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Co-twin comparisons address familial confounding by controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share. We applied the co-twin comparison design to investigate associations of adolescent factors with alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Participants were 1286 individuals (581 complete twin pairs; 42% monozygotic; and 54% female) from the FinnTwin12 study. Predictors included adolescent academic achievement, substance use, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, executive functioning, peer environment, physical health, relationship with parents, alcohol expectancies, life events, and pubertal development. The outcome was lifetime AD clinical criterion count, as measured in young adulthood. We examined associations of each adolescent domain with AD symptoms in individual-level and co-twin comparison analyses. In individual-level analyses, adolescents with higher levels of substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems at age 12, externalizing problems at age 14, self- and co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and perceived difficulty of life events reported more symptoms of AD in young adulthood (ps < .044). Conversely, individuals with higher academic achievement, social adjustment, self-rated health, and parent–child relationship quality met fewer AD clinical criteria (ps < .024). Associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, self-rated health, and AD symptoms were of a similar magnitude in co-twin comparisons. We replicated many well-known adolescent correlates of later alcohol problems, including academic achievement, substance use, externalizing and internalizing problems, self-rated health, and features of the peer environment and parent–child relationship. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of co-twin comparisons for understanding pathways to AD. Effect sizes corresponding to the associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and self-rated health were not significantly attenuated (p value threshold = .05) after controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share, highlighting these factors as candidates for further research.
The alcohol policy environment was shown to exert a preventive effect on alcohol consumption. However, little is known about the heterogeneity of this effect.
To capture the extent of heterogeneity in the relationship between the strictness of alcohol policy environments and heavy drinking and to identify potential effect modifiers.
Method: Cross-sectional data from 5986 young Swiss men participating in the cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF) in Switzerland was analysed. Self-reported risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD, drinking 6 standard drinks or more on a single occasion at least monthly) in the past 12 months was the outcome of interest. A previously-used index of alcohol policy environment strictness across Swiss cantons was analysed in conjunction with 21 potential effect modifiers. Random forest machine learning and individual conditional expectations captured high-dimensional interaction effects and the heterogeneity induced by the interaction effects and identified potential effect modifiers.
Subject-specific absolute risk reductions ranged from 16.8% to -4.2%, with the latter implying a risk increase. Four prototypical subgroups were evident: “preventive” (alcohol policy environment decreased RSOD risk), “causative” (alcohol policy environment increased RSOD risk), “immune” (no effect due to low RSOD baseline risk), and “doomed” (no effect due to high RSOD baseline risk). Antisocial personality disorder and sensation seeking were major effect modifiers that reduced the preventive effect of stricter alcohol policy environments.
Conclusion: Whereas stricter alcohol policy environments were associated with a reduced RSOD risk, adding selective prevention measures that target high-risk subpopulations is necessary.
Socioeconomic status (SES) are well known to be associated with mental health. Previous studies are often restricted by the use of individual SES indicators, while contextual measures aggregating multiple dimensions would present a better picture of SES in multivariate context.
The present study aims to construct the socioeconomic index (SEI) by integrating significant socioeconomic factors in predicting mental health of young adults in Hong Kong.
Data were drawn from the Hong Kong Youth Epidemiological Study of Mental Health (HKYES), a population-based psychiatric study of young people in Hong Kong. The present study exacted data of 1,164 participants who had completed baseline interviews between April 2019 to August 2020. Socioeconomic characteristics including age, gender, education years, income, expenditure, home ownership, housing type, household crowdedness and parental occupation were collected. Data were checked for the assumptions for normality, linearity and homoscedasticity before the standardized SEI were derived using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression analyses were performed to further examine the association between SEI and mental health outcomes.
Our results identified five significant socioeconomic factors (education years, personal income, home ownership, housing type and household crowdedness) which together explained 67.7% of the total variation. SEI was associated with depression (OR=0.671, p=.003) and anxiety (OR=0.667, p=.015) after adjusting for potential confounders.
The PCA-generated SEI took account of the multiple dimensions of SES in younger adults including education, income, expenditure and housing. The indices would provide meaningful contextual information of SES across geographical areas or different groups of interest.
While there is evidence that cognitive impairment of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) may persist into adolescence, little is known about the spectrum of neurocognitive functioning of young adults with this disorder. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive functioning in a population of young adults with different types of CHD.
Cross-sectional cohort study in young adults with CHD and a group-matched healthy control group. We assessed neurocognitive and general intellectual functioning with a comprehensive battery of standardised neuropsychological tests. In addition to task-based assessments, questionnaire data of executive dysfunctions in everyday life were measured with the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Adult Version.
