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  • The African Court of Justice and Human and Peoples' Rights in Context
  • Development and Challenges
  • Online publication date: May 2019
  • pp 1125-1168
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Index

Abacha, Sami, 497499
Abass, Ademola, 15, 38, 46, 81, 635
abetting. See aiding and abetting
abuse of functions, in corruption, 485486
quality control provisions, 485
ACC. See African Criminal Court
accession system jurisdictions, 611
accessory mode, of liability, 747760, 772781
accomplice corporate criminal liability, 787791
accountability
of African Court, 19
attribution of, 287288
of ICC, 206207, 215, 678, 699, 743, 841
justice-peace sequencing and, 141146
on non-corporate associations, 287288
under Rome Statute, 24
in Transitional Justice Policy Framework, 153154
as normative issue, 155
traditional justice and reconciliation mechanisms, 159
accused, right to legal/factual nature of accusations, 694696
Achille Lauro incident, 396
ACHPR. See African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights
ACHR. See African Court of Human Rights
ACJ. See African Court of Justice
ACJHPR. See African Court for Justice and Human and People’s Rights
Action Plan on Drug Control, 363
active bribery, 482483
acts of aggression, 324334
annexation as, 327328
attack against state’s armed forces, 329330
blockades, 329
bombardment, 328329
under Constitutive Act of the African Union, 327
declaration of war, 324
definition of, 322
dispersion of armed bands, groups, irregulars or mercenaries, 332334
intentionally wrongful use of state’s armed forces, 330331
under international law, 324325
invasion or attack, 327328
military occupation, 327328
Montreaux process, 333
under Non-Aggression and Common Defence Pact, 330331
use of armed forces, 326327
use of state territory for aggressive acts against another state, 331332
use of weapons, 328329
actus reus, 265, 375
criminal liability requirements, 762, 776
ad hoc courts and tribunals, 71, 83, 104. See also International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; Special Court for Sierra Leone
aiding and abetting in, 767768
right to fair trials in, 686687, 691692
Additional Protocol I, 442, 455460, 465. See also mercenarism
Additional Protocol II, 442
Adigun, Jacob, 493494
adjudicated facts, 692693
administrative law, 10351053
historical context for, 10361040
legal framework for, 10361040
OAU and, 10351036
Administrative Tribunal of the Organization of American States (OASAT), 1048
AfDBAT. See African Development Bank Administrative Tribunal
Afghanistan, terrorism in, 430
AFISMA. See African-led International Support Mission to Mali
Africa. See also African States; colonialism; Sub-Saharan Africa; toxic colonialism; specific courts
atrocity crimes in, 9394
democratic governance deficit in, 147
Heads of State in, 136137
immunity for, 283284
ICC relationship with, 62, 8895
ACC influenced by, 203208
innovations in criminal jurisdiction, 9195
national endorsement of, 91
OTP activities, 88, 113, 130
support for, 178179
undermining of, 1314, 104105
ICL in, 177178
international crimes in, 7482, 9293
legal context for, 6263
mercenarism in, resurgence of, 450455
Model Anti-Terrorism Law, 417418, 420, 431432, 447
regional human rights in, 66
regional human rights law in, 66
self-determination in, as historical legacy, 214, 217
terrorist massacres in, 311312 See also specific countries
transnational crimes in, 9293
African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance, 41, 81, 251, 338, 620. See also unconstitutional change of government
Preamble of, 620
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 24, 77, 424425
liberation and self-determination struggles and, 440
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, 11, 25, 162
terrorism under, 424425
liberation and self-determination struggles and, 440
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 35, 100
ACHPR and, 984985
criminal law section and, 10061007
as agent of ICL, 10061007
as enforcement agent, 10051006
human rights and, 9981005
as investigators, 1005
victim’s justice through, 10061007
reparation through, 172
terrorism and, 428
truth seeking and, 171
violence management and, 122
African Convention on Human Rights, 66
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 427428
African Court for Justice and Human and People’s Rights (ACJHPR). See also African Criminal Court; aggression; civil society organizations; complementarity; criminal law section; human rights; money laundering; “one court” concept
accountability of, 19
adjudicative resources, 10891091
adoption of Malabo Protocol, cost implications of, 10611064
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 24
African Criminal Chamber in, 75
for transnational crimes, 340361
amnesties and, 115
appellate jurisdiction, 1213
applicable lessons from, 10701072
atrocity crimes and, 9394
AU assessment of, 10961100
budget for, 4243
complementarity in, 4648
positive, 98100, 344
primacy compared to, 665
Defence Office, 680681, 685, 710, 10681070
establishment of, 611, 8384, 10571058
financing of, 4243, 10721073
function and purpose of, 1
future challenges of, 4251, 100105
access to court, 5051
civil society organizational involvement, 4950
commitment of African States, 4445
of criminal chambers, practicality of, 100102
drafting issues, 4950
human resources issues, 4344
inadequate funding issues, 4243, 103104
infrastructure limitations, 4344
lack of infrastructure, 4344
political will to prosecute, lack of, 102103
prosecutorial independence as, 4546
general affairs section, 1, 11, 2425
human and people’s rights section, 1112, 2526, 682, 959960
criminal law section and, 10081012
ratione personae, 10111012
ICC and, 2, 62, 95100
legal relationship with, 79, 8895
ICJ compared to, 10241028
innovations in criminal jurisdiction of, 9195
international crimes in, expansion of, 9192, 10851086, 10881089
international criminal law section, 1, 1112, 10811082
Detention Management Unit, 10661067
