Alfonso M, et al. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of a veteran population with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. Behav Ther 1988; 19: 489–502.
63. Burns JW, Johnson BJ, Mahoney N, Devine J, Pawl R. Cognitive and physical capacity process variables predict long-term outcome after treatment for chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66: 434–9.
64. Kerns RD, Turk DC, Holzman AD, Rudy TE. Comparison of cognitive-behavioral and behavioral approaches to the outpatient treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 1986; 1: 195–203.
65. Khatami M, Rush AJ. A one-year follow-up of the multimodal treatment for chronic pain. Pain 1982 14: 45–52.
66. Kleinke CL. How chronic pain patients cope with pain: Relation to treatment outcome in a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Cognit Ther Res 1992; 16: 669–85.
67. Marhold C, Linton SJ, Melin L. A cognitive-behavioral return-to-work program: Effects on pain patients with a history of long-term versus short-term sick leave. Pain 2001; 91: 155–63.
68. Radloff LS, Locke BZ. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
69. Roberts RE. Reliability of the CES-D in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Res 1980; 2: 125–34.
70. Naughton MJ, Wiklund I. A critical review of dimension-specific measures of health-related quality of life in cross-cultural research. Qual Life Res 1993; 2: 397–432.
71. Arnstein P, Caudill M, Mandle CL, Norris A, Beasley R. Self efficacy as a mediator of the relationship between pain intensity, disability, and depression in chronic pain patients. Pain 1999; 80: 483–91.
72. Fechner-Bates S, Coyne JC, Schwenk TL. The relationship of self-reported distress to depressive disorders and other psychopathology. J Consul Clin Psychol 1994; 62: 550–9.
73. Weissman MM, Sholomskas D, Portenger M, et al. Assessing depressive symptoms in five psychiatric populations: A validation study. Am J Epidemiol 1977; 106: 203–14.
74. Blalock, SJ, DeVellis RF, Brown GK, Wallston KA. Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in arthritis populations. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 991–7.
75. Magni G, Caldieron C, Rigatti-Luchini S, Merskey H. Chronic musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms in the general population: An analysis of the 1st National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Pain 1990; 43: 299–307.
76. Turk DC, Okifuji A. Detecting depression in chronic pain patients: Adequacy of self-reports. Behav Res Ther 1994; 32: 9–16.
77. Nielsen WR, Walker C, McCain GA. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of fibromyalgia: Preliminary findings. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 98–103.
78. Turner JA, Clancy S, McQuade KJ, Cardenas DD. Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: A component analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 1990; 58: 573–9.
79. Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960; 23: 56–62.
80. Zitman FG, Mennen MFG, Griez E, et al. The different versions of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In The Hamilton Scales (Psychopharmacology Series 9), eds. P Bech and A Coppen. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990).
81. Carroll BJ, Feinburg M, Smouse PE, et al. The Carroll Rating Scale for Depression: Development, reliability, and validation. Br J Psychiatry 1981; 138: 194–200.
82. Potts MK, Daniels M, Burnam A, et al. A structured interview version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Evidence of reliability and versatility of administration. J Psychiatr Res 1990; 24: 335–50.
83. Reynolds WM., Kobak KA. Reliability and validity of the Hamilton Depression Inventory: A paper and pencil version of the Hamilton Rating Scale Clinical Interview. Psychol Assess 1990; 7: 472–83.
84. Kobak KA, Reynolds WM, Rosenfeld R, et al. Development and validation of a computer-administered version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Psychol Assess 1990; 2: 56–63.
85. Gastpar, M, Gilsdorf, U. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in a WHO collaborative program. In The Hamilton Scales (Psychopharmacology Series 9), eds. P Bech and A Coppen (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990).
86. Maier W, Phillip M, Heuser I, et al. Improving depression severity assessment, I: Content, concurrent, and external validity of three observer scales. J Psychiatr Res 1988; 22: 3–12.
87. Rehm L, O ’ Hara M. Item characteristics of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. J Psychiatr Res 1985; 19: 31–41.
88. Zung WWK. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965; 12: 63–5.
89. Biggs JT, Wylie LT, Ziegler VE. Validity of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry 1978; 132: 381–5.
90. Guy W. ECDEU Assessment Manual of Psychopharmacology-Revised (DHEW Publ No ADM 76–338). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs. (1976).
91. Yesavage JA, Brink TL. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1983; 17: 37–49.
92. Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol 1986; 5: 165–73.
