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Hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy in the world; it is expected at least to double by 2050. This chapter reviews how benefits from hydropower can be maximised while reducing environmental and social impacts. The scope for expansion of hydropower is considerable, but adverse environmental and social impacts need to be managed. Climate change is impacting hydro generation through changed snow melts and river flows, greater evaporation and more frequent extreme events, such as flooding and droughts. Hydropower infrastructure needs to have margins to cope with extreme events and adapt to changing conditions. Relicensing at specified intervals can provide a framework for renovation, removal or changes to minimise impacts and maximise benefits of dams. Planning of dams needs to be undertaken on a whole-of-river-basin scale . The World Commission on Dams (2000) recommended priorities for more sustainable development. The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is one codification of better hydropower development practices. Hydropower is important in providing storage and firming capacity to complement intermittent generation from solar and wind generators.
The chapter traces the rise from the distant pre-contact past of the modified lake environment through the Post-Classic Period when the Native American peoples founded their altepetl, or city-states, until their conquest first by the Aztec Triple Alliance and then by Spaniards. The chapter covers the Spanish--Mexica War and demonstrates that it had vital a hydraulic dimension. While the siege of Tenochtitlan has long been understood as a naval battle, the analysis presented here follows the precedent of the New Conquest History in underscoring the contributions of Nahuas to the outcome of the conflict, particularly when it came to specialist knowledge of the Basin of Mexico’s hydrology and strategic efforts to defeat the enemies by turning the engineering works against them. The chapter concludes by tracing continuities into the mid-sixteenth century, especially with the survival of the altepetl and its foundation for colonial-era jurisdictions, including that of the cabildo, or town council, which Nahuas readily adopted and made their own. In so doing, they preserved control over the water management system even as they adapted to new colonial realities.
To what extent can an ethnographic sensibility enhance comparison? We argue that approaching comparison with an ethnographic sensibility – that is, being sensitive to how informants make sense of their worlds and incorporating meaning into our analyses – can strengthen comparative qualitative research. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility would enhance the quality of scholarly arguments by incorporating the processes through which actors ascribe meanings to their lived experiences and the political processes in which they are enmeshed. Because social science arguments often involve accounts of individual actors’ interests, ideas, or impressions, it is imperative to place such cognitive arguments in a broader cultural context. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility requires attention not only to that context but also to the political and social meanings which make that context intelligible. We elaborate these arguments through the lens of two comparative ethnographic works: a study of political mobilization in Bolivia and Mexico and a study of vigilantism in two South African townships.
This chapter invites us to understand New Orleans not only as an historic rim city and a great world port but also as a poetic ecosphere filled with resonant sounds, wavelike rhythms, and a buzzing profusion of messages. Such a poetics takes shape within the city’s understudied lyric traditions, formed and informed by three centuries of multicultural confluence and botanical excess. Desire unfolds not simply in terms of human longing, but as the comingled energies of plant, animal, and wetland life-forms that drive myriad currents and subtle undercurrents of imagination. Now facing submersion, New Orleans maintains as both a great port city and a port of entry into poems. The surrounding Mississippi River and Gulf waters saturate consciousness. Images and sound meld within a rich linguistic and ecological alluvium. We seek messages within sedimentations and intonations. The metamorphic work of poetry becomes dead serious in this tenuous rim of a city, where a desire for meaning unfolds in the thick of things –– stirred on by water, water everywhere.
To examine whether usual beverage intake was associated with sleep timing, duration and fragmentation among adolescents.
Usual beverage intake was assessed with a FFQ. Outcomes included sleep duration, midpoint (median of bed and wake times) and fragmentation, assessed with 7-d actigraphy. Sex-stratified linear regression was conducted with sleep characteristics as separate outcomes and quantiles of energy-adjusted beverage intake as exposures, accounting for age, maternal education, physical activity and smoking.
528 adolescents residing in Mexico City enrolled in a longitudinal cohort.
The mean age (sd) was 14·4 (2·1) years; 48 % were male. Among males, milk and water consumption were associated with longer weekday sleep duration (25 (95 % CI 1, 48) and 26 (95 % CI 4, 47) more minutes, in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile); and higher 100 % fruit juice consumption was related to earlier weekday sleep timing (−22 (95 % CI −28, 1) minutes in the 1st compared to the last quantile; P = 0·03). Among females, soda was associated with higher sleep fragmentation (1·6 (95 % CI 0·4, 2·8) % in the 4th compared to the 1st), and coffee/tea consumption was related to shorter weekend sleep duration (−23 (95 % CI −44, 2) minutes in the 4th compared to the 1st).