jurisdiction of, 12
prosecutorial independence, 4546
Victims and Witness Unit, 10661067
investigative resources for, 10871088
judges in, 16
jurisdiction, 18, 10231028
for crimes against humanity, 87
for genocide, 87
of international criminal law section, 12
over range of crimes, 3739
ratione loci, 972973
ratione temporis, 972973
for transnational crimes, 9293, 106, 356358
for war crimes, 87
legal relationship with ICC, 79
mercenarism in, 454455
Merger Project, 10611064
OTP, 88, 113, 130, 10671068
PALU and, 90, 11041105
PCIJ compared to, 9394, 10241028
President/Presidency of, 976, 10601061, 10641066
Protocol on Amendments to the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights, 260, 10281030 See also Malabo Protocol
Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights, 10301034
public defender model for, 9495
purpose and function of, 1
RECS and, 1104
Registry in, 708, 10661067
resource needs for, 10701072
retributive justice through, 171172
SCSL compared to, 10961097
staff and staffing for, 1059, 10911096, 1098
interpreters, 1095
Statute of, 177178, 190195, 743747 See also corporate criminal liability; liability; specific modes of liability
modes of liability under, 743747
multiple modes of liability under, 759760
Statute of e, Article 28N, 757759, 766781
structure of, 1113, 10641070
Vice President/Vice Presidency, 976, 10601061
African Court of Human Rights (ACHR), 5
ACJ merger with, 6
African Court of Justice (ACJ), 6
ACHPR merger with, 6
Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice, 260
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR)
consolidation of, 983986
execution of judgments, 980982
expansion of, 986988
human rights machinery in, strengthening of, 986987
judges on, 976977, 987
jurisdiction of, 967969, 971973
limitations of, 967969, 971973
treaties within, 977
legal aid in, 982983
limitations of, 967969, 971973
monitoring of judgments, 980982
ratione personae, 971
remedies for, 980
reparations through, 172, 980
standing issues for, 969971
submission of cases, limitations on, 978979
strengthening of, 983986
structure of, 976977
African Court on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR)
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 984985
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and People’s Rights, development of, 965966
African Criminal Chamber, of ACJHPR, 75. See also drug trafficking
for transnational crimes, 340361
African Criminal Court (ACC). See also African Court for Justice and Human and People’s Rights; Article 46C; international crimes; Malabo Protocol; transnational crimes; unconstitutional change of government
African Peace and Security Architecture and, 208212
classification of crimes in, 236254
legal context for, 236238
concurrent jurisdiction of, with ICC
complementarity and, 190195
conflicting obligations for, 186190
scope of, 181186, 196197
state cooperation with, 186190
statutes as influence, 187
development of, 82
emancipatory potential of, 198199
expanded jurisdiction of, 216
ICC as influence on, 203208
corporate criminal liability and, 796805
ICL and, 218
international law through, 842 See also automatic deferral
for corruption, 840841
for ICC crimes, 841842
jurisdiction over Rome Statute, 841
for non-ICC crimes, 839841
jurisdiction of, 227, 794
legalism and, 199203, 208
politics of, 198199, 208219
democratic, 214217
instrumentalization of, 212214
re-envisioning of, 217219
statutes of, 187
African Development Bank, 1037
African Development Bank Administrative Tribunal (AfDBAT), 1048
African Ecologies of Justice, 22
African ecosystems, 22
African Governance Architecture (AGA), 1920, 124125, 173174
African Human Rights Charter, 25
African Mission in Burundi (AMIB), 124
African Mission in Sudan (AMIS), 124
African Model Anti-Terrorism Law (2011) (AU), 417418, 420, 431432, 447
African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba), 272
African States
ACHPR in, limited establishment of, 5
commitment of regional courts, 4445
cooperation among, 730731
crimes against humanity in, 7778
drug trafficking in, 375378 See also specific countries
enhancement of human security in, 7582
human rights in, 3
OAU, 45
regional, 66
regional laws for, 66
UN Seminar on the Creation of Regional Commissions on Human Rights, 3
underfunding of institutions for, 103104
ICC and, 62, 8895
undermining of, 1314, 104105
international crimes in, 7582, 9293
legal duty of, 7582
non-cooperation in, 730731
PMSCs in, 476
rule of law in, 4041
terrorism in, scope of, 411
UCG in, 4041, 338
African Transitional Justice Policy Framework (ATJF), 112113, 117118
Malabo Protocol and, 119
African Union (AU). See also African Court for Justice and Human and People’s Rights; Constitutive Act; Transitional Justice Policy Framework
ACJ and, 6
ACJHPR assessment by, 10961100
Action Plan on Drug Control, 363
AFISMA, 124
African Charter on Democracy, Elections, and Governance and, 41, 81
AGA and, 1920, 124125, 173174
constitutionalism, 174
AMISEC, 124
ASP, 107
ATJF and, 112113, 117118
Malabo Protocol and, 119
AUFD, 125126, 139140
AUPOW, 21
budget of, 4243
Convention on Cross-Border Co-operation, 547
Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, 508509
corruption and, official response to, 478
counter-terrorism developments, 417419
African Model Anti-Terrorism Law, 417418, 420, 431432, 447
Plan of Action on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism in Africa, 418419
Decision on the Abuse of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction, 623
General Affairs Section, 959960
ICC and, 6263
tension with, 851853
International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, 455460
judicial bodies in, development of, 10781080
MAES, 124
Malabo Protocol and, 12
MINUSCA, 124
MIOC, 124
MISCA, 124
Non-Aggression and Common Defence Pact, 330331
OAU replaced by, 79
Panel of the Wise, 117
PCRD, 174176
peacekeeping missions through, 123124
Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union, 259260, 449450 See also mercenarism
limitations of, 468469