93. Jamison C, Scogin F. Development of an interview based geriatric depression rating scale. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1992; 35: 193–204.
94. Burke WJ, Roccaforte WH, Wengel SP, et al. The reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Rating Scale administered by telephone. J AmGeriatr Soc 1995; 43: 674–9.
95. Brink TA, Yesavage JA, Lum O, et al. Screening tests for geriatric depression. Clin Gerontol 1982; 1: 37–43.
96. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 361–70.
97. Snaith RP, Zigmond AS. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Manual (Windsor: Nfer-Nelson, 1994)
98. Moorey S, Greer S, Watson M, et al. The factor structure and factor stability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with cancer. Br J Psychiatry 1991; 158: 255–9.
99. Kerns RD, Turk DC, Rudy TE. The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). Pain 1985; 23: 345–56.
100. McCarberg B, Wolf J. Chronic pain management in a health maintenance organization. Clin J Pain 1999; 15: 50–7.
101. Buss AH, Durkee A. An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. J Consult Psychol 1957; 21: 343–9.
102. Megargee EI, Cook PE, Mendelsohn GA. Development and validation of an MMPI scale of assaultiveness in overcontrolled individuals. J Abnorm Psychol 1967; 72: 519–28.
103. Caine TM, Foulds GA, Hope K. Manual of the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (London: University of London, 1967).
104. Cook W, Medley D. Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI. J Appl Psychol 1954; 38: 414–18.
105. Zelin ML, Adler G, Myerson PG. Anger self-report: An objective questionnaire for the measurement of aggression. J Consult Clin Psychol 1972; 39: 340.
106. Evans DR, Strangeland M. Development of the Reaction Inventory to measure anger. Psychol Rep 1971; 29: 412–14.
107. Novaco RW. The effect of disposition of anger and degree of provocation on self-report and physiological measures of anger in various modes of provocation. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. (1974)
108. Siegel JM. The Multidimensional Anger Inventory. J Pers Soc Psychol 1986; 51: 191–200.
109. Fernandez E. The Targets and Reasons for Anger in Pain Sufferers: A structured interview. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Methodist University. (1996).
110. Spielberger CD. State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Professional Manual (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment, 1988).
111. Spielberger CD. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 Professional Manual (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment, 1999).
112. Hathaway SR, McKinley J. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1943).
113. Hathaway SR, McKinley JC, Butcher JN, et al. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: Manual for administration (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
114. Bradley LA, McKendree-Smith NL. Assessment of psychological status using interviews and self-report instruments. In Handbook of Pain Assessment, 2nd edn., eds. DC Turk and R Melzack. (New York: Guilford Press, 2001).
115. Pincus T, Callahan LF, Bradley LA, Vaughn WK, Wolfe F. Elevated MMPI scores for hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria in patients with rheumatoid arthritis reflect disease rather than psychological status. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 1456–66.
116. Guck TP, Meilman PW, Skultety M, Poloni ID. Pain-patient Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory subgroups: Evaluation of long-term treatment outcome. J Behav Med 1988; 11: 159–69.
117. McCreary C. Empirically derived MMPI profile clusters and characteristics of low back pain patients. J Consult Clin Psychol 1985; 53: 558–60.
118. Moore JE, Armentrout DP, Parker JC, Kivlahan DR. Empirically-derived pain-patient MMPI subgroups: Prediction of treatment outcome. J Behav Med 1986; 9: 51–63.
119. Clark ME. MMPI-2 Negative Treatment Indicators Content and Content Component Scales: Clinical correlates and outcome prediction for men with chronic pain. Psychol Assess 1996; 8: 32–8.
120. Vendrig AA, Derksen JL, deMey HR. Utility of selected MMPI-2 scales in the outcome prediction for patients with chronic back pain. Psychol Assess 1999; 11: 381–5.
121. Derogatis L. The SCL-90R Manual – II: Administration, scoring and procedures (Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research, 1983).
122. Preveler RC, Fairburn CG. Measurement of neurotic symptoms by self-report questionnaire: Validity of the SCL-90-R. Psychol Med 1990; 20: 873–9.
123. Jamison RN, Rock DL, Parris WCV. Empirically derived Symptom Checklist 90 subgroups of chronic pain patients: A cluster analysis. J Behav Med 1988; 11: 147–58.
124. Derogatis L, Spencer P. BSI Manual I: Administration and procedures (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Clinical Psychometric Unit, 1983).
