Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2021
Sperm are highly specialized cells, evolved to function as vehicles for the transport of the paternal genome to the oocyte. The sperm cell is characterized by a distinct head, mid-piece and tail, structured for a streamlined function. The sperm head consists of the haploid paternal genome (23 chromosomes), packed in a specific tight manner with the help of specialized proteins called protamines. The mid-piece consists of the centrosome and mitochondria, organelles that provide energy for sperm propulsion from the tail. The unique sperm structure, complimented with its motility, helps the sperm to swim through the male and female reproductive tract and penetrate the egg. Therefore, the primary function of the sperm is to successfully deliver the paternal genome to the oocyte.