loopholes in, 469473
positive aspects of, 469473
PSC of, 80, 121
institutional reform, 172
management of violence through, 122126
referral authority of, 133134
reorganization of, 1076
restorative justice through, 172
retributive justice through, 171172
staff members, 10351039, 10431046, 1053
STC and, 10
transitional justice architecture, 171176
constitutionalism, 174
institutional reform, 172
judicial reforms, 174
Malabo Protocol as influence on, 176
reconciliation processes, 174176
security sector reform, 174
UCG and, 3941, 622
under Constitutive Act, 4041
UNAMID Hybrid Force, 124
universal jurisdiction and, 8688
war crimes and, 79
African Union Administrative Tribunal (AUAT), 1036. See also administrative law
appellate jurisdiction for, 10401053
applicable law for, 10471050
scope of, 10431047
non-suspensive effect of decisions, 10511053
procedural matters, 10501053
binding force, 10501051
enforcement measures, 10501051
for remedies and compensation, 1051
provisional measures, availability of, 10511053
unequal access to court issues, 10401043
ICJ response to, 10401043
African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur (AUPD), 125126, 139140
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), 124
African Union Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), 124
African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA), 124
AGA. See African Governance Architecture
aggression, as crime. See also acts of aggression
under Charter of the United Nations, 322324
under Constitutive Act of the African Union, 279280, 319320, 322324
definition of, 315316, 320324
acts of aggression, 322
planning, preparation, initiation or execution in, 321
for purpose of statute, 321
for human security, as protected value, 320
in ICC, 315
under international criminal jurisdiction, 87
international criminal liability for, 318
jurisdiction over, 315319
under Malabo Protocol, 169178, 239246, 258, 279282, 314335
in Nuremberg trials, 314316
by organizations, 316319
under Rome Statute, 279280, 315, 322324, 909
by state military action, 316319
under Tokyo Charter, 316
in Tokyo Tribunal, 314315
Agreement for the Establishment of the African Risk Capacity Agency, 1077
aiding and abetting, 766770
Akande, Dapo, 3435
Algeria
civil war in, 411
drug trafficking laws in, 380
Islamic Salvation Front in, 411412
terrorism in, 411
alibi, 919920
American Convention on Human Rights, 134, 534
American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, 65
AMIB. See African Mission in Burundi
AMIS. See African Mission in Sudan
AMISEC. See AU Mission for Support to the Elections in the Comoros
AMISOM. See African Union Mission in Somalia
amnesties, 136, 142143
African Court and, 115
invalidation of, 136, 143, 159, 205206
in Uganda law, 932
for war crimes, 134, 683
Amnesty International, 562563, 1117
Amosu, Adesola, 493494
Anghie, Antony, 217
Angola, 294
FNLA, 453, 473
human trafficking in, 538
illicit exploitation of natural resources in, 592, 595, 600
Luanda Trial, 453
mercenarism in, 453, 460, 462463
MPLA, 453, 473
UNITA, 467, 603604
Annan, Kofi, 121, 125
annexation, as act of aggression, 327328
anti-crime prevention, 842843
apartheid
criminalization of, 7779
as human rights issue, 66
appeals, right to, 13, 726727
APSA. See African Union Peace and Security Architecture
Arab League, 138, 413416
Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism 1998, 410
Arab Spring, 306
as UCG, 641
Argentina
Falklands War and, 142
“Full Stop Law” in, 134, 142
transition from dictatorship in, 116
transitional justice in, 141143
armed forces
attacks on, 329330
use of, 326327
Armenian Genocide, 292
Arrest Warrant case, 3132, 5859, 855, 862
Article 28H, 468474. See also mercenarism
Article 28H (Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union), 468474
Article 46 A bis (Malabo Protocol), 2936, 102, 211, 283284, 317, 842844, 850865. See also aggression; automatic deferrals
anti-crime prevention, 842843
AU-ICC tension, 851853
doctrinal question over, 850851
duties of state under, 849
flawed premise of, 843844
ICJ and, 852
immunity provisions under, 851864
doctrinal arguments on, 856864
ratione materiae, 854856, 860
ratione personae, 854856, 860
scope of, 853856
impunity under, 863864
Article 46C, at ACC, 793796, 834835
asset recovery under, 825826
attribution principles, 812823
models of attribution, 812815
command responsibility, 820
compensation under, 824
complementarity and, 827831
complicity and, 820
corporate sanctions under, 824827
crimes contemplated under, 806812
derivative liability, 812815
due diligence in, 813
identification model, 813815
vicarious, 812813, 821
enforcement challenges under, 831834
entities contemplated under, 806812
jurisdiction of, 806812
non-compliance requirements under, removal of, 820
organizational model, 815823
aggregation of knowledge in, 818819
corporate knowledge in, 818819
corporate personnel in, 821823
international versions of, 821
nullum crimen sine lege principle in, 816
progressive, 823
rehabilitation under, 824
reparations under, 824
restitution under, 824
scope of, 806
Articles. See International Criminal Court; Malabo Protocol; Rome Statute; Versailles Treaty of 1919
Assembly of State Parties (ASP), 107, 139
cooperation and, 732
asset recovery
under Article 46C, 825826
after corruption, 489492, 502503
conviction-based, 491492
reparations and, in money laundering, 525526
atrocity crimes
ACJHPR and, 9394
in Africa, 9394
corporate criminal liability for, 9394
definition of, 795
by political groups, 286
in Sierra Leone, 60
under-enforcement of, 800
attack against state’s armed forces, as act of aggression, 329330
attribution, of criminal legal responsibility, 748749
under Article 46C, 812823
models of attribution, 812815
for corporations, 811
AU. See African Union
AU Electoral And Security Assistance Mission to the Comoros (MAES), 124
AU Military Observer Mission in the Comoros (MIOC), 124
AU Mission for Support to the Elections in the Comoros (AMISEC), 124
AU Panel of the Wise (AUPOW), 21
AUAT. See African Union Administrative Tribunal
