Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2016

12 - Spectrum

Summary

This chapter examines and investigates the available choices for spectrum in the 5G system. The relative attractiveness of specific choices of spectrum for various 5G scenarios is identified. The chapter is presented in two parts.

The first part provides an overview of the spectrum landscape leading up to the deployment of 5G. Several new frequency bands with differing regulatory restrictions are expected to be suitable as candidates. It is likely that some bands will require shared use of spectrum. Consequently, this chapter identifies and describes the relevant future modes of spectrum access. Further, this chapter investigates the resulting technical requirements pertaining to shared spectrum use for the 5G system.

The second part of this chapter describes the most important and promising technology components for spectrum access in more detail. A key concept discussed is a flexible spectrum management architecture accompanied by a spectrum-sharing toolbox composed of components that will aid and arbitrate access to spectrum assets, subject to various sharing criteria. Finally, techno-economic analysis of spectrum and related enablers are presented.

Introduction

Spectrum is a key resource for any radio access network. The availability of spectrum has consistently driven the mobile communication industry through four generations of cellular radio systems, providing telecommunications services with ever-increasing capacity. Early generations of systems were built to provide mobile telephone services, then expanded to handle information services, rich communication services, and media delivery.

The drivers for high network capacity are (1) availability of spectrum while accounting for abundance, cost of acquisition and operation (2) demand in terms of the traffic that is driven through the network, (3) diversity of services that can maintain load in a network across all hours of a day, (4) the multiplexing capability of the Internet Protocol (IP), and (5) the computational ability provided by the advances in semiconductor technology increasing processing power and lowering storage cost. The last four of these factors constitute a seemingly endless growth potential to the market, while the first, availability of spectrum, is currently under stress.

