Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

11 - Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Pain

from SECTION II - Clinical Analgesia

REFERENCES

1. American Medical Association. An American Medical Association Continuing Medical Education Program for Primary Care Physicians. Pain Management Part 2, Assessing and Treating Pain in Special Populations. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; June 2003.
2. Cousins MJ, Power I, Smith G. Pain: a persistent problem. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000;25:1,6–21.
3. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. Pain Assessment and Management, an Organizational Approach. Library of Congress Catalog No. 00-102701. 2000.
4. Ferrell B. Ethical perspectives on pain and suffering. Pain Manag Nurs. 2005;6(3):83–90.
5. Visser JE. Chronic post surgical pain: epidemiology and clinical implications for acute pain management. Acute Pain. 2006;8:73–81.
6. Kehlet H, Jensen TS, Woolf CJ. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet. 2006; 367:1618–1625.
7. Apfelbaum JL, Chen C, Mehta SS, Gan TJ. Postoperative pain experience: results for a national survey suggest postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:534–540.
8. Cross SA. Pathophysiology of pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994;69(4):375–383.
9. Sinatra RS, Bigham M. The anatomy and pathophysiology of acute pain. In: Grass JA, ed. Problems in Anesthesiology. Vol. 10. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:8–22.
10. Desborough JP. The stress response to trauma and surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2000;85:109–117.
11. Berry PH, Covington EC, Dahl JL, et al. Pain: Current Understanding of Assessment, Management, and Treatments. Reston, VA: National Pharmaceutical Council and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations; 2006:21–29.
12. Foley KM. 2006. Appraising the WHO Analgesic Ladder on Its 20th Anniversary. Vol 19(1) Retrieved April 4, 2008 from http://www.whocancerpain.bcg.wisc.edu/?q=node/86old_site/eng/19_1/Interview.html.
13. Acute Pain Management Guideline Panel. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. AHCPR Pub. No. 92-0032. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; February 1992.
14. Boos J, Drake A, et al. Pain as the 5th Vital Sign Toolkit. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pain Society; 2000:1–53.
15. American Nurses Association and American Society for Pain Management Nursing. 2005. Pain Management Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: nursesbooks.org.
16. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Position statement: Registered nurse management and monitoring of analgesia by catheter techniques. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
17. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Position statement: Authorized and unauthorized (“PCA by proxy”) dosing of analgesic infusion pumps. June 2006. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
18. Herr K, Coyne PJ, Key T, et al. Pain assessment in the nonverbal patient: position statement with clinical practice recommendations. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(2):44–52.
19. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Position statement: Pain management in patients with addictive disease. September 2002. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
20. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Position statement on use of placebos in pain management. July 2004. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
21. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. A position statement on the use of “as-needed” range orders for opioid analgesics in the management of acute pain. A consensus statement of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses and the American Pain Society. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
22. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. A position statement on promoting pain relief and preventing abuse of pain medications: a critical balancing act. October 2003. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
23. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. A position statement on assisted suicide. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
24. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. A position statement on pain management at the end of life. http://www.aspmn.org/Organization/position_papers.htm.
25. McCaffery M, Pasero C. Pain Clinical Manual. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1999:40, 62.
26.The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Task Force on Taxonomy Classification of Chronic Pain. Part III: Pain terms, a current list with definitions and notes on usage. In: Merskey H, Bogduk N, eds. Classification of Chronic Pain. 2nd ed. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 1994:209–214.
27. McGuire DB. Comprehensive and multidimensional assessment and measurement of pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992; 7(5):312–319.
28. American Pain Society (APS) Quality of Care Committee. Quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. J Am Med Assoc. 1995;274:1874–1880.
29. Hanks-Bell M, Halvey K, Paice J. Pain assessment and management in aging. Online J Issues Nurs. 2004;9(3):8
30. Melzack R, Torgerson WS. On the language of pain. Anesthesiology. 1971;34(1):50–59.
31. McCaffrey M, Beebe A. Giving narcotics for pain. Nursing. 1989;19(10):161–165.
32. Caraceni A. Evaluation and assessment of cancer pain and cancer pain treatment. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(9):1067–1075.
33. Closs SJ, Briggs M. Patients’ verbal descriptions of pain and discomfort following orthopaedic surgery. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39(5):563–572.