AUPD. See African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur
AUPOW. See AU Panel of the Wise
Australia
corporate criminal liability in, 785787
universal jurisdiction in, 58
aut dedere. See prosecute or extradite
aut judicare. See prosecute or extradite
authority. See persuasive authority
automatic deferrals, 842849
immunity and, 842
Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes Within Africa, 49, 428429, 568574, 576
Banda, Rupiah, 499
Banjul Charter, 5, 87, 100101
banking systems. See international banking systems
Barriga, Stephan, 323
Barrow, Adama, 252
Basel Convention (1989), 564574
al-Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed, 12, 60, 113, 200, 299, 859
crimes against humanity by, 948
genocide crimes by, 948
war crimes indictments against, 79, 88, 137138, 966
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, 58
Baxi, Upendra, 218
Bedjaoui, Mohammed, 8687
Belay, Netsanet, 858
Belgium
DRC proceedings against, 86
universal jurisdiction in, 5859
Benin, 558559
Bensouda, Fatou, 630
Beyani, Chaloka, 8687
Bhojwani, Raj, 498
Bigombe, Betty, 115
binding force, of AUAT, 10501051
Bishop, Joel Prentiss, 405
blockades, as act of aggression, 329
Boelaert, Sonja, 8687
Boko Haram, 296
corruption by, 493494
recruitment of child soldiers, 302
terrorism by, 305, 307
bombardment, as act of aggression, 328329
Boraine, Alex, 167169
Botswana, 377
corporate criminal liability in, 783
human trafficking in, 543
bribery, 481485
active, 482483
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, 483, 829
passive, 481482
in private sector, 483485
in public sector, 481483
bricolage, 931
Broache, Michael, 114
burden sharing
complementarity and, 664673, 679
global community interests in, 668
with ICC, 672673
national community interests for, 668
positive, 676679
prosecutorial discretion, 676679
with RECs, 671672
with national courts, 669673
Burkina Faso, 541
Burundi
civil war in, 640641
withdrawal from ICJ, 501
business organizations, other than corporations, corporate criminal liability for, 288291
Bustamante, Rafael De, 8687
Butare Four case, 287288
CAL. See Coalition of African Lesbians
Camara, Fafré, 8687
Cambodia Tribunal, 102
Canada
corporate criminal liability in, 291
crimes against humanity in, 291
universal jurisdiction in, 58
war crimes in, 291
Caribbean Court of Justice, 70, 839
Cassese, Antonio, 8687
CEDAW. See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Central African Republic, 541
illicit exploitation of natural resources in, 592, 595
Chad. See also Habré, Hissène
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment and, 83
Charter of the International Military Tribunal, 908
Charter of the Military Tribunal for the Far East, 908. See also Tokyo Charter
Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, 11
child soldiers, 295, 297
criminal defence for recruitment of, 918920
through human trafficking, 551
in ISIS, 302
recruitment of, 302
children, under Transitional Justice Policy Framework, 161162
Chile, transitional justice in, 143144
Chiluba, Frederick, 499500
civil society organizations (CSOs). See also non-governmental organizations; regional economic communities
ACJHPR and, 11021122
competing obligations in, 1119
domestic legal standards under, 1119
financial burdens under, 1122
harmonization of laws, 1119
opposition to immunity clause, 11121114
restricted access to, 11081109
ECOSOCC, 11061110
ICC established by, 11011103
involvement in regional courts, 4950
Malabo Protocol and, 11021122
human rights mandate of, implications for, 11091111, 11151119
legal standards setting, 11111122
opposition to immunity clause in, 11121114
ratification of, campaigns for, 11101111
vaguely defined crimes under, 11151119
Rome Statute and, conflicts with, 1120
competing obligations, 11201121
domestic implementing legislation and, 1121
financial burdens under, 1122
overlapping jurisdictions, 11201121
civil wars
in Algeria, 411
in Burundi, 640641
mercenarism during, 453
in Nigeria, 453
in Rwanda, 640641
Clarke, Kamari, 22, 469
Coalition of African Lesbians (CAL), 1107
coherence initiatives, 154
Cole, Rowland J. V., 211
colonialism, in Africa. See also toxic colonialism
mercenarism influenced by, 450455
self-determination struggles against, 66
command responsibility, 820
Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal (CSAT), 1048
communication of information, right to, 704707
in ICC cases, 706707
in ICTR, 706707
in ICTY, 705706
communication with counsel of choice, right to, 707711
commutation of sentences, 942943
Comoros, 538
human trafficking in, 538
compensation
under Article 46C, 824
through AUAT, 1051
competence, of ICC, 796805
complementarity. See also positive complementarity
in abstracto, 659660
in African Court, 4648, 646652
analysis of, 664679
burden sharing with national courts, 669673
ICC jurisprudence and, 663664
legitimacy of, 672673
primacy compared to, 665
under Article 46C, 827831
burden sharing and, 664673, 679
global community interests, 668
with ICC, 672673
national community interests, 668
positive complementarity and, 676679
prosecutorial discretion, 676679
with RECs, 671672
in concreto, 659660
criminal law section and, human rights influenced by, 9961005
under customary international law, 664665
in DRC, 654655
Extraordinary African Chambers in Senegal and, 670671
gravity threshold for, 659662, 675676
hierarchical approach, 665
at ICC, 48, 73, 652659
burden sharing and, 664673
intent to shield, 675
jurisprudence of, 663664
positive complementarity, 98100
test for relevant activity, 673674
unjustified delays, 675
jurisdiction and, as regulating principle, 9698
last resort approach to, 665666
legal analysis of, 645664
in Libya, 657659
in Lubanga case, 654655, 662
in national courts, 664665
ne bis in idem principle and, 190, 195, 650652, 659662
non bis in idem principle and, 650652
in Ntaganda case, 662
proprio motu referrals, 676677
under R2P doctrine, 664665
RECs and, 647648
burden sharing with, 671672
in regional courts, 4648
Rome Statute and, 47, 649652, 664665