A total of 67 patients (55% men) with CHD and 55 healthy controls (51% men) were included for analysis. Mean age at assessment was 26.9 (3.68) and 26.0 (3.32) years, respectively. The CHD group performed poorer in the domains of Executive Functions, Memory, Attention & Speed, and general intellectual functioning. Patients with a CHD of severe complexity were more affected than patients with simple or moderate complexity. Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Adult Version scores indicated that patients’ self-rated deficits in behaviour regulation in everyday life was higher compared with healthy controls.
Our findings indicate lower neurocognitive functioning in young adults with a CHD, particularly in those with severe defect complexity. In view of the potentially enhanced risk for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease in this patient group as reported in the literature, systematic longitudinal monitoring of cognitive functioning is recommended.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a commonly used cognitive outcome in stroke trials. However, it may be insufficiently sensitive to detect impairment in high-functioning stroke survivors. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), a 30-min comprehensive tablet-based cognitive assessment, may be a better choice to characterize cognitive issues in this cohort.
We compared MoCA and NIHTB-CB performance in young stroke survivors (18–55 years) with excellent functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0–1) reporting subjective cognitive complaints to that of age-matched healthy controls. We recruited 53 stroke survivors and 53 controls. We performed a sensitivity analysis in those participants with normal MoCA scores (≥26).
Median MoCA scores were not significantly different between stroke survivors (27.0 vs. 28.0) and healthy controls. Mean T scores for NIHTB-CB fluid (44.9 vs. 54.2), crystallized (53.8 vs. 60.0), and total cognition (49.1 vs. 58.4) components were significantly lower in stroke survivors compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001 for all). In participants scoring within normal range (≥26) on the MoCA, NIHTB-CB scores for all components remained significantly lower in stroke survivors.
In young stroke survivors with excellent functional outcomes and subjective cognitive complaints, the NIHTB-CB, but not the MoCA, was able to detect differences in cognitive performance between stroke survivors and healthy controls. The NIHTB-CB may be a suitable outcome measure for cognition in clinical trials examining higher-functioning young stroke survivors.
Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are broad, pervasive themes and patterns of emotions, memories, cognition and physical sensations that impede the goal of individuals. Maladaptive behaviours can occur as a response to maladaptive or negative schemas, often culminating in depression or anxiety. The current meta-analysis integrates the existing literature to estimate the magnitude of effect of association between EMS and depression among adolescents and young adults. A systematic search of seven different databases including Embase, CINAHL, Medline, ASSIA, Psych INFO, Scopus and Web of Science was carried out identifying 24 relevant studies of adolescents (10–18 years) and young adults (19–29 years). The random-effect model estimate for association between overall EMS and depression was r = 0.56 (95% CI 0.49–0.63, Z = 12.88, p ≤ 0.0001), suggesting higher predominant EMS significantly linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms, with a large effect size. Separate meta-analytical results with schema domains indicated moderately stronger associations between schemas of disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance and other-directedness with depression. Age and gender were not found to have any significant moderating effect on the associations. The findings suggest that it is vital for clinicians to identify specific maladaptive schemas contributing towards depression, to have a better understanding of underlying cognitive processes and in turn promote psychological health, well-being and resilience in adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, findings will also assist clinicians to focus more on the content of three significant schema domains, which emerged as particularly salient factors underlying adolescent depression.
Young people may have elevated risk for poorer mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet longitudinal studies documenting this impact are lacking. This study assessed changes in mental health and help-seeking since COVID-19 restrictions in young Australians, including gender differences.
Data were drawn from a recent subsample (n = 443; 60% female; Mage = 22.0) of a prospective cohort originally recruited in secondary school to complete annual surveys. The subsample completed an additional COVID-19 survey during COVID-19 restrictions (May–June 2020), which was compared to responses from their latest annual survey (August 2019–March 2020). Mixed effect models with time and gender as the primary predictors were conducted for: (i) scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression 9-item (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) modules assessed before and during COVID-19 restrictions, and (ii) self-reported help-seeking from a health professional in February 2020, and the month preceding May–June 2020.
Mean symptom scores increased from before to during COVID-19 restrictions on the PHQ-9 (coefficient: 1.29; 95% CI 0.72–1.86) and GAD-7 (0.78; 95% CI 0.26–1.31), but there was no increase in help-seeking over time (odds ratio 0.50; 95% CI 0.19–1.32). There was no evidence of differential changes by gender.
