Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-2qt69 Total loading time: 1.268 Render date: 2022-08-09T05:05:06.273Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 1 - Professional Ethics in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 November 2019

Laurence B. McCullough
Affiliation:
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
John H. Coverdale
Affiliation:
Baylor College of Medicine, Texas
Frank A. Chervenak
Affiliation:
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

McCullough, LB. Taking seriously the “what then?” question: an ethical framework for the responsible management of medical disasters. J Clin Ethics 2011; 21: 321327.Google Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. An ethical framework for the responsible management of pregnant patients in a medical disaster. J Clin Ethics 2011; 22: 2024.Google Scholar
Brody, BA. Life and Death Decision Making. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
Brody, BA. Taking Issue: Pluralism and Casuistry in Bioethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Buchanan, A, Brock, DW, Daniels, D, Wikler, D. From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCullough, LB, Coverdale, JH, Chervenak, FA. Argument-based ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 10971102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB, Coverdale, JH, Chervenak, FA. Constructing a systematic review for argument-based clinical ethics literature: the example of concealed medications. J Med Philos 2007; 32: 6576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gracia, D. Philosophy: ancient and contemporary approaches. In Sugarman, J, Sulmasy, DP, eds. Methods in Medical Ethics, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2010: 5572.Google Scholar
McCullough, LB. John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
James, W. The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy. The Floating Press, 2010. www.thefloatingpress.com. Originally published 1896.Google Scholar
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Crisp R, trans. and ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Jonsen, AR. The discourses of bioethics in the United States. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 477485.Google Scholar
Boyd, K. The discourses of bioethics in the United Kingdom. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 486489.Google Scholar
Baker, RB, McCullough, LB. What is the history of medical ethics? In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 315.Google Scholar
Jonsen, AR. The Birth of Bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Beauchamp, TL, Childress, JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Percival, T. Medical Ethics; or, A Code of Institutes and Precepts, adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons. London: Johnson & Bickerstaff, 1803.Google Scholar
Hippocrates. Epidemics. In Jones WHS, trans., Hippocrates, vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1923: 165.
Baker, RB, Burns, CR. Worthington Hooker. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 709.Google Scholar
Gregory, J. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1772. Reprinted in McCullough LB, ed. John Gregory’s Writings on Medical Ethics and the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1998: 161–248.Google Scholar
Richardson, HS. Specifying norms as a way to resolve concrete ethical problems. Philos Public Aff 1990; 19: 270310.Google Scholar
von Staden, H. “In a pure and holy way:” personal and professional conduct in the Hippocratic Oath. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1996; 51: 404437.Google Scholar
Jouanna, J. Hippocrates, trans. DeBevoise MB. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Nutton, V. The discourses of European practitioners in the tradition of the Hippocratic texts. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 359362.Google Scholar
Gãlvao-Sobrinho, CR. Hippocratic ideals, medical ethics, and the practice of medicine in the early middle ages: the legacy of the Hippocratic Oath. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1996; 51: 438455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffmann, F. Medicus politicus; sive, regulae prudentiae secundum quas medicus juvenis studia sua & vitae rationem dirigere debet. Leiden, Philip Bonk, 1738. (The Politic Doctor, or Rules of Prudence according to which a Young Physician Should Direct his Studies and Reason of Life).
Baker, RB, McCullough, LB. The discourses of philosophical medical ethics. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 281311.Google Scholar
Porter, D, Porter, R. Patient’s Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Percival, T. The Works, Literary, Moral, and Medical of Thomas Percival, M.D. 4 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Originally published by J. Johnson, St.Paul’s Church-Yard, London, 1807.Google Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Brent, RL. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics: avoiding the perils of clashing rights. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 205: 315.e15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB. The ethical concept of medicine as a profession: its origins in modern medical ethics and implications for physicians. In Kenny, N, Shelton, W, eds. Lost Virtue: Professional Character Development in Medical Education. New York: Elsevier, 2006: 1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plato. Republic. In Cooper, JM, Hutchinson, DS, eds. Plato Complete Works. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997: 9711223.Google Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Healthcare justice and human rights in perinatal medicine. Semin Perinatol 2016; 40: 234236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruddick, W, Wilcox, W. Operating on the fetus. Hastings Cent Rep 1982; 12: 1014.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Audi, R. Intuition and its place in ethics. J Am Philos Assoc 2015; 1: 5777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Available at www.figo.org/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
World Association of Perinatal Medicine. Available at www.wapm.info/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
International Academy of Perinatal Medicine. Available at https://iaperinatalmedicine.org/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
World Medical Association. Available at www.wma.net/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
World Health Organization. Available at www.who.int/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
FIGO Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health. Professionalism in obstetric and gynecologic practice. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017; 36: 249251.