Among females, adverse associations with sleep were observed for caffeinated drinks, while males with higher consumption of healthier beverage options (water, milk and 100 % juice) had evidence of longer and earlier-timed sleep. Potential mechanisms involving melatonin and tryptophan should be further investigated.
Explains how man-made ‘pollution’ – often seen as a local problem – has become a virtual river flowing round the entire planet. Describes contamination of oceans, remote regions, air in homes and cities, effect of plastics, impacts on wildlife. Defines six modes of chemical transport. Pollution is now universal, affecting all people and most of life on Earth
We developed a simple and cost-effective method for extracting carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water samples without a carrier gas. This method only slightly modifies the existing vacuum line for CO2 purification in radiocarbon research laboratories by connecting several reservoirs and traps. The procedure consists of repeated cycles of CO2 extraction from water into the headspace of the reaction container, expansion of the extracted gas into the vacuum line, and cryogenic trapping of CO2. High CO2 yield (∼98%) was obtained from a variety of water samples with a wide range of DIC concentrations (0.4–100 mmol·L−1, in the case of 1.2 mgC). The δ13C fractionation depended on the CO2 yield, while the 14C concentration was constant within the error range, regardless of the CO2 yield. The average δ13C discrepancy between the results of this method and direct analyses made using the GC-IRMS was 0.02 ± 0.06‰. The standard deviations (1σ) in fraction of modern carbon (F14C) ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0004 for waters below 0.01 of F14C, and below 0.8% of F14C values for waters above 0.1. We conclude that this method is useful for effectively extracting CO2 from DIC in water and yields accurate 14C data.
This chapter continues to uncover Steinbeck’s interest in Mexico (and the Mexican Revolution) and his relevance as a thinker on the Global South and its social inequalities. Turning to Steinbeck’s collaborative projects in Mexico, the documentary film about water sanitation, The Forgotten Village, and The Pearl--both novel and film made with the Mexican director Emilio Fernandez--we encounter experimental artistic forms that embody a transamerican political vision. If The Forgotten Village fails in its efforts to politicize and improve the living conditions of the indigenous peoples it depicts, then The Pearl represents a more successful attempt to participate in history. Comparing the novel and the film reveals a creative dialogue between Steinbeck and Fernandez, in which the novel’s techniques of sound and vision look forward to its existence as a film. Together with a new understanding of uncertainty and of a human consciousness extending into and capable of changing the world, The Pearl has a curious temporality that imagines society on the verge of revolutionary change.
To evaluate food and water storage practices in the United States, including the extent that government emergency preparedness guidelines were followed.
Qualtrics panelists (n = 572) completed a 142-item online survey in August 2014. Cognitive interviews (n = 5) and pilot data (n = 14) informed survey development. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data. Open-ended responses related to water storage preparation were classified into 5 categories.
Many respondents reported being somewhat or well prepared to provide food and water for their households during a large-scale disaster or emergency. Only 53% met Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines to have water last at least 3 days. Based on respondents’ self-report, it appeared that those who prepared personally-filled containers for water did not carefully follow FEMA instructions. Most respondents had non-perishable foods available, with 96% meeting the FEMA guidelines of at least 3 days of storage.
Households were generally prepared to provide food and, to a lesser extent, water in emergency situations, but were not consistently following FEMA guidelines. Additional easy-to-follow, evidence-based information may better help citizens accurately implement food and water storage emergency preparedness guidelines.
Seamus Heaney's attention to the landscape has obscured his interest in riverbanks, lough shores and coastlines. Images of water and liquidity are critical to his writing, as are narratives of the sea and its crossings. This chapter traces Heaney's fluid aesthetic throughout his career, with particular attention to his declension of water in all its forms as evolving metaphors for mortality. Reading a series of texts across the breadth of Heaney's career, it engages his work with critical conversations in archipelagic literature.