in Al-Senussi case, 657659
tests for, development of, 673679
relevant activity as threshold inquiry, 673674
unwillingness of courts to act, 674675
in Transitional Justice Policy Framework, 159
UCG and, 670
complicity, 750755
under Article 46C, 820
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), 115
concession system jurisdictions, 611
concurrent jurisdiction
with ACC
complementarity and, 190195
conflicting obligations for, 186190
scope of, 181186, 196197
state cooperation with, 186190
statutes as influence, 187
defined, 186
with ICC
complementarity and, 190195
conflicting obligations for, 186190
scope of, 181186, 196197
state cooperation with, 186190
statutes as influence, 187
confidentiality, 711, 724, 10011002
conflict diamonds, 595596
Congo. See Democratic Republic of Congo
consent, 918920
rape and, 919
constitutional immunity, 495
constitutionalism, 174
Constitutive Act (African Union), 2425, 30, 148
acts of aggression under, 327
aggression as crime under, 279280
human security under, 7577
sanctity for human life under, 148163
scope of, 171
steps against impunity under, 7980
UCG under, 4041
violence management under, 122
Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 508
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Torture Convention), 8283, 111, 277278
Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism, 248, 350
Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 765, 814
Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949), 532533
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA Convention), 396
Convention on Combating International Terrorism, 410, 413416
Convention on Cross-Border Co-operation, 547
Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, 508509
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 533534
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention), 111, 261264
grave breaches of, 111
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 533534
Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 914
conviction-based asset recovery, 491492
cooperation. See also non-cooperation
between ACC and ICC, through concurrent jurisdiction, 186190
among African States, 730731
under Amended (Malabo) Protocol, 512520
between states and private actors, 521525, 734738
ASP and, 732
competing obligations as factor in, 731, 738740
ICC and, 729732, 738740
importance of, 731734
international, for prevention of human trafficking, 546547
under Rome Statute, 731732, 740
in SCSL, with national systems, 282283
with state and private actors, in money laundering cases, 521525
Transitional Justice Policy Framework initiatives, 154
coordination initiatives, 154
core crimes, 239246
under Malabo Protocol, 261282
penalties for, 930931
sentencing for, 930931
UCG, 626630
corporate criminal liability, 2629, 285, 313, 782791. See also Article 46C; principal corporate criminal liability
accomplice, 787791
for atrocity crimes, 9394
in Australia, 785787
in Botswana, 783
for business organizations other than corporations, 288291
in Canada, 291
for clandestine military organizations, 292304
corporate culture model, 785
corporate sanctions, 28
for La Cosa Nostra, 303304
definition and scope of, 288290, 782
for displacement of civilians, 298
under domestic legislation, 783785
in Ethiopia, 783
extension of, 301304
for genocide, 294295
for human rights violations, 294295
for human trafficking, 547550
under ICC statutes, 2728, 364365
in ICTY, 298299
ILC and, 804805
for illicit exploitation of natural resources, 598
in ISIS, 301
in Kenya, 783
loopholes for, 288291
in Malawi, 783
in Namibia, 783
at Nuremberg trials, 27, 285
organizational, 784785
for political groups, 292304
domestic criminal tribunals for, 298301
international criminal tribunals for, 298301
in Nazi Germany, 292293
principal, 786787
for religious groups, 292302, 304312
terrorism by, 304311
respondeat superior and, 783
Rules of Procedure and Evidence and, 833834
in Rwanda, 783
in SCSL, 299
for social and religious groups, 292302
in South Africa, 783
in statelets, 300301
Islamic State, 301
Palestinian Authority, 301
subsidiary, 754, 831832
for torture, 294295
transnational agreements over, 802803, 807
in Zimbabwe, 783
corporate personnel, 821823
corporate sanctions, 28, 824827
under Article 46C, 824827
corruption, 9293, 177, 246249
abuse of functions, 485486
quality control provisions, 485
ACC and, 840841
asset recovery and, 489492, 502503
conviction-based, 491492
under AU Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, 508509
AU response to, 478
by Boko Haram, 493494
bribery, 481485
active, 482483
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, 483
passive, 481482
in private sector, 483485
in public sector, 481483
case studies, 496500
Abacha case, 497499
Chiluba case, 499500
Obiang case, 496497
definition of, 609
diversion of state assets, 487488
in Equatorial Guinea, 496497
FATF, 478, 481482, 488489, 500501
future legal challenges, 503504
global scope of, 477480
grand, 492493
illicit enrichment, 487
in ECtHR, 487
illicit exploitation of natural resources through, 608609
immunity provisions, 501502
constitutional, 495
jurisdiction limitations for, 494495
investigations into, 489492
evidence gathering in, 489491
from whistle-blowers, 489490
jurisdiction limitations for, 492495
immunity provisions, 494495
for international organizations, 494
by region, 493
for serious nature of acts, 492494
money laundering as, 488489
in Nigeria, 493494, 497499
offences, 480489 See also specific offences
SDAC response to, 478, 480
secrecy and, 490
sentencing for, 489492, 501502
penalties in, 491492
trading in influence, 486
influence peddlers, 486
under UNCAC, 349350, 478, 484, 491, 493
UNGA response to, 478
in Zambia, 499500
La Cosa Nostra (Mafia), 303304
under Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, 303304
cost of trials. See trials
Côte d’Ivoire, 561562, 592
hazardous waste trafficking in, 561562
illicit exploitation of natural resources, 592
UCG in, 628630
Cotonou Agreement, 567568
Council of Europe, 824825