Gregory, J. Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1772. Reprinted in McCullough LB, ed. John Gregory’s Writings on Medical Ethics and the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1998: 161–248.Google Scholar
McCullough, LB. John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
Coulehan, J. On humility. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153: 200201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faden, RR, Beauchamp, TL. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Beauchamp, TL, Childress, JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Liley, AW: The fetus as personality. Austr N Zeal J Psych 1972; 6: 99105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, JW, Hellman, LM, Pritchard, JA. Williams Obstetrics, 14th ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
Harrison, MR, Golbus, MS, Filly, RA. Management of the fetus with a correctable congenital defect. JAMA 1981; 246: 774777.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, MR, Adzick, NS. The fetus as a patient: surgical considerations. Ann Surg 1991; 213: 279291.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fletcher, JC. The fetus as a patient: ethical issues. JAMA 1981; 246: 772773.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, MR, Golbus, MS, Filly, RA, eds. The Unborn Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1984.Google Scholar
Cunningham, FG, Leveno, KJ, Bloom, SL, et al. J Preface. In Cunningham, FG, Leveno, KJ, Bloom, SL, et al., eds. Williams Obstetrics, 25th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. Available at https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1918&sectionid=185041505 (accessed March 1, 2019; may be behind paywall).Google Scholar
Cunningham, FG, Leveno, KJ, Bloom, SL, et al., eds. Williams Obstetrics, 25th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018.Google Scholar
International Academy of Perinatal Medicine. Available at https://iaperinatalmedicine.org/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
Bianchi, D, Crombelhome, TM, D’Alton, ME. Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000.Google Scholar
Bianchi, D, Crombelhome, TM, D’Alton, ME, Malone, F. Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2010.Google Scholar
Harrison, M. The Unborn Patient: The Art and Science of Fetal Therapy, 3rd ed. New York: Saunders, 2001.Google Scholar
Adzick, NS. Prospects for fetal surgery. Early Hum Dev 2013; 89: 881886.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, NM, Smith, RP, Fisk, NM. The fetal patient. In Myers, LB, Bulich, L, eds. Anesthesia for Fetal Intervention and Surgery. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: D.C. Decker, 2010: 116.Google Scholar
Cannio, M, Jani, J. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging. In Cody, AM, Brower, S, eds. Twining’s Textbook of Fetal Malformations, 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2015: 561582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grady, D. To mend a birth defect, surgeons operate on the patient within a patient. New York Times, October 23, 2017. Available at www.nytimes.com/2017/10/23/health/fetal-surgery-spina-bifida.html (accessed March 1, 2019).
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Perinatal ethics: a practical method of analysis of obligations to mother and fetus. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 66: 442446.Google ScholarPubMed
Porter, R, Teich, M, eds. The Enlightenment in National Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kant, I. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Gregor M, Timmerman J, trans. and ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Ethical issues in periviable birth. Semin Perinatol 2013; 37: 422425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skupski, DW, Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Bancalari, E, et al. Ethical dimensions of periviability. J Pertinat Med 2010; 38: 579583.Google ScholarPubMed
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Levine, MI. An ethically justified, clinically comprehensive approach to periviability: gynaecologic, obstetric, perinatal, and neonatal dimensions. J Obstet Gyneacol 2007; 27: 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Obstetric Care consensus no. 6: Periviability. Obstet Gynecol 2017; 130: e187e199.CrossRef
Tyson, JE, Parikh, NA, Langer, J, et al. Intensive care for extreme prematurity – moving beyond gestational age. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 16721681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN): Extremely preterm birth outcome data. Available at www1.nichd.nih.gov/epbo-calculator/Pages/epbo_case.aspx (accessed March 1, 2019).