125. Millon T, Green C, Meagher R. Millon Behavioral Health Inventory manual 3rd edn. (Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems, 1983).
126. Gatchell RJ, Mayer TG, Capra P, Barnett J, Daimond P. Millon Behavioral Health Inventory: Its utility in predicting physical function in patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986; 67: 878–82.
127. Sweet JJ, Breuer SR, Hazlewood LA, Toye R, Pawl RP. The Millon Behavioral Health Inventory: Concurrent and predictive validity in a pain treatment center. J Behav Med 1985; 8: 215–26.
128. Pilowsky I, Spence ND. Patterns of illness behavior in patients with intractable pain. J Psychosom Res 1975; 19: 279–87.
129. Pilowsky I, Spence ND. Manual for the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ). Unpublished manual (available from the authors) (1994).
130. Dworkin RH, Cooper EM, Siegfried RN. Chronic pain and disease conviction. Clin J Pain 1996; 12: 111–7.
131. Keefe FJ, Crisson JE, Maltbie A, Bradley LA, Gil KM. Illness behavior as a predictor of pain and overt behavior patterns in chronic low back pain patients. J Psychosom Res 1986; 30: 543–51.
132. Waddell G, Pilowsky I, Bond MR. Clinical assessment and interpretation of abnormal illness behavior in low back pain. Pain 1989; 39: 41–53.
133. Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), I: Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 473–83.
134. Kazis LE, Skinner K, Rogers W, et al. Health status and outcomes of veterans: physical and mental component summary scores (sf-36v). 1998 national survey of ambulatory care patients. Mid-year executive report. Office of Performance and Quality, Health Assessment Project, Center for Health Quality Outcomes and Economic Research, HSRD Service, Veterans Administration, Washington, D.C. and Bedford (MA), (1998).
135. Ware JE, Bayliss MS, Rogers WH, Kosinski M, Tarlov AR. Differences in 4-year health outcomes for elderly and poor, chronically ill patients treated in HMO and fee-for-service systems. JAMA 1996; 276: 1039–47.
136. Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales: A users manual (Boston, MA: Health Assessment Lab, New England Medical Center, 1994).
137. McHorney CA, Ware JE, Lu JFR, et al. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), III: Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Med Care 1994; 32, 40–66.
138. Backonja M, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, et al. for the Gabapentin Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1998; 280: 1831–6.
139. Katz JN, Harris TM, Larson MG, et al. Predictors of functional outcomes after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. J Rheumatol 1992; 19, 1938–42.
140. Rogers WH, Wittink H, Wagner A, Cynn D, Carr DB. Assessing individual outcomes during outpatient multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment by means of an augmented SF-36. Pain Med 2000; 1: 44–54.
141. McHorney C, Tarlov A. Individual-patient monitoring in clinical practice: Are available health status surveys adequate. Qual Life Res 1995; 4: 293–307.
142. Rowbotham M, Harden N, Stacey B, Bernstein P, Magnus-Miller L. for the Gabapentin Postherpetic Neuralgia Study Group. Gabapentin for the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 1998; 280: 1837–42.
143. Helzer JE, Robins LN. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its development, evaluation and use. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1988; 23: 6–16.
144. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff KS. National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38, 381–9.
145. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990).
146. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edn. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
147. Helzer JE, Spitznagel EL, McEvoy L. The predictive validity of lay Diagnostic Interview Schedule diagnoses in the general population: A comparison with physician examiners. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987; 44: 1069–77.
148. Vandiver T, Sher KJ. Temporal stability of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychol Assess 1991; 3: 277–81.
149. Eaton WW, Neufeld K, Chen LS, Cai G. A comparison of self-report and clinical diagnostic interviews for depression: Diagnostic Interview Schedule and Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 217–22.
150. First MB, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M. User’s Guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders: SCID –I clinician version (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1997).
151. First MB, Gibbon M, Williams JBW, Spitzer RL. SCID Screen Patient Questionnaire Computer Program (North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, 2000).
152. Williams JB, Gibbon M, First MB, et al. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) II: Multisite test-retest reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49: 630–6.
153. Kerns, R.D. Psychosocial factors: Primary or secondary outcomes? In Pain Treatment Centers at a Crossroads: A Practical Conceptual Reappraisal, eds. JN Campbell and MJ Mitchell. (Seattle: IASP Press, 1996).