This study found increases in depression and anxiety symptoms but not greater help-seeking among young Australian adults during the first wave of the pandemic. Increasing availability and awareness of accessible treatment options and psychoeducation is critical, as well as further research into risk and protective factors to help target treatment to this vulnerable age group.
Spot urinary polyphenols have potential as a biomarker of polyphenol-rich food intakes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between spot urinary polyphenols and polyphenol intakes from polyphenol-rich food sources. Young adults (18–24 years old) were recruited into a sub-study of an online intervention aimed at improving diet quality. Participants’ intake of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods was assessed at baseline and 3 months using repeated 24-h recalls. A spot urine sample was collected at each session, with samples analysed for polyphenol metabolites using LC-MS. To assess the strength of the relationship between urinary polyphenols and dietary polyphenols, Spearman correlations were used. Linear mixed models further evaluated the relationship between polyphenol intakes and urinary excretion. Total urinary polyphenols and hippuric acid (HA) demonstrated moderate correlation with total polyphenol intakes (rs = 0·29–0·47). HA and caffeic acid were moderately correlated with polyphenols from tea/coffee (rs = 0·26–0·46). Using linear mixed models, increases in intakes of total polyphenols or polyphenols from tea/coffee or oil resulted in a greater excretion of HA, whereas a negative relationship was observed between soya polyphenols and HA, suggesting that participants with higher intakes of soya polyphenols had a lower excretion of HA. Findings suggest that total urinary polyphenols may be a promising biomarker of total polyphenol intakes foods and drinks and that HA may be a biomarker of total polyphenol intakes and polyphenols from tea/coffee. Caffeic acid warrants further investigation as a potential biomarker of polyphenols from tea/coffee.
This study examines retirement saving activity outside the state and workplace pension saving schemes among British adults aged between 30 and 49 on the premise that individuals are increasingly encouraged to save for their retirement in the new pension policy structure in Britain. The issue of under-saving among the younger adults has been studied with the focus on internal characteristics, such as undesirable attitudinal or behavioural tendencies (‘won't save’), or on external factors, such as income (‘can't save’). Building on these discussions, this study tests the role of internal characteristics and further examines the interplay between internal and external factors. The decision-making process for retirement saving is mapped based on the Model of Financial Planning with minor modifications. The analysis utilises the fourth wave of the Wealth and Assets Survey (2012/2014), and is conducted in the structural equation modelling framework. Results show that younger adults’ discretionary retirement saving is an outcome of a complex interplay between internal and external factors. Financial resilience, which indicates current financial behaviours and wellbeing, is found to be the strongest predictor for identifying a discretionary retirement saver, but it is closely connected to individuals’ income and home-ownership. The findings also suggest that social and economic arrangements are important to consider as social ageing, individuals’ projection on their lifestages, may be more informative than age per se for understanding younger adults’ retirement saving behaviour. These findings have important implications for the policies that aim to increase retirement saving participation.
To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies.
A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17–35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up.
From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention.
This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.
Binge eating behaviour (BE) is the major symptom of binge eating disorder (BED). This study aimed to compare the nutritional intake in the presence or absence of BE, with a particular focus on dietary n-6:n-3 ratio, to assess the association between BE and impulsivity and the mediating effect of BMI on this association. A total of 450 university students (age 18–28 years) participated. The self-administered questionnaires were a semi-quantitative FFQ and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and the binge eating scale. The average BE score was 11·6 (se 7·388), and 20 % of the total participants scored above the cut-off of 17, thus presenting BE with 95 % CI of 16·3, 23·7 %. Our study revealed that greater BMI, higher total energy intake, greater negative urgency and positive urgency scores were significantly associated with BE. Participants with high value of dietary n-6:n-3 ratio were 1·335 more at risk to present a BE compared with those with a lower value of this ratio (P = 0·017). The relationship between BE score and UPPS domains score was not mediated by the BMI. This is the first study reporting a link between high dietary n-6:n-3 ratio and BE as well as the fact that BE was linked to both, negative and positive urgencies, and that the association between BE and impulsivity was not mediated by BMI. These findings can help to deal more efficiently with people suffering from BE, a symptom that can precede the development of BED.
The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between cola consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adolescents and young adults. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. A total of 2499 adolescents and young adults aged 12–25 years were included. The study participants were classified as cola drinkers and non-cola drinkers according to 24-h dietary recall data. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. In the male population, whole body, whole femur and femoral neck BMD in cola drinkers were lower than that of non-cola drinkers by 4% (95% CI −0⋅071, −0⋅007), 5% (−0⋅092, −0⋅012) and 5% (−0⋅090, −0⋅001), respectively. In both sex groups, cola drinkers had less frequent milk consumption than non-cola drinkers. However, there were no significant differences in cola consumption according to calcium intake in both sexes. In conclusion, cola intake and BMD were inversely associated with Korean male adolescents and young adults. Considering the importance of peak bone mass attainment at adolescents and the increasing trend in carbonated beverage consumption in South Korea, further studies are needed to elucidate the causality between cola intake and lower BMD.