The availability of spectrum in suitable frequency ranges, and the efficiency with which it is used, do affect the achievable network capacity and performance. While appropriate market-based pricing of spectrum has consistently motivated the tremendous improvements in network capacity through increased spectral efficiency, scarcity of spectrum could lead to stagnation of the mobile telecommunication industry.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
[1] 3GPP TS 36.101, “User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception,” Technical Specification TS 36.101 V12.9.0, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network, October 2015.
[2] 3GPP, LTE-Advanced description, June 2013, www.3gpp.org/technologies/keywords-acronyms/97-lte-advanced
[3] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s),” Report ITU-R M2134, November 2008.
[4] Marcus, J. S., Burns, J., Pujol, F., and Marks, P., “Inventory and review of spectrum use: Assessment of the EU potential for improving spectrum efficiency,” WIK-Consult report, September 2012.
[5] Marks, P., Wongsaroj, S., Chan, Y.S., and Srzich, A., “Harmonized Spectrum for mobile Service in ASEAN and South Asia: An international comparison,” Plum Consulting Report for Axiata Berhad, August 2013.
[6] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Methodology for calculation of spectrum requirements for the terrestrial component of International Mobile Telecommunications,” Recommendation ITU-R M.1768-1, April 2013.
[7] Osseiran, A., Boccardi, F., Braun, V., Kusume, K., Marsch, P., Maternia, M., Queseth, O., Schellmann, M., Schotten, H., Taoka, H., Tullberg, H., Uusitalo, M. A., Timus, B., and Fallgren, M., “Scenarios for 5G mobile and wireless communications: The vision of the METIS project,” IEEE Com Mag, vol. 52, no. 5, May 2014.
[8] Ahmed, A. A. W. and Markendahl, J., “Impact of the flexible spectrum aggregation schemes on the cost of future mobile network,” in International Conference on Telecommunications, Sydney, April 2015, pp. 96–101.
[9] CEPT ECC, “Licensed Shared Access (LSA),” ECC Report 205, February 2014, http://www.erodocdb.dk/Docs/doc98/official/pdf/ECCREP205.PDF
[10] Radio Spectrum Policy Group, “RSPG opinion in licensed shared access,” RSPG Opinion, November 2013, http://rspg-spectrum.eu/rspg-opinions-main-deliverables/
[11] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Future spectrum system concept,” Deliverable D5.4, April 2015, www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[12] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Assessment of the global mobile broadband deployments and forecasts for international mobile telecommunications,” Report ITU-R M.2243, November 2011.
[13] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Future spectrum requirements estimate for terrestrial IMT,” Report ITU-R M.2290-0, December 2013.
[14] LS Telecom AG., “Mobile spectrum requirement estimates: Getting the inputs right,” September 2014.
[15] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Description of the spectrum needs and usage principles,” Deliverable D5.3, April 2015, https://www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables
[16] FCC, “In the matter of use of spectrum bands above 24 GHz,” FCC 14–154, GN Docket No 14–177, October 2014.
[17] Ofcom, “Laying the foundations for next generation mobile services: Update on bands above 6 GHz,” April 2015.
[18] Chen, K.-C., “Medium access control of wireless LANs for mobile computing,” IEEE Networks, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 50–63, September/October 1994.
[19] Ratasuk, R. et al., “License-exempt LTE deployment in heterogeneous network,” in International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems, Paris, August 2012, pp. 246–250.
[20] 3GPP TSG-RAN, “Chairman summary,” 3GPP workshop on LTE in unlicensed spectrum, RWS-140029, June 2013.
[21] Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Qualcomm Technologies, Samsung and Verizon “Coexistence study for LTE-U SDL,” LTE-U Technical report v. 1.0, February 2015, www.lteuforum.org/uploads/3/5/6/8/3568127/lte-u_forum_lte-u_technical_report_v1.0.pdf
[22] Etkin, R., Parekh, A., and Tse, D., “Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 517–528, April 2007.
[23] Karunakaran, P., Wagne, T., Scherb, A., and Gerstacker, W., “Sensing for spectrum sharing in cognitive LTE-A cellular networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Istanbul, April 2014, pp. 565–570.
[24] Yucek, T. and Arslan, H., “A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116–130, January 2009.
[25] Gurney, D. et al., “Geo-location database techniques for incumbent protection in the TV white space,” in IEEE International Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks Symposium, Chicago, October 2008, pp. 1–9.
[26] Ruttik, K., Koufos, K., and Jäntti, R., “Model for computing aggregate interference from secondary cellular network in presence of correlated shadow fading,” in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Toronto, September 2011, pp. 433–437.
[27] Middleton, G., Hooli, K., Tölli, A., and Lilleberg, J., “Inter-operator spectrum sharing in a broadband cellular network,” in IEEE International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Manaus, August 2006, pp. 376–380.
[28] Anchora, L., Badia, L., Karipidis, E., and Zorzi, M., “Capacity gains due to orthogonal spectrum sharing in multi-operator LTE cellular networks,” in International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems, Paris, August 2012, pp. 286–290.
[29] Jorswieck, E. A. et al., “Spectrum sharing improves the network efficiency for cellular operators,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 129–136, Mar. 2014.
[30] Hailu, S., Dowhuszko, A., and Tirkkonen, O., “Adaptive co-primary shared access between co-located radio access networks,” in International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks, Oulu, June 2014, pp. 131–135.
[31] Suris, J. E., DaSilva, L. A., Han, Z., and MacKenzie, A. B., “Cooperative game theory for distributed spectrum sharing,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, Glasgow, June 2007, pp. 5282–5287.
[32] Li, G., Irnich, T., and Shi, C., “Coordination context-based spectrum sharing for 5G millimeter-wave networks,” in International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks, Oulu, June 2014, pp. 32–38.
[33] Singh, B., Koufos, K., Tirkkonen, O., and Berry, R., “Co-primary inter-operator spectrum sharing over a limited spectrum pool using repeated games,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, London, June 2015, pp. 1494–1499.
[34] Cho, B. et al., “Spectrum allocation for multi-operator device-to-device communication,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, London, June 2015, pp. 5454–5459.
[35] Huang, J., Berry, R., and Honig, M., “Auction-based spectrum sharing,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 405–418, June 2006.
[36] Chatzikokolakis, K. et al., “Spectrum sharing: A coordination framework enabled by fuzzy logic,” in International Conference on Computer, Information, and Telecommunication Systems, Gijón, July 2015, pp. 1–5.
[37] Heinen, S. et al., “Cellular cognitive radio: An RF point of view,” in IEEE International Workshop on Cognitive Cellular Systems, Rhine river, September 2014.
[38] Luo, J., Eichinger, J., Zhao, Z., and Schulz, E., “Multi-carrier waveform based flexible inter-operator spectrum sharing for 5G systems,” in IEEE International Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks Symposium, McLean, April 2014, pp. 449–457.
[39] Amin, P., Ganesan, V. P. K., and Tirkkonen, O., “Bridging interference barriers in self-organized synchronization,” in IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems, London, September 2012, pp. 109–118.
[40] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Final report on network-level solutions,” Deliverable D4.3, April 2015, www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[41] Mölleryd, B. G. and Markendahl, J., “Analysis of spectrum auctions in India: An application of the opportunity cost approach to explain large variations in spectrum prices,” Telecommunications Policy, vol. 38, pp. 236–247, April 2014.
[42] Zander, J., “On the cost structure of future wireless networks,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Phoenix, May 1997, vol 3, pp. 1773–1776.
[43] Zander, J. and Mähönen, P., “Riding the data tsunami in the cloud: Myths and challenges in future wireless access,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 145–151, March 2013.
[44] Ghosh, A. et al., “Heterogeneous cellular networks: From theory to practice,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 54–64, June 2012.
[45] Yang, Y. and Sung, K. W., “Tradeoff between spectrum and densification for achieving target user throughput,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Spring, Glasgow, May 2015, pp. 1–6.
[46] Kang, D. H., Sung, K. W., and Zander, J., “High capacity indoor and hotspot wireless systems in shared spectrum: A techno-economic analysis,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 102–109, December 2013.
[47] Ahmed, A. A. W., Markendahl, J., and Ghanbari, A., “Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes,” in European Conference of the International Telecommunications Society, Florence, October 2013, pp. 1–19.
[48] CEPT ECC, “ECC Decision (08)01: The harmonised use of the 5875–5925 MHz frequency band for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS),” ECC/DEC/(08)01, March 2008, www.erodocdb.dk/docs/doc98/official/pdf/ECCDec0801.pdf