Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: September 2011

8 - Thegenetic basis of child and adolescent anxiety

from Section 2 - The biology of child and adolescent anxiety

References

Angold, A., Costello, E., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.
Arbelle, S., Benjamin, J., Golin, M., Kremer, I., Belmaker, R. H., & Ebstein, R. P. (2003). Relation of shyness in grade school children to the genotype for the long form of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 671–676.
Asbury, K., Dunn, J., & Plomin, R. (2006). The use of discordant MZ twins to generate hypotheses regarding non-shared environmental influence on anxiety in middle childhood. Social Development, 15, 564–570.
Ball, D. M., Hill, L., Freeman, B., Eley, T. C., Strelau, J., Riemann, R., et al. (1997). The serotonin transporter gene and peer-rated neuroticism. NeuroReport, 8, 1301–1304.
Ballash, N., Leyfer, O., Buckley, A. F., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2006). Parental control in the etiology of anxiety. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9, 113–133.
Bartels, M., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Derks, E. M., Stroet, T. M., Polderman, T. J. C., Hudziak, J. J., et al. (2007). Young Netherlands Twin Register (Y-NTR): a longitudinal multiple informant study of problem behaviour. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 3–11.
Battaglia, M., Ogliari, A., Zanoni, A., Citterio, A., Pozzoli, U., Giorda, R., et al. (2005). Influence of the serotonin transporter promoter gene and shyness on children's cerebral responses to facial expressions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 85–94.
Bolton, D., Eley, T. C., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Rabe-Hesketh, S., Rijsdijk, F., et al. (2006). Prevalence and genetic and environmental influences on anxiety disorders in 6-year-old twins. Psychological Medicine, 36, 335–344.
Bolton, D., Rijsdijk, F., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Obsessive--compulsive disorder, tics and anxiety in 6-year-old twins. Psychological Medicine, 37, 39–48.
Boomsma, D. I., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., & Hudziak, J. J. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on anxious/depression during childhood: a study from the Netherlands twin register. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 4, 466–481.
Chen, Z. Y., Jing, D. Q., Bath, K. G., Ieraci, A., Khan, T., Siao, C. J., et al. (2006). Genetic variant BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism alters anxiety-related behavior. Science, 314, 140–143.
Comings, D. E., Muhleman, D., Johnson, P., & Macmurray, J. P. (1999). Potential role of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) in anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 4, 374–377.
Cronk, N. J., Slutske, W. S., Madden, P. A. F., Bucholz, K. K., & Heath, A. C. (2004). Risk for separation anxiety disorder among girls: paternal absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and genetic vulnerability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 237–247.
Eaves, L., Silberg, J., & Erkanli, A. (2003). Resolving multiple epigenetic pathways to adolescent depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1006–1014.
Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology. II. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 965–980.
Ehringer, M. A., Rhee, S. H., Young, S., Corley, R., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 1–17.
Eley, T. C. & Stevenson, J. (1999). Exploring the covariation between anxiety and depression symptoms: a genetic analysis of the effects of age and sex. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1273–1282.
Eley, T. C., Bolton, D., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Plomin, R. (2003). A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 945–960.
Eley, T. C., Gregory, A. M., Clark, D. M., & Ehlers, A. (2007). Feeling anxious: a twin study of panic/somatic symptoms, anxiety sensitivity and heart-beat perception in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1184–1191.
Eley, T. C., Napolitano, M., Lau, J. Y. F., & Gregory, A. M. (2010). Does childhood anxiety evoke maternal control? A genetically informed study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 772–779.
Feigon, S. A., Waldman, I. D., Levy, F., & Hay, D. A. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and their moderation by age and sex. Behavior Genetics, 31, 403–411.
Feinberg, A. P. (2007). Phenotypic plasticity and the epigenetics of human disease. Nature, 447, 433–440.
Fox, N. A., Nichols, K. E., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K., Schmidt, L., Hamer, D., et al. (2005). Evidence for a gene--environment interaction in predicting behavioral inhibition in middle childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 921–926.
Garland, J. E. (2001). Sleep disturbances in anxious children. In: G. Stores & L. Wiggs (eds.) Sleep Disturbance in Children and Adolescents with Disorders of Development: Its Significance and Management, pp. 155–160. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gelernter, J., Page, G. P., Stein, M. B., & Woods, S. W. (2004). Genome-wide linkage scan for loci predisposing to social phobia: evidence for a chromosome 16 risk locus. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 59–66.
Goldsmith, H. H. & Lemery, K. S. (2000). Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: a behavior-genetic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1199–1209.
Goodman, R. & Stevenson, J. (1991). Parental criticism and warmth toward unrecognized monozygotic twins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 394–395.
Gregory, A. M. & Eley, T. C. (2007). Genetic influences on anxiety in children: what we've learned and where we're heading. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 199–212.
Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 301–308.
Gregory, A. M., Eley, T. C., O’Connor, T. G., Rijsdijk, F. V., & Plomin, R. (2005). Family influences on the association between sleep problems and anxiety in a large sample of pre-school aged twins. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1337–1348.
Gregory, A. M., Eley, T. C., & Plomin, R. (2004). Exploring the association between anxiety and conduct problems in a large sample of twins aged 2–4. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 111–122.
Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D., et al. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297, 400–403.
Hettema, J. M., An, S. S., Neale, M. C., Bukszar, J., van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Kendler, K. S., et al. (2006). Association between glutamic acid decarboxylase genes and anxiety disorders, major depression, and neuroticism. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 752–762.
Hettema, J. M., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1568–1578.
Hiroi, R., McDevitt, R. A., & Neumaier, J. F. (2006). Estrogen selectively increases tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression in distinct subregions of rat midbrain raphe nucleus: association between gene expression and anxiety behavior in the open field. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 288–295.
Jirtle, R. L. & Skinner, M. K. (2007). Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. Nature Reviews Genetics, 8, 253–262.
Jorm, A. F., Henderson, A. S., Jacomb, P. A., Christensen, H., Korten, A. E., Rodgers, B., et al. (1998). An association study of a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene with personality and psychiatric symptoms. Molecular Psychiatry, 3, 449–451.
Karayiorgou, M., Altemus, M., Galke, B. L., Goldman, D., Murphy, D. L., Ott, J., et al. (1997). Genotype determining low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity as a risk factor for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94, 4572–4575.
Karege, F., Perret, G., Bondolfi, G., Schwald, M., Bertschy, G., & Aubry, J. M. (2002). Decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in major depressed patients. Psychiatry Research, 109, 143–148.
Katsuragi, S., Kunugi, H., Sano, A., Tsutsumi, T., Isogawa, K., Nanko, S., et al. (1999). Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and anxiety-related traits. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 368–370.
Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 789–796.
Lakatos, K., Nemoda, Z., Birkas, E., Ronai, Z., Kovacs, E., Ney, K., et al. (2003). Association of D4 dopamine receptor gene and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms with infants’ response to novelty. Molecular Psychiatry, 8, 90–97.
Lau, J. Y. F., Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (2006). Examining the state--trait anxiety relationship: a behavioural genetic approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 19–27.
Lau, J. Y. F., Gregory, A. M., Goldwin, M. A., Pine, D. S., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Assessing gene--environment interactions on anxiety symptom subtypes across childhood and adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 1129–1146.
Lau, J. Y. F., Rijsdijk, F., Gregory, A. M., McGuffin, P., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Pathways to childhood depressive symptoms: the role of social, cognitive, and genetic risk factors. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1402–1414.
Legrand, L. N., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (1999). A twin study of state and trait anxiety in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 953–958.
Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heils, A., Zhang Sabol, S., Greenburg, B. D., Petri, S., et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274, 1527–1531.
McGrath, M., Kawachi, I., Ascherio, A., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J., & De Vivo, I. (2004). Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase and phobic anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1703–1705.
Middeldorp, C. M., Cath, D. C., van Dyck, R., & Boomsma, D. I. (2005). The comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the perspective of genetic epidemiology: a review of twin and family studies. Psychological Medicine, 35, 611–624.
Middeldorp, C. M., Hottenga, J. J., Slagboom, P. E., Sullivan, P. F., De Geus, E. J. C., Posthuma, D., et al. (2008). Linkage on chromosome 14 in a genome-wide linkage study of a broad anxiety phenotype. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 84–89.
Millet, B., Chabane, N., Delorme, R., Leboyer, M., Leroy, S., Poirier, M. F., et al. (2003). Association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and obsessive--compulsive disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 116, 55–59.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Rutter, M. (2005). Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 473–481.
Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H. L., Caspi, A., Kim-Cohen, J., Goldberg, D., Gregory, A. M., et al. (2007). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed to age 32. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 651–660.
Nelson, E. C., Grant, J. D., Bucholz, K. K., Glowinski, A., Madden, P. A. F., Reich, W., et al. (2000). Social phobia in population-based female adolescent twin sample: comorbidity and associated suicide-related symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 30, 797–804.
Pike, A., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E. M., & Plomin, R. (1996). Using MZ differences in the search for nonshared environmental effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 695–704.
Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. J. (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 56–64.
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2008). Behavioral Genetics, 5th edn. New York: Worth Publishers.
Plomin, R., Kagan, J., Emde, R. N., Reznick, J. S., Braungart, J. M., Robinson, J., et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: the MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376.
Prichard, Z., Jorm, A. F., Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., Zhang, Y. F., et al. (2002). Association of polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene with anxiety-related traits in children and adolescents: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 169–176.