The complexity of human roles and responsibilities in the health and continuance of Earth and all its life has been explored by Indigenous writers and activists from a wide variety of perspectives. Of particular importance is the profound relationship between humans and water, the fundamental compact on which all others rely. Through an analysis of literary representations of water, this chapter examines Indigenous stories that center relationships and responsibilities, recognizing the interlocking systems on which all life relies. Authors Linda Hogan (Chickasaw), Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna), and Tommy Pico (Kumeyaay) engage these concerns by connecting characters and their current conflicts of drought and/or environmental degradation to story traditions about the perils of imbalance and the repercussions of human greed. The life of water represented by seasonal rains, drought, and dynamic waterways reminds readers of the vital roles humans and the more-than-human world play in the climate cycles that support environmental wellbeing.
The last part of Chapter 2 and the first part of Chapter 3 of De mundo (392a31–393a8) describe the cosmic layers further below the sphere of the moon, leading down to the very centre of the universe. This section provides a brief overview of the sublunary layers of the four elements (fire, air, water and earth), some of which will be discussed in more detail later in the text. The two main theses that constitute the reasoning behind this section are (i) continuity throughout the entire cosmos and (ii) the great variety of phenomena and processes within the sublunary domain. The layers are organised from the most active one at the top down to the most passive one at the centre of the universe. The continuity among the layers is demonstrated on each and every level. There is, however, no suggestion that each lower, less active substance gains all its characteristics from the more active substance above. For our author’s purpose it is sufficient to demonstrate that there is some relation, some communication among the layers which can later be used by the divine dunamis permeating the entire cosmos. The final part of the present section concerns the claim that the continents are large islands surrounded by an ocean.
This chapter examines the global political economy of access to drinking water, with particular attention to the implications for environmental and social justice. After reviewing theoretical approaches to the privatization and commodification of drinking water, the chapter examines the institutional and ideological drivers, dynamics, and effects of the enclosure of municipal (tap) water supplies, and the substantial countermovements it has generated, drawing on case studies from both the global South and the North. The chapter briefly reviews the present status of municipal water privatization, and then turns to another major modality of water commodification: bottled water. It explores the dramatic growth of this relatively new commodity, its environmental and social externalities, and the grassroots movements opposing water extraction by the global bottled water industry in specific localities. These countermovements have proven partially successful at reversing, slowing, or preventing privatization, and in posing obstacles to the further commodification of water through bottling. The concluding section discusses the linkages between these various modes of water commodification, and the implications for ensuring the human right to water.
To test the effectiveness of a social network intervention (SNI) to improve children’s healthy drinking behaviours.
A three-arm cluster randomised control trial design was used. In the SNI, a subset of children were selected and trained as ‘influence agents’ to promote water consumption–as an alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)–among their peers. In the active control condition, all children were simultaneously exposed to the benefits of water consumption. The control condition received no intervention.
Eleven schools in the Netherlands.
Four hundred and fifty-one children (Mage = 10·74, SDage = 0·97; 50·8 % girls).
Structural path models showed that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·20 less SSB per day compared to those in the control condition (β = 0·25, P = 0·035). There was a trend showing that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·17 less SSB per day than those in the active control condition (β = 0·20, P = 0·061). No differences were found between conditions for water consumption. However, the moderation effects of descriptive norms (β = –0·12, P = 0·028) and injunctive norms (β = 0·11–0·14, both P = 0·050) indicated that norms are more strongly linked to water consumption in the SNI condition compared to the active control and control conditions.
These findings suggest that a SNI promoting healthy drinking behaviours may prevent children from consuming more SSB. Moreover, for water consumption, the prevailing social norms in the context play an important role in mitigating the effectiveness of the SNI.
To examine children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water intakes in relation to implemented intervention activities across the social ecological model (SEM) during a multilevel community trial.
Children’s Healthy Living was a multilevel, multicomponent community trial that reduced young child obesity (2013–2015). Baseline and 24-month cross-sectional data were analysed from nine intervention arm communities. Implemented intervention activities targeting reduced SSB and increased water consumption were coded by SEM level (child, caregiver, organisation, community and policy). Child SSB and water intakes were assessed by caregiver-completed 2-day dietary records. Multilevel linear regression models examined associations of changes in beverage intakes with activity frequencies at each SEM level.
US-Affiliated Pacific region.
Children aged 2–8 years (baseline: n 1343; 24 months: n 1158).