counseling, 765766
instigation and, 766
Covenant of the League of Nations, 1029
CPA. See Comprehensive Peace Agreement
CRC. See Convention on the Rights of the Child
crime of aggression. See aggression
crimes against humanity
African Court of Justice and Human Rights
international criminal jurisdiction, 87
Malabo Protocol, 239246, 275279
in African States, 7778
by al-Bashir, 948
in Canada, 291
Extraordinary African Chambers in Senegal, 8485, 645, 670671
in Guatemala, 117
under Rome Statute, 276277
torture in, 243244
Crimes Against Humanity Initiative, 804
criminal law section, of ACJHPR, 682, 959960, 10071012
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights and, 10061007
as agent of ICL, 10061007
as enforcement agent, 10051006
human rights and, 9981005
as investigators, 1005
victim’s justice through, 10061007
human and people’s rights section and, 10081012
human rights and, 9961007
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 9981005
complementarity as influence on, 9961005
criminalization of violations, 997998
judicial dialogue between, 10121019
non-state actors and, 996997
plural entities and, 10121013
legal fragmentation in, 10121013
systemic harmony within, 10071012
criminal liability. See liability
CSAT. See Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal
CSOs. See civil society organizations
culpability, 750, 752
cultural heritage, terrorist acts as damaging to, 415416
customary international law
complementarity under, 664665
immunity under, 3334, 862863
cyber attacks, 427
Dakar, Senegal
International Commission of Jurists in, 4
rule of law in, 4
Dar es Salaam, 4
Darfur, Sudan
AUPD, 125126
DDPD, 141
UNAMID Hybrid Force, 124, 138
DDPD. See Doha Document of Peace for Darfur
de facto, 297, 668, 762, 817
de jure, 762
De Klerk, F. W., 113, 149150
Decision on the Abuse of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction (AU), 623
Declaration against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions (UNGA), 478
declaration of war, as act of aggression, 324
Declaration on a Code of Conduct for Inter-African Relations (OAU), 412
Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (UNGA) (1994), 414415
decolonization, mercenarism and, 451
defence of person, 882885
defence of property, 885886
Defence Office, establishment of, 680681, 685, 710, 10681070
defence exclusions, from terrorism, 445447
defensive operations, 882, 916917
deferrals. See automatic deferrals
delayed disclosure, 688689
democratic governance deficits, 147
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
atrocity crimes in, 60
complementarity in, 654655
human trafficking in, 538
illicit exploitation of natural resources in, 592, 595, 597
pillaging in, 825
proceedings against Belgium, 86
universal jurisdiction in, 86
Denard, Bob, 463, 466467
depredation, piracy and, 393394
deprivation of liberty, 348
through terrorism, 425426
derivative liability, 812815
due diligence in, 813
identification model, 813815
vicarious, 812813, 821
detention
international, 944945
piracy and, 393394
presumption of innocence and, 693
Detention Management Unit, 10661067
deterrence. See also penalties; sentences
general, 586, 940
of hazardous waste trafficking, 585589
specific, 586
deterrence theory, 587588
Deya, Donald, 22, 200
Dicker, Richard, 201
differential participation model, 746, 748755
diminished mental capacity, 876878
al-Dine, Ansar, 311312
direct enforcement systems, 58
ICL and, 61
disclosure of evidence, right to, 696704
in ICC cases, 696704
in ICTR, 696704
in ICTY, 696704
iura novit curia principle, 698
dispersion of armed bands, groups, irregulars or mercenaries, 332334
displacement of civilians, 298. See also refugees
corporate criminal liability for, 298
disruption of public services, through terrorism, 432434
Dlamini, C. R. M., 3
Doe, Samuel, 641
dogs of war, 451
Doha Document of Peace for Darfur (DDPD), 141
domestic criminal tribunals, for corporate criminal liability, 298301
domestic laws. See national laws
double jeopardy, prohibition against, 920
Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, 868869, 882
Draft Comprehensive Terrorism Convention (UN), 410
DRC. See Democratic Republic of Congo
drug cultivation offences, 373374
drug supply offences, 371373
drug trafficking, 9293, 177, 246249
in African States, 375378 See also specific countries
in Algeria, 380
in Botswana, 377
criminalization of, 378379
definition of, 366
in domestic courts, 381382, 385386
global drug control and, changes in, 386
gravity threshold for, 364365
international scope of, 362363
jurisdiction over, 363365, 386387
in Action Plan on Drug Control, 363, 366
ECOWAS, 363
through ILCs, 364
in Sierra Leone, 363364
in Kenya
laws against, 369
punishment for, 380381
lawful actions, 369370
in Liberia, 377
in Mauritius, laws against, 370
modes of responsibility for, 378379
in Namibia, 373
in Nigeria, 341
controlled substances, 368
offences for, 370374
actus reus, 375
drug cultivation, 373374
drug supply, 371373
inchoate, 378379
mens rea, 373, 375
operationalization of, 384386
possession, 375378
precursor, 378
punishment for, 341342, 379383
purchase, 375378
supply, 370373
party liability for, 378379
prosecution of, challenges in, 341, 383386
positive complementarity, 383384
rehabilitation and treatment for users, 383
through social re-integration, 383
under Rome Statute, 364
in Seychelles, 375
NDEA in, 384
in Sierra Leone, 375
jurisdiction over, 363364
sources of law for, 6970, 366367
substances under control, 367369
international classification systems for, 368
scheduling systems for, 367368
in Swaziland, 382
in Trinidad and Tobago, 362
under UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 386
under UN Drug Trafficking Convention, 367368, 370, 379383
unlawful actions, 369370
Du Plessis, Max, 44, 201
du Toit, Nick, 468
due diligence, 813
due process, 300, 727, 779780, 786, 816
under international law, recognition of, 647, 745
nulla poena sine lege principle and, 773774
nullum crimen sine lege principle and, 773774
Dunér, Bertil, 633