Depression affects approximately 350 million people worldwide. Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role with the Mediterranean diet (MD) displaying promising preliminary results. Currently, most of the research is conducted on women and older adults; however, the majority of mental illnesses occur before the age of 25 years. Men are less likely to seek help than women with only 13 % of young men aged 15–24 years seeking help for their mental health. Young men are hugely underrepresented in the current research which poses a significant issue. A 12-week randomised controlled trial will be conducted to examine the effect of a MD on the symptoms of depression in young men aged 18–25 years. Participants will be randomised to either follow a MD or receive the inactive control therapy befriending. Participants will attend three appointments at baseline, week 6 and week 12. The main outcome will be changes to the Beck’s Depression Inventory score. This research aims to answer the question of whether diet can be used effectively in this population. This will be the first trial to examine the effect of a MD on the symptoms of depression in young men. This trial will help fill a significant research gap, contribute to the growing field of nutritional psychiatry, guide future research and inform advice given by clinicians to this specific demographic.
Healthy dietary habits reduce the likelihood for the metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study investigated whether awareness of nutrition information is associated with a decreased likelihood for the MS after adjusting for potential confounders among Korean adults aged 20 years and older. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2018. Of the 14 490 participants, 4001 (27·6 %) participants had the MS. In total, 3815 (26·3 %) participants checked nutritional facts and made labelling-dependent purchasing decisions (aware + consider), 7001 (48·3 %) checked nutritional facts but did not make labelling-dependent purchasing decisions or were aware of nutrition facts but did not check them when making food purchasing decisions (aware + not consider) and 3674 (25·4 %) were unaware of nutritional facts (not aware). The aware + consider group was less likely to develop the MS than other groups. The aware + not consider, and not aware groups were at higher association with the MS compared with the aware + consider group. Statistically significant associations were observed between the MS and several demographic characteristics including sex, age, household income, education level, employment status, public health insurance status, smoking status, alcohol consumption and aerobic exercise.
Increasing numbers of children with perinatally acquired HIV (PaHIV) are transitioning into adult care. People living with behaviourally acquired HIV are known to be at more risk of psychosis than uninfected peers. Young adults living with PaHIV face numerous risk factors; biological: lifelong exposure to a neurotrophic virus, antiretroviral medication and immune dysfunction during brain development, and environmental; social deprivation, ethnicity-related discrimination, and migration-related issues. To date, there is little published data on the prevalence of psychotic illness in young people growing up with PaHIV.
We conducted a retrospective case note review of all individuals with PaHIV aged over 18 years registered for follow up at a dedicated clinic in the UK (n = 184).
In total, 12/184 (6.5%), median age 23 years (interquartile range 21–26), had experienced at least one psychotic episode. The presentation and course of the psychotic episodes experienced by our cohort varied from short-lived symptoms to long term illness and nine (75%) appear to have developed a severe and enduring mental illness requiring long term care.
The prevalence of psychosis in our cohort was clearly above the lifetime prevalence of psychosis in UK individuals aged 16–34 years, which has been reported to be 0.5–1.0%. This highlights the importance of clinical vigilance regarding the mental health of young people growing up with PaHIV and the need to integrate direct access to mental health services within the HIV centres providing medical care.
To examine the association between food insecurity (FI) and obesity, measured by BMI and waist circumference (WC), among young adults and test the moderating role of biological sex and the mediating role of diet healthfulness (DH).
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2016.
The sample included 4667 young adults aged 18–35 years.
Given the interaction terms between sex and FI, biological sex was a moderator between both FI and WC (P = 0·031) and FI and BMI (P = 0·007) among young adults. FI was associated with a 1·16 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0·27, 2·05) and a 2·09 cm larger WC (95 % CI 0·05, 4·14) among young female adults, while FI was associated with a 0·26 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI –0·65, 1·16) and a 0·78 cm larger WC (95 % CI −1·13, 2·89) among young male adults. DH mediated the relationships between both FI and BMI (indirect effect β = 0·14; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·23) and FI and WC (indirect effect β = 0·31; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·51) among females. Females with FI had poorer DH and thus had higher BMI and larger WC.
Young female adults with FI were more likely to experience overall and abdominal obesity compared with their male counterparts. Results also suggest that females with FI had poorer DH and thus had increased risk of both abdominal and overall obesity.