Skupski, DW, McCullough, LB, Levene, M, Chervenak, FA. Improving obstetric estimation of outcomes of extremely premature neonates: an evolving challenge. J Perinat Med 2010; 38: 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warren, MA. Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and other Living Things. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Strong, C. Moral status and the fetus: continuation of a dialogue. Am J Bioeth 2011; 11: 5254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lyerly, AD, Mahowald, MB. Maternal-fetal surgery for the treatment of myelomeningocele. Clin Perinatol 2003; 30: 155165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Brent, RL. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics: avoiding the perils of clashing rights. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 205: 315.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minkoff, H, Marshal, MF, Liashenko, J. The fetus and the “potential child,” and the ethical obligations of obstetricians. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 123: 11001103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Annas, GJ. Protecting the liberty of pregnant patients. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 12131214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Högberg, U, Lynöe, N, Wulff, M. Cesarean by choice? Empirical study of public values. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008; 87: 13011308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Justified limits on refusing intervention. Hastings Cent Rep 1991; 21: 1218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lyerly, AD, Little, MO, Faden, RR. A critique of the “fetus as a patient.’ Am J Bioeth 2006; 8: W42–W6.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee on Ethics. Committee Opinion 664. Refusal of medically recommended treatment during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 127: e175e1182.CrossRef
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 390. Ethical decision making in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 14791487.CrossRef
American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Bioethics. Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 314317.
Katz, AL, Webb, SA. Committee on Bioethics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Informed consent in decision-making in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2016; 138: pii: e20161485. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kon, AA. The shared decision-making continuum. JAMA 2010; 304: 903904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lantos, JD. Ethical problems in decision making in the neonatal ICU. New Engl J Med 2018; 379: 18511860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lantos, JD, Lauderdale, DS. Preterm Babies, Fetal Patients, and Childbearing Choices. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 439: Informed consent. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 114 (2 Pt 1): 401408.CrossRef
McCullough, LB, Coverdale, JH, Chervenak, FA. Ethical challenges of decision making with pregnant patients who have schizophrenia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 696702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coverdale, JH, Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Bayer, T. Ethically justified, clinically comprehensive guidelines for the management of the depressed pregnant patient. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 171: 169173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, BC. Competence to Consent. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Grisso, T, Appelbaum, PS. Assessing Competence to Consent to Treatment: A Guide for Physicians and Other Health Professionals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Faden, RR, Beauchamp, TL. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Beauchamp, TL, Childress, JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Whitney, SN, McGuire, AL, McCullough, LB. A typology of shared decision making, informed consent, and simple consent. Ann Intern Med 2003; 140: 5459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital, 211 N.Y. 125, 129–130 (1914).
Lombardo, PA. Phantom tumors and hysterical women: revising our view of the Schloendorff case. J Law Med Ethics 2005; 33: 791801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chervenak, J, McCullough, LB, Chervenak, FA. Surgery without consent or miscommunication? A new look at a landmark legal case. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 212: 586590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wear, S. Informed Consent: Patient Autonomy and Physician Beneficence within Clinical Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel, GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977; 196: 129136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB. The professional medical ethics model of decision making under conditions of uncertainty. Med Care Rev Res 2013; 70(1 Suppl): 141S–58S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kon, AA. The shared decision-making continuum. JAMA 2010; 304: 903904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. The unlimited rights model of obstetric ethics threatens professionalism: a commentary. BJOG 2017; 124: 11441147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ecker, J. Minkoff H. Home birth: what are physicians’ ethical obligations when patient choices may carry increased risk? Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 11791182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB, Wilson, NL, Teasdale, TA, Kolpakchi, AL, Skelly, JR. Mapping personal, familial, and professional values in long-term care decisions. Gerontologist 1993; 33: 324332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumenthal-Barby, JS, Coverdale, JH, McCullough, LB. A typology and ethical considerations of methods of influence on decision making in patients with psychiatric disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2013; 21: 275279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coverdale, JH, McCullough, LB, Chervenak, FA, Bayer, T. Clinical implications and management strategies when depression occurs during pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1996; 36: 424429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Truman v. Thomas, 27 Cal.3d 285 (1980).CrossRef
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Clinical guides to preventing ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 303307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion Number 617: End-of-life decision making. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125: 261267.CrossRef
Drane, JF. Competency to give informed consent: a model for making clinical assessment. JAMA 1984; 252: 925927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winston, ME, Winston, SM, Appelbaum, PS, Rhoden, N. Can a subject consent to a ‘Ulysses Contract’? Hastings Cent Rept 1982; 12: 2628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spellecy, R. Reviving Ulysses contracts. Kennedy Inst Ethics J 2003; 13: 373392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB, Coverdale, JH, Chervenak, FA. Is pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychoses ethically permissible? J Perinat Med 2015; 43: 439444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leikin, S. Minors’ assent, consent, or dissent to medical treatment. J Pediatr 1983; 102: 169176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leikin, S. Minors’ assent, consent, or dissent to medical research. IRB 1993; 15: 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Bioethics. Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 314317.