duress, 887898
duties of state, under Article 46 A bis, 849
early release, 944
East African Court of Justice, 839
ECCC. See Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), 11061110
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 47, 9798, 363
Court of Justice, 839
ECOSOCC. See Economic, Social and Cultural Council
ECOWAS. See Economic Community of West African States
ECtHR. See European Court of Human Rights
EEZ. See Exclusive Economic Zone
Egypt, terrorism in, 413
EITI. See Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
emergency. See public emergency
enforcement systems. See also direct enforcement systems; indirect enforcement systems
in AUAT, 10501051
for hazardous waste trafficking, 572573
regional, 232, 572578
for sentencing, 941945
environmental heritage, terrorist damages to, 428429
environmental protections, illicit exploitation of natural resources and, 612615
EO. See Executive Outcomes
Equatorial Guinea, 468, 478
corruption in, 496497
human trafficking in, 541
Erdemović, Dražen, 890891
Etete, Dan, 607
Ethiopia, corporate criminal liability in, 783
EU. See European Union
European Convention on Human Rights, 534
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
fundamental rights protections in, 681682
human rights cases in, 681682, 1011
illicit enrichment as corruption, 487
Lagos Conference on Primacy of Law influenced by, 3
persuasiveness in case law in, 1015
public hearings in, 685
European Court of Justice, 839
European Union (EU)
human rights norms in, 66
regional human rights in, 6667
regional human rights law in, 6667
evidence gathering, in corruption cases, 489491
evidentiary challenges, in money laundering cases, 520525, 527
complex financial investigations, 520521
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), 397398
Executive Outcomes (EO), 467
Expiry Law (Uruguay), 144
exploitation of natural resources. See natural resources
expressive condemnation, of hazardous waste trafficking, 583585
expressivism, 940
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), 596
extradition, under Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 111
Extraordinary African Chambers (Senegal), 8485, 645, 670671
Habré and, 171172, 670671
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), 702, 908
facilitation, 763
fact-finding missions, 998999
factual awareness elements, 905906
fair labeling, 750, 752753
fair trials, right to, 685689, 727728
ad hoc tribunals and, 686687, 691692
adjudicated facts, 692693
balancing tests for, 687
Defence Office, establishment of, 680681, 685, 710
delayed disclosure in, 688689
habeas corpus, 694696
in ICC cases
right to communication of information in, 706707
right to disclosure of evidence in, 696704
Rules of Procedure and Evidence, 681, 728
ICTR and
presumption of innocence in, 690691
right to communication of information in, 706707
right to disclosure of evidence in, 696704
ICTY and
presumption of innocence in, 690691
right to communication of information in, 705706
right to disclosure of evidence in, 696704
minimum guarantees for, 694727
non-derogable rights in, 694695
presumption of innocence and, 689694
detention and, 693
in ICTR, 690691
in ICTY, 690691
proof beyond reasonable doubt, 690
redactions and, 688689
right to appeals, 13, 726727
right to be informed of content of charges, 694
right to be tried in own presence, 712713
right to communication of information, 704707
in ICC cases, 706707
in ICTR, 706707
in ICTY, 705706
right to communication with counsel of choice, 707711
right to disclosure of evidence, 696704
in ICC cases, 696704
in ICTR, 696704
in ICTY, 696704
iura novit curia principle, 698
right to examination of witnesses, 723725
right to freedom from self-incrimination, 725726
right to interpreters, through free assistance, 725
right to legal representation, 714
in international criminal cases, 720721
through legal aid provisions, 722723
with legal assistance in cases of insufficient means, 719723
right to legal/factual nature of accusations, 694696
right to preparation of defence, 707711
registries and, 708
right to public pronouncement of judgments, 726
right to self-representation, 714717
right to silence, 725726
right to speedy trial, 711712
Rules of Procedure and Evidence for, in ICC, 681
witness anonymity and, 687688
Falklands War, 142
FATF. See Financial Action Task Force
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), 35. See also Yugoslavia
Fenwick, Charles, 1032
Financial Action Task Force (FATF), 478, 481482, 488489, 500501
money laundering and, 516, 524
financial investigations, of money laundering, 507
complex, 520521
under International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, 455460
financing
of ACJHPR, 4243, 10721073
criminal liability for, 764765
of terrorism, 764765
under UN Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 765, 814
fines, as penalties, 931
fitness to stand trial, 873, 875
FNLA. See National Liberation Front of Angola
Fofana, Moinina, 942943
force majeure, 887
forced labor, human trafficking for, 534, 536537
Ford, Stuart, 44
foreign fighters, 454, 461, 464465, 471
foreign immunity, in national courts, 845846
fragmentation, of ICL, 61, 105
France, universal jurisdiction in, 58
freedom. See liberty
FRY. See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
“Full Stop Law” (Argentina), 134, 142
functional immunities. See ratione materiae
funding, of regional courts, 4243, 103104
G20, 494, 500
Gabon, 541
Gaddafi, Saif, 627628, 656657
Gambia, withdrawal from ICJ, 501
Gbadebo, Olugbenga, 493494
Gbagbo, Laurent, 628630
gender, in Transitional Justice Policy Framework, 161162
general affairs section, of ACJHR, 1, 11, 2425
general deterrence, 586, 940
general principles of law, 445446, 571, 867, 869870, 923
Geneva Conventions of (1948/1949), 23
Additional Protocol I, 442, 455460, 465 See also mercenarism
Additional Protocol II, 442
criminal defences under, 903904
genocide. See also Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
ACJHPR and, international criminal jurisdiction over, 87