On average (± sd), communities implemented 74 ± 39 SSB and 72 ± 40 water activities. More than 90 % of activities targeted both beverages together. Community-level activities (e.g. social marketing campaign) were most common (61 % of total activities), and child-level activities (e.g. sugar counting game) were least common (4 %). SSB activities across SEM levels were not associated with SSB intake changes. Additional community-level water activities were associated with increased water intake (0·62 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: 0·09, 1·15) and water-for-SSB substitution (operationalised as SSB minus water: –0·88 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: –1·72, –0·03). Activities implemented at the organization level (e.g. strengthening preschool wellness guidelines) and policy level (e.g. SSB tax advocacy) also suggested greater water-for-SSB substitution (P < 0·10).
Community-level intervention activities were associated with increased water intake, alone and relative to SSB intake, among young children in the Pacific region.
The assemblage of water/watery/watering is a lively cartography of how water may be accounted for when theorising with and through environmental education research. Challenging the universalising claims of Western technoscience and the colonial logic of extraction, the article develops an alternative theoretical mapping of environmental education through engagements with Ingold’s (2007, 2012, 2015) concepts of lines, knots, and knotting. For this article and for the Special Issue in which it is housed, the concepts of such knottings are defined as an assemblage of haecceities, lived events that are looped, tethered and entangled as material and conceptual agencies that inhere within situated encounters. Thus, this article grapples with the need to account for water differently in contemporary posthuman ecologies. To overcome anthropocentric and mastery-oriented approaches, various other ways to account for water in science or environmental education will continue to come to the surface, bubbling and rushing like a waterfall as they have done in this work. Some of these will include thinking with water, which will be central to a theoretical mapping of water that seeks embrace sticky knots. The article explores a (re)turn to artful practices and encounters as spaces in which posthumanist concepts for environmental education might be cultivated.
Here, I investigate the concept of a habitable zone. Given that all life on Earth – and possibly all life in general – needs water, the defining of a habitable zone as the belt around a star in which liquid water could exist on a planet’s surface seems sensible. However, habitable zones may shift in position over time. One reason for this is the gradual increase in energy output from a star as it progresses through its main-sequence phase. To take account of this, we can define a continuously habitable zone (CHZ) in which liquid water could exist on a planet’s surface throughout its history. Inevitably, the CHZ will be narrower than its ‘instantaneous’ counterpart. I consider the question of whether life might exist, or might have existed, on Mars – a planet that is near the outer edge of the Sun’s habitable zone. I also look at whether life might exist on the moons Europa and Enceladus. Although these are far outside the habitable zone, they are thought to have sub-surface oceans. Finally, I ask whether in addition to there being stellar habitable zones there may also be larger-scale habitable zones – galactic ones. The answer is a qualified ‘no’.
This chapter brings together the arguments for the identification of a water feature within the Lateran scavi as the Nymphaeum of Pope Hilarus. The feature has been extensively surveyed and laser scanned as part of the Lateran Project in an attempt to underestand how the different elements might have functioned together. The long-term association of the area, formerly part of bath complex built in the Severan period, with elaborate water features is considered; the latest structural elements recovered post-date the nymphaeum and come from a fountain constructed sometime in the 12th/13th century.
Sweetened beverages are mainly consumed cold and various processes are activated in response to external temperature variations. However, the effect of internal temperature variations through the ingestion of cold beverages is far from clear. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of beverage temperature on body composition. Sprague–Dawley rats (5–6-week-old males) had free access to food and beverage for 8 weeks. Energy intake, body weight and body composition were monitored. In Expt 1, two groups of rats (n 9) consumed water at room temperature (NW about 22°C) or cold (CW about 4°C). In Expt 2, rats were offered room-temperature (N) or cold (C) sweetened water (10 % sucrose CSu (n 7) and NSu (n 8); or 0·05 % acesulfame K CAk (n 6) and NAk (n 8)) for 12 h, followed by plain water. Our results show that in Expt 1, CW had higher lean body mass (P < 0·001) and lower body fat gain (P = 0·004) as compared with NW. In Expt 2, body weight (P = 0·013) and fat (P ≤ 0·001) gains were higher in the non-energetic sweetened groups, while lean body mass was not affected by the type of sweeteners or temperature. In conclusion, cold water ingestion improved lean body mass gain and decreased fat gain because of increased energy expenditure, while non-energetic sweetener (acesulfame K) increased body fat gain due to improved energy efficiency. Internal cold exposure failed to increase energy intake in contrast to that of external cold exposure.