Rhee, S. H., Cosgrove, V. E., Schmitz, S., Haberstick, B. C., Corley, R. C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2007). Early childhood temperament and the covariation between internalizing and externalizing behavior in school-aged children. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 33–44.
Risch, N. & Merikangas, K. (1996). The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science, 273, 1516–1517.
Robinson, J. L., Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Corley, R. (1992). The heritability of inhibited and uninhibited behavior: a twin study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1030–1037.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behaviour. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Saudino, K. J., Cherny, S. S., & Plomin, R. (2000). Parent ratings of temperament in twins: explaining the “too low” DZ correlations. Twin Research, 3, 224–233.
Schmidt, L. A., Fox, N. A., Rubin, K. H., Hu, S., & Hamer, D. H. (2002). Molecular genetics of shyness and aggression in preschoolers. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 227–238.
Sen, S., Burmeister, M., & Ghosh, D. (2004). Meta-analysis of the association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 127, 85–89.
Silberg, J. L. & Bulik, C. M. (2005). The developmental association between eating disorders symptoms and symptoms of depression and anxiety in juvenile twin girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1317–1326.
Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on the temporal association between earlier anxiety and later depression in girls. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1040–1049.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Neale, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 116–121.
Silove, D., Manicavasagar, V., O’Connell, D., & Morris-Yates, A. (1995). Genetic factors in early separation anxiety: implications for the genesis of adult anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 17–24.
Smoller, J. W., Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Kennedy, J., Dai, D., Racette, S. R., et al. (2003). Association of a genetic marker at the corticotropin-releasing hormone locus with behavioral inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1376–1381.
Smoller, J. W., Yamaki, L. H., Fagerness, J. A., Biederman, J., Racette, S., Laird, N. M., et al. (2005). The corticotropin-releasing hormone gene and behavioral inhibition in children at risk for panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1485–1492.
Spatola, C. A. M., Fagnani, C., Pesenti-Gritti, P., Ogliari, A., Stazi, M. A., & Battaglia, M. (2007). A general population twin study of the CBCL/6–18 DSM-oriented scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 619–627.
Stevenson, J. & Fielding, J. (1985). Ratings of temperament in families of young twins. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 143–152.
Stevenson, J., Batten, N., & Cherner, M. (1992). Fears and fearfulness in children and adolescents: a genetic analysis of twin data. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 977–985.
Thapar, A. & McGuffin, P. (1995). Are anxiety symptoms in childhood heritable? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 439–447.
Thapar, A. & McGuffin, P. (1996). A twin study of antisocial and neurotic symptoms in childhood. Psychological Medicine, 26, 1111–1118.
Thapar, A. & McGuffin, P. (1997). Anxiety and depressive symptoms in childhood: a genetic study of comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 651–656.
Tochigi, M., Kato, C., Otowa, T., Hibino, H., Marui, T., Ohtani, T., et al. (2006). Association between corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) gene polymorphism and personality traits. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 524–526.
Topolski, T. D., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L., Meyer, J. M., Silberg, J. L., Simonoff, E., et al. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on ratings of manifest anxiety by parents and children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 371–397.
Topolski, T. D., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Rutter, M., et al. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on child reports of manifest anxiety and symptoms of separation anxiety and overanxious disorders: a community-based twin study. Behavior Genetics, 27, 15–28.
Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disordered patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 229–235.
van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Boomsma, D. I., & Verhulst, F. C. (2000). A study of genetic and environmental effects on the co-occurrence of problem behaviors in three-year-old twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 360–372.
van Grootheest, D. S., Bartels, M., Cath, D. C., Beekman, A. T., Hudziak, J. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2007). Genetic and environmental contributions underlying stability in childhood obsessive--compulsive behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 308–315.
van Hulle, C. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on socio-emotional behavior in toddlers: an initial twin study of the infant--toddler social and emotional assessment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1014–1024.
van Ommen, G. J. B. (2008). GWAS here, last year. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 1–2.
van Rossum, E. F. C., Binder, E. B., Majer, M., Koper, J. W., Ising, M., Modell, S., et al. (2006). Polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 681–688.
van Vliet, J., Oates, N. A., & Whitelaw, E. (2007). Epigenetic mechanisms in the context of complex diseases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 64, 1531–1538.
Weaver, I. C. G., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F. A., D’Alessio, A. C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847–854.
Weaver, I. C. G., Meaney, M. J., & Szyf, M. (2006). Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 3480–3485.
Wray, N. R., James, M. R., Mah, S. P., Nelson, M., Andrews, G., Sullivan, P. F., et al. (2007). Anxiety and comorbid measures associated with PLXNA2. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 318–326.
Young, S. E., Smolen, A., Stallings, M. C., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2003). Sibling-based association analyses of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and internalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 961–967.