actus reus, 265
Armenian Genocide, 292
by al-Bashir, 948
conventions, 65
corporate criminal liability for, 294295
ICC statute against, 65
ICTR and, 242243, 262264
under Malabo Protocol, 239246, 258, 261267
rape as part of, 23, 265
in Rwanda, 184
sexual assault and violence as aspect of, 23, 265
Genocide Convention. See Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
geographies of justice, 59, 71, 199, 390391, 402, 409, 493, 671, 768, 1086, 1102
Ghana, 543
Ghankay, Charles, 299
al-Ghannouchi, Rashid, 306
global drug control, 386
Global North, hazardous waste trafficking by, 569, 572
Global South
hazardous waste trafficking in, 555, 569, 572
international law in, 218
globalization, toxic colonialism influenced by, 557558
MNCs and, 558
TNCs and, 558
Goudé, Charles Blé, 630
grand corruption, 492493
grave crimes, 254
gravity threshold
for complementarity, 659662, 675676
for drug trafficking, 364365
for transnational crimes, 345349
criminal criteria in, 346349
Greenpeace, 562563
Guatemala
crimes against humanity in, 117
Historical Classification Commission in, 116117
national reconciliation law in, 116117
Guinea, Republic of, 4
Guinea-Bissau, 558559
habeas corpus, 694696, 1017
Habré, Hissène, 9, 14, 966
criminal prosecution of, 8285
Extraordinary African Chambers and, 171172, 670671
torture under, 419, 949
Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, 1029
Hamas, 306
Harding, Christopher, 287
harmonization of judgments, 692
hazardous wastes, trafficking in, 49, 177, 246249. See also toxic colonialism
Amnesty International response to, 562563
in Benin, 558559
causes of, 556558
in Côte d’Ivoire, 561562
global increase in, 556558
by Global North, 569, 572
global scope of, 553556
in Global South, 555, 569, 572
Greenpeace response to, 562563
in Guinea-Bissau, 558559
in Nigeria, 560561
OAU resolution on, 563564, 568
prosecution of, 578589
regional criminalization of, 578589
through deterrence, 585589
through enforcement, 572573
expressive condemnation, 583585
for Heads of States, 580
in IACtHR, 582, 585
as restorative justice, 581583
as retributive justice, 579581
regional enforcement against, 574578
through criminalization, 572573
interpretative challenges, 574576
practical challenges, 577578
regulation of, international legal framework for, 564578
under Bamako Convention, 49, 428429, 568574, 576
under Basel Convention, 564574
under Cotonou Agreement, 567568
inadequacy of, 564574
under Lomé Convention, 567
UNEP and, 558
through waste disposal contracts, 558559
in Zimbabwe, 584
Heads of State, in Africa, 136137
immunity for, 283284, 843844
from hazardous waste trafficking, 580
under Rome Statute, 1113
high seas piracy, 396398
Historical Classification Commission, 116117
Hoare, Mike, 466
Holá, Barbora, 937
Holmes, John, 664
Homicide Act (1957) (UK), 876877
Honoré, Tony, 630
human and people’s rights section, of ACJHPR, 1112, 2526, 682, 959960
criminal law section and, 10081012
ratione personae, 10111012
human rights
ACHR, 5
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 24, 77, 424425
liberation and self-determination struggles and, 440
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 35, 100
in African states, 3
OAU, 45
UN Seminar on the Creation of Regional Commissions on Human Rights, 3
underfunding of institutions for, 103104
American Convention on Human Rights, 134, 534
under apartheid, 66
Banjul Charter, 5, 87, 100101
corporate criminal liability for violations of, 294295
criminal law section and, 9961007
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 9981005
complementarity as influence on, 9961005
criminalization of violations, 997998
judicial dialogue between, 10121019
through non-state actors, 996997
plural entities and, 10121013
in ECtHR cases, 681682, 1011
under ICCPR, 13
human rights law. See also international human rights law
development of, 64
domestic laws as influence on, 991993
international, 6368
International Bill of Rights, 6769
international criminal tribunals created for, 6465
NGOs for, 992
quasi-criminal jurisdiction of, 67
regional, 6368
in Africa, 66
in the Americas, 6566
enforcement of, 6375
in EU, 6667
UNGA establishment of courts systems for, 68
universal enforcement of, 6375
Human Rights Strategy for Africa, 1019
Human Rights Watch, 135136, 201
human security
in illicit exploitation of natural resources, 612615
as protected value, 320
human trafficking, 9293, 177, 246249, 354, 551552
in Angola, 538
under AU Convention on Cross-Border Co-operation, 547
in Botswana, 543
in Burkina Faso, 541
in Central African Republic, 541
in Comoros, 538
confiscation of criminal proceeds, 549
conscription of child soldiers through, 551
under Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, 532533
definition of, 535539
demographics for, 529530
in DRC, 538
elements of, 535539
in Equatorial Guinea, 541
in Gabon, 541
in Ghana, 543
global scope of, 529531
historical development of, 531534
under ICCPR, 534
ICESCR and, 545
individual responsibility over, 547551
corporate criminal liability, 547550
resource issues, 548549
under International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, 531
under International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women and Children, 532
under International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women of Full Age, 532
under International Convention for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, 531532
under international human rights law, 533534, 542543
under treaties and conventions, 533534
in Kenya, 535536, 541542
in Lesotho, 543544
in Liberia, 541542
in Malawi, 541542
in Mauritius, 543544
modus operandi in, 541542
in Mozambique, 543544
by organized criminal groups, 541542
under Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, 538539
in Seychelles, 541542, 544
in slavery and forced labor context, 534, 536537
smuggling compared to, 538539
in South Africa, 541, 543544
state responsibility over, 539547
through international cooperation, 546547
observance of non-refoulement, 543544
for prohibition and prosecution,