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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: December 2019

1 - Beyond Emigration


Discussion of complexities of Irish migration from the Great Famine to the First World War, qualifying crude models of irreversible long-distance emigration: evidence concerning internal, circular, and reverse migration is analysed. Published official returns for Irish reverse migration just before 1914 indicate much higher levels than generally alleged. Much of the chapter is adapted from my four contributions to A New History of Ireland, vols 4, 5. Additional information is given on transatlantic shipping, indicating growing demand for eastward passages and increasing provision by major shipping lines around 1900.