High cost of nutritious foods and eating out of home (OH) might be barriers to healthy and sustainable diets. We examined adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), EAT–Lancet reference diet (EAT) and Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and the associations with dietary cost and eating OH. We evaluated cross-sectional data from single multiple-pass 24-h diet recalls from 289 young adults (18–24 years) in Tirana, Albania. Dietary cost (in Albanian Lek (ALL)) was estimated by matching food consumption data with retail prices from local fast-food chains, supermarkets, restaurants and food vendors. Poisson regression was fitted to models that included DASH, EAT and MDS as dependent variables to assess associations between healthy sustainable diet indicators and dietary cost and eating OH. Adjusted models were controlled for BMI, sex and total energy intake (kJ) using the residual method. Our findings indicate relatively poor adherence to healthy and sustainable dietary patterns among young men and women in Albania. Furthermore, better adherence to DASH, EAT or MDS was not associated with dietary cost (per 100 ALL; range incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0·97–1·00; all (un-)adjusted P > 0·05). Nonetheless, eating OH was related to lower adherence to DASH (IRR: 0·79; P = 0·003) and MDS (IRR: 0·69; P < 0·001). In conclusion, adherence to health and sustainable dietary patterns was poor and not differentiated by cost, but rather source of foods (i.e. OH or at home). Further research on the potential public and environmental health effects of these findings is warranted in Albania.
Research shows the mass distribution of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a high-impact, population-level strategy for smoking cessation; but underrepresentation of younger, and/or lighter, smokers challenges generalisability of findings to young adult smokers.
This naturalistic study examined how and with what effect young adult smokers used free nicotine patches provided through a mass mailout programme.
In total, 5,025 eligible 18–29 year-old smokers who accessed an online ordering platform received self-help materials and an 8-week course of patches matched to their consumption level (<10 cigarettes per day (cpd); ≥10 cpd). No other behavioural support occurred. Whether participants used patches correctly and achieved 30-day continuous abstinence at 6-month follow-up were assessed.
Among 694 participants with complete data: 89% used some patches; 8% used the patches correctly for 8 weeks; 31.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 27.6, 34.7) achieved abstinence. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed the highest odds of abstinence was associated with the correct use of patches (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.1).
Mass distribution of free patches may be an effective public health measure for supporting younger, lighter smokers to attempt cessation, reduce consumption, or achieve abstinence. Emphasising why and how to use NRT for the entire treatment course may enhance outcomes.
Reducing social assistance dependency is high on the political agenda; labour market and social exclusion of youth, in particular, has been considered worrisome. With these policy objectives and societal considerations in mind we set to study the association between health problems, with a specific focus on mental health, and the duration of social assistance receipt among young adults in Finland. Our analyses are based on rich register data encompassing the total population in the metropolitan area of Finland from 2005 to 2016. We follow a cohort of new social assistance recipients (n=36,728) aged 18–34 for a maximum of 60 months using Cox proportional hazard model. The results show a strong association between mental health problems and duration of social assistance receipt. The association was the strongest among those aged 18–24. Some differences in the strength of the association were found for different psychiatric diagnoses. On the other hand, somatic diagnoses were only weakly associated with duration of social assistance receipt. Mental health problems appear to be an important obstacle for exiting social assistance and this should be taken into account when governments aim to decrease welfare dependency and reform the last-resort financial aid.
College students constitute a significant proportion of the young adult population in Norway. They are in their reproductive years, which is of interest regarding diet and preconception health. Our objective was to assess young college students’ diet and nutrient intake in relation to national dietary recommendations and assess the probability of inadequate micronutrient intake for both genders using the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, and also to evaluate its consequences on preconception health and create a groundwork for future interventions on this group. At the University of Agder (UiA), we enrolled 622 students aged 18–40 years for a cross-sectional study of student's diet, StudentKost. The students completed a food frequency questionnaire, including questions of supplement use, over the past 4 weeks. Intake of fruits, vegetables, oily fish, and whole grain was lower than recommended, as were mean intake of folate, iron, and iodine. Our main findings are that students have a somewhat suboptimal diet compared to the Norwegian dietary guidelines. Male students had generally lower diet quality than females. Compared to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), we also saw a relatively high probability of inadequate intake of several micronutrients and a very high probability for some micronutrients in a significant portion of the sample. Public health effort should be directed towards improving students and young adults’ diet in general, and interventions towards improving preconception health should be explored. The low participation rate limits the generalizability of our findings. Our findings encourage further investigation into young adults’ diet.