Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2021
In order to transport an intact and complete paternal genome to the oocyte, spermatozoa are characterized by an extremely compacted nuclear DNA as compared to the nucleus of somatic cells. Such packaging of the chromatin is obtained through a dramatic nuclear reorganization occurring in developing spermatids leading to an almost complete replacement of histones with protamines. During the epididymal transit, spermatozoa complete the process of chromatin packaging by formation of disulphide bridges in nucleoproteins . This process of sperm maturation is critical for male fertility. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that alterations in chromatin structure could impact male fertility potential compromising both in vivo and in vitro fertilization and the subsequent embryo development [2, 3].