34. Gagliese L, Weizblit N, Ellis W, et al. The measurement of postoperative pain: a comparison of intensity scales in younger and older surgical patients. Pain. 2005;117(3):412–420.
35. Williamson A, Hoggart B. Pain: a review of three commonly used pain rating scales. J Clin Nurs. 2005;14(7):798–804.
36. Lee JS, Hobden E, Stiell IG, et al. Clinically important change in the visual analog scale after adequate pain control. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(10):1128–1130.
37. Gagliese L, Katz J. Age differences in postoperative pain are scale dependent: a comparison of measures of pain intensity and quality in younger and older surgical patients. Pain. 2003;103(1–2):11–20.
38. Whaley L. Wong D. Nursing Care of Infants and Children. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1991:1148.
39. Reading AE. A comparison of the McGill pain questionnaire in chronic and acute pain. Pain. 1982;13:185–192.
40. Jenkinson C, Carroll D, Egerton M, et al. Comparison of the sensitivity to change of long and short form pain measures. Quality Life Res. 1995;4:353–357.
41. Melzack R. The McGill pain questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods. Pain. 1975;1:277–299.
42. Melzack R. The short-form McGill pain questionnaire. Pain. 1987;30:191–197.
43. Carr ECJ, Thomas VN, Wilson-Barnet J. Patient experiences of anxiety, depression and acute pain after surgery: a longitudinal perspective. Int J Nurs Stud. 2005;42(5):521–530.
44. Herr K, Decker S. Older adults with severe cognitive impairment: assessment of pain. Ann Long-Term Care. 2004;12(4):46–52.
45. Pasero C, McCaffery M. No self-report means no pain-intensity rating. J Adv Nurs. 2005;105(10):50–53.
46. Pautex S, Herrmann F, Le Lous P, et al. Feasibility and reliability of four pain self-assessment scales and correlation with an observational rating scale in hospitalized elderly demented patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005;60(4):524–529.
47. Sloman R, Rosen G, Rom M, et al. Nurses’ assessment of pain in surgical patients. J Adv Nurs. 2005;52(2):125–132.
48. Pautex S, Michon A, Guedira M, et al. Pain in severe dementia: self-assessment or observational scales? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(7):1040–1045.
49. Jensen MP, Friedman M, Bonzo D, et al. The validity of the neuropathic pain scale for assessing diabetic neuropathic pain in a clinical trial. Clin J Pain. 2006;22(1):97–103.
50. Kaki AM, El-Yaski AZ, Youseif E. Identifying neuropathic pain among patients with chronic low-back pain: use of the leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30(5):422–428.
51. Perez C, Galvez R, Insausti J, et al. Linguistic adaptation and Spanish validation of the LANSS (leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs) scale for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain. Med Clin (Barc). 2006;127(13):485–491.
52. Farrar JT, Berlin JA, Strom BL. Clinically important changes in acute pain outcome measures: a validation study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25(5):406–411.
53. Farrar JT, Portenoy RK, Berlin JA, et al. Defining the clinically important difference in pain outcome measures. Pain. 2000;88(3):287–294.
54. Gallagher EJ, Liebman M, Bijur PE. Prospective validation of clinically important changes in pain severity measured on a visual analog scale. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(6):633–638.
55. Todd KH, Funk KG, Funk JP, et al. Clinical significance of reported changes in pain severity. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;27(4):485–489.
56. Bernstein SL, Bijur PE, Gallagher EJ. Relationship between intensity and relief in patients with acute severe pain. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24(2):162–166.
57. ten Klooster PM, Drossaers-Bakker KW, Taal E, et al. Patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI): interpreting meaningful change in pain from the patient's perspective. Pain. 2006;121(1–2):151–157.
58. Sloman R, Wruble AW, Rosen G, et al. Determination of clinically meaningful levels of pain reduction in patients experiencing acute postoperative pain. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(4):153–158.
59. Green CR, Anderson KO, Baker TA et al. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain. Pain Med. 2003;4(3):277–294.
60. Gibson SJ, Helme RD. Age-related differences in pain perception and report. Clin Geriatr Med. 2001;17:433–456.
61. Cunningham C. Managing pain in patients with dementia in hospital. Nurs Stand. 2006;20(46):54–58.
62. Morrison RS, Siu AL. A comparison of pain and its treatment in advanced dementia and cognitively intact patients with hip fracture. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19:240–248.