Katz, AL, Webb, SA. Committee on Bioethics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Informed consent in decision-making in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2016; 138(2): e20161485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braun, UK, Naik, AD, McCullough, LB. Reconceptualizing the experience of surrogate decision making: reports vs genuine decisions. Ann Fam Med 2009; 7: 249253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braun, UK, McCullough, LB, Beyth, RJ, Wray, NP, Kunik, ME, Morgan, RO. Racial and ethnic differences in the treatment of seriously ill patients: a comparison of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic veterans. J Natl Med Assoc 2008; 100: 10411051.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coverdale, JH, Bayer, TL, McCullough, LB, Chervenak, FA. Respecting the autonomy of chronic mentally ill women in decisions about contraception. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993; 44: 671674.Google ScholarPubMed
Coverdale, JH, McCullough, LB, Molinari, V, Workman, R. Ethically justified clinical strategies for promoting geriatric assent. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 21: 151157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Staden, H. “In a pure and holy way:” personal and professional conduct in the Hippocratic Oath. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1996; 51: 404437.Google Scholar
Plato. Crito. In Cooper, JM, Hutchinson, DS, eds. Plato Complete Works. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997: 3748.Google Scholar
McCullough, LB. John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, F. Medicus politicus; sive, regulae prudentiae secundum quas medicus juvenis studia sua & vitae rationem dirigere debet. (The Politic Doctor, or Rules of Prudence according to which a Young Physician Should Direct his Studies and Reason of Life). Leiden: Philip Bonk, 1738.Google Scholar
Gregory, J. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1772. Reprinted in McCullough LB, ed. John Gregory’s Writings on Medical Ethics and the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1998: 161–248.Google Scholar
Pernick, MS. Bioethics and history. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 1620.Google Scholar
Baker, RB. Before Bioethics: A History of American Medical Ethics from the Colonial Period to the Bioethics Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Percival, T. Medical Ethics; or, A Code of Institutes and Precepts, adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons. London: Johnson & Bickerstaff, 1803.Google Scholar
World Medical Association. International Code of Medical Ethics. 1949. Available at www.wma.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/International-Code-of-Medical-Ethics-1949.pdf (accessed March 1, 2019).
British Medical Association. Medical ethics. Brit Med J Spec Suppl 1971; 3465: 143.
American Medical Association. Principles of Medical Ethics. 1957. In Baker, RB, Caplan, AL, Emanuel, LL, Latham, SR, eds. The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the AMA’s Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians’ Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999: 356.Google Scholar
American Medical Association. AMA Principles of Medical Ethics. 2001. Available at www.ama-assn.org/sites/ama-assn.org/files/corp/media-browser/principles-of-medical-ethics.pdf (accessed March 1, 2019).
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal. 3d 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (Cal. 1976).
Jones, JW, McCullough, LB. Disclosure of intraoperative events. Surgery 2002; 132: 531532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Confidentiality of medical information in the workplace. 2012. Available at www.acoem.org/Confidentiality_Medical_Information.aspx (accessed March 1, 2019).
Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 328 (1990).
Hudson, KL, Holohan, MK, Collins, FS. Keeping pace with the times – the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 26612663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Annas, GJ, Roche, PW, Green, RC. GINA, genism, and civil rights. Bioethics 2008; 22: iiiv.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, C. Harris County Hospital District fires 16 over privacy. Houston Chron November 25, 2009. Available at www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Harris-hospital-district-fires-16-over-privacy-1736905.php (accessed March 1, 2019).
McCullough, LB, Brothers, KB, Chung, WK, Joffe, S, et al. In behalf of the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) Consortium Pediatrics Working Group. Professionally responsible disclosure of genomic sequencing results in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2015; 136: e974982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, SM, Branum, R, Koenig, BA, Petersen, GM, et al. Returning a research participant’s genomic results to relatives: analysis and recommendations. J Law Med Ethics 2015; 43: 440463.Google ScholarPubMed
The American Society of Human Genetics Social Issues Subcommittee on Familial Disclosure. ASHG Statement. Professional disclosure of familial genetic information. Am J Human Genet 1998; 62: 474483.CrossRef
Lo, B, Dornbrand, L, Dubler, NN. HIPAA and patient care: the role of professional judgment. JAMA 2005; 293: 17661771.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kipling, R. If: a father’s advice to his son. Available at www.goodreads.com/quotes/143729-if-you-can-keep-your-head-when-all-about-you (accessed March 1, 2019).
