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9 - Interactions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 October 2009

Robert Plomin
Affiliation:
Pennsylvania State University
John C. DeFries
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Boulder
David W. Fulker
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Boulder
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Summary

It is reasonable to expect that descriptive and explanatory relationships in development involve complex interactions rather than simple main effects. For example, an easy temperament might buffer a child against a difficult environment; conversely, stress may have a disproportionate effect on vulnerable children (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983). Organismic specificity in reaction to environments is one of the major hypotheses that emerges from a thorough review of early experience and human development:

Both from basic and applied data it has become increasingly clear that the relationship of early experience to development will be mediated by the nature of the organism on which the experience impinges. Unfortunately, virtually nothing is known about the specific organismic characteristics which mediate differential reactivity to the early environment. (Wachs & Gruen, 1982, p. 247)

In this chapter, we explore interactions using the CAP data in early childhood. The word “interaction” has many connotations, and it is important to be clear about its use. We limit our search for interactions to statistical interactions, the type of interaction typically derived in analysis of variance that involves the sum of squares remaining after main effects and within-cell variation is removed: “The phenomenon is well named. Interaction variations are those attributable not to either of two influences acting alone but to joint effects of the two acting together” (Guilford & Fruchter, 1973, p. 249).

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 1988

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  • Interactions
  • Robert Plomin, Pennsylvania State University, John C. DeFries, University of Colorado, Boulder, David W. Fulker, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Book: Nature and Nurture during Infancy and Early Childhood
  • Online publication: 15 October 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527654.010
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  • Interactions
  • Robert Plomin, Pennsylvania State University, John C. DeFries, University of Colorado, Boulder, David W. Fulker, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Book: Nature and Nurture during Infancy and Early Childhood
  • Online publication: 15 October 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527654.010
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Interactions
  • Robert Plomin, Pennsylvania State University, John C. DeFries, University of Colorado, Boulder, David W. Fulker, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Book: Nature and Nurture during Infancy and Early Childhood
  • Online publication: 15 October 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527654.010
Available formats
×