63. Won AB, Lapane KL, Vallow S, et al. Persistent nonmalignant pain and analgesic prescribing patterns in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(6):867–874.
64. Herr K, Bjoro K, Decker S. Tools for assessment of pain innonverbal older adults with dementia: a state-of-the-science review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(2):170–192.
65. Graf C, Puntillo K. Pain in the older adult in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin. 2003;19:749–770.
66. Siffleet J, Young J, Nikoletti S, et al. Patients’ self-report of procedural pain in the intensive care unit. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(11):2142–2148.
67. Pun BT, Dunn J. The sedation of critically ill adults: Part 1: assessment. J Adv Nurs. 2007;107(7):40–48.
68. Gillies ML, Smith LN, Parry-Jones WL. Post-operative pain assessment and management in adolescents. Pain. 1999;70:207–215.
69. Young J, Siffleet J, Nikoletti S, et al. Use of a behavioural pain scale to assess pain in ventilated, unconscious and/or sedated patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2006;22(1):32–39.
70. Gelinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, et al. Validation of the critical-care pain observation tool in adult patients. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15(4):402–407.
71. Jacobi J, Fraser GL, Coursin DB. Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(1):119–141.
72. Pun B. CEU article Part 2: Assessment and treatment of delirium in the ICU. 2005. Managing Pain, Delirium and Sedation. CEU article Part 2: Assessment and treatment of delirium in the ICU. Critical Care Nurse/Supplement Feb. 2007.
73. Payen JF, Bru O, Bosson JL, et al. Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(12):2258–2263.
74. Aissaoui Y, Zeggwagh AA, Zekraoui A, et al. Validation of a behavioral pain scale in critically ill, sedated, and mechanically ventilated patients. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(5):1470–1476.
75. Gelinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, et al. Validation of the critical-care pain observation tool in adult patients. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15(4):420–427.
76. Manias E, Botti M, Bucknall T. Observation of pain assessment and management – the complexities of clinical practice. J Clin Nurs. 2002;11(6):724–733.
77. Passik SD, Kirsh KL. Managing pain in patients with drug seeking behaviors. J Supportive Oncology. 2005;3(1):1–5.
78. Passik SD, Kirsh KL, Donaghy KB, et al. Pain and aberrant drug-related behaviors in medically ill patients with and without histories of substance abuse. Clin J Pain. 2006;22(2):173–181.
79. American Medical Association. An American Medical Association Continuing Medical Education Program for Primary Care Physicians. Pain Management Part 1, Overview of Physiology, Assessment, and Treatment. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; June 2003.
80. Hansson E, Fridlund B, Hallstrom I. Effects of a quality improvement program in acute care evaluated by patients, nurses, and physicians. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(3):93–108.
81. Stalnikowicz R, Mahamid R, Kaspi S, et al. Under-treatment of acute pain in the emergency department: a challenge. Int J Qual Health Care. 2005;17(2):173–176.
82. Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, et al. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. JAMA. 1999;282:583–589.
83. Miner J, Biros MH, Trainor A, et al. Patient and physician perceptions as risk factors for oligoanalgesia: a prospective observational study of the relief of pain in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(2):140–146.
84. Green CR, Wheeler JRC, Marchant B, et al. Analysis of the physician variable in pain management. Pain Med. 2001;2(4):317–327.
85. Bonham VL. Race, ethnicity, and pain treatment: striving to understand the causes and solutions to the disparities in pain treatment. J Law Med Ethics. 2001;29:52–68.
86. Hall-Lord ML, Larsson BW. Registered nurses’ and student nurses’ assessment of pain and distress related to specific patient and nurse characteristics. Nurse Educ Today. 2006;26(5):377–387.
87. Ware LJ, Epps CD, Herr K, et al. Evaluation of the revised faces pain scale, verbal descriptor scale, numeric rating scale, and Iowa pain thermometer in older minority adults. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(3):117–125.
88. Fink R. Pain assessment: the cornerstone to optimal pain management. BUMC Proc. 2000;13:236–239.
89. American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Panel on Persistent Pain in Older Persons. The management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:S205–S224.
90. Dionne RA, Bartoshuk L, Mogil J, et al. Individual responder analyses for pain: does one pain scale fit all ? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005;26(3):125–130.