American Medical Association. Professionalism in the use of social media. N.d. Available at www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/ethics/professionalism-use-social-media (accessed March 1, 2019).
Kind, T. In the literature: professional guidelines for social media use: a starting point. AMA J Ethics 2015; 17: 441447.Google Scholar
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB, Hale, RW. Guild interests: an insidious threat to professionalism in obstetrics and gynecology. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 219: 581584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porter, D, Porter, R. Patient’s Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Gregory, J. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1772. In McCullough LB, ed. John Gregory’s Writings on Medical Ethics and the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1998: 161–248.Google Scholar
McCullough, LB. John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
Percival, T. Medical Ethics; or, A Code of Institutes and Precepts, Adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons. London: Johnson & Bickerstaff, 1803.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 390. Ethical decision making in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 14791487.CrossRef
National Academy of Medicine. Conflicts of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2009.
Hillman, BJ, Joseph, CA, Mabry, MR, et al. Frequency and costs of diagnostic imaging in office practice: a comparison of self-referring and radiologist-referring physicians. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 16041608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
International Association for Medial Ultrasound. Practice parameters. Available at www.aium.org/resources/guidelines.aspx (accessed March 1, 2019).
Jain, C. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 723. Guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 2019; 133: 186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choo, EK, Byington, CL, Johnson, NL, Jagsi, R. From #MeToo to #TimesUp in health care: can a culture of accountability end inequity and harassment? Lancet 2019; 393: 499502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holroyd-Leduc, JM, Straus, SE. #MeToo and the medical profession. CMAJ 2018; 190: E972E973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayer, T, Coverdale, J, Chiang, E. A national survey of physicians’ behaviors regarding sexual contact with patients. South Med J 1996; 89: 977982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCullough, LB, Chervenak, FA, Coverdale, J. Ethically justified guidelines for defining sexual boundaries between obstetrician-gynecologists and their patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 175: 496500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johns Hopkins Hospital. Hospital agrees to pay $190 million over recording of pelvic exams. Available at www.nytimes.com/2014/07/22/us/johns-hopkins-settlement-190-million.html (accessed March 1, 2019).
‘Just the grossest thing’: Women recall interactions with U.S.C. doctor. Available at www.nytimes.com/2018/05/17/us/USC-gynecologist-young-women.html. Accessed March 1, 2019.
Anonymous. Our family secrets. Ann Intern Med 2015; 163: 321.CrossRef
von Staden, H. “In a pure and holy way:” personal and professional conduct in the Hippocratic Oath. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1996; 51: 404437.Google Scholar
Pernick, MS. Bioethics and history. In Baker, RB, McCullough, LB, eds. The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009: 1620.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, F. Medicus politicus; sive, regulae prudentiae secundum quas medicus juvenis studia sua & vitae rationem dirigere debet. (The Politic Doctor, or Rules of Prudence according to which a Young Physician Should Direct his Studies and Reason of Life). Leiden: Philip Bonk, 1738.Google Scholar
Tong, R. Feminine and Feminist Ethics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry. 2013. Available at https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/ethics (accessed March 1, 2019).
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 723. Sexual misconduct. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 441444.
Selective Service System. Conscientious objection and alternative service. Available at www.sss.gov/consobj (accessed March 1, 2019).
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Obstetric ethics and the abortion controversy. Am J Ethics Med 1994; 3: 36. https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/ethics (accessed March 1, 2019).Google ScholarPubMed
Chervenak, FA, McCullough, LB. Reply (re: The ethics of direct and indirect referral for termination of pregnancy). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199: 232e1–3.26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee on Ethics. Committee Opinion Number 385. The limits of conscientious refusal in reproductive medicine. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 1203–1208.CrossRef
Planned Parenthood. Available at www.plannedparenthood.org/ (accessed March 1, 2019).
American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists. AAPLOG response to the ACOG Ethics Committee Opinion #385, titled “The limits of conscientious refusal in reproductive medicine.” February 6, 2008. Available at www.consciencelaws.org/ethics/ethics079-004.aspx3. Accessed March 1, 2019.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×