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Reification of ‘community’ and community engagement by professional curators of material culture has recently been critiqued in ways which highlight the diversity of cultural identities and priorities among the general public. When not acting as coherent local communities under professional supervision, people are otherwise curating culture in public space within frameworks of spiritual and creative expression, place significance and identity. Employing primarily secondary sources, I address recent outdoor public curation practices in the West, and consider such deposits in relation to cultural-heritage management, a perspective in which they have hitherto been little addressed. Although these practices typically use accumulations of themed objects to achieve visibility and audience, I conclude that they are ultimately more focused on the individual than on the community, with linkages within and between them highly digitally enabled. Apparently intensified by the effects of recent COVID-19 travel lockdowns, the practices are also linked by their typical colonization of transit spaces (thereby accessing audiences who are also expected participants), by their conscious ephemerality (with deliberate innocence about end destinations of the objects used), and by their use of mundane consumer artefacts. All these features pose challenges to their management, and curated deposits are often contested or removed by official curators or managers of public space, even as the same entities appropriate similar tropes to engage customers. With resurgent interest in tangible culture and physical place following pandemic-era overloading in the virtual domain, with travel habits potentially using different routes, at altered times, and with use of social media continuing to grow, such activities may see increased participation. This analysis suggests that imaginative proactive official treatment of these curations (e.g. by municipal authorities, heritage site curators, rangers or other property owners/managers) could avoid conflict with creators and also help reduce enduring public ‘innocence’ about the disposability of consumer objects. Treatment could involve encouraging ongoing adaptation (digitally recorded and disseminated) of the curated objects in situ by their transitory public audiences.
Livestock plays a crucial role in food and nutrition security. However, livestock production accounts for 0.18 of global greenhouse gas emissions. India has one of the highest livestock densities globally, mainly produced under traditional systems. Specifically, the emission and particularly nitrogen losses from cattle in traditional systems cannot be ignored. Nitrogen emission is substantial when cattle roam free and waste is not collected or managed efficiently. This paper reviews the literature to piece together the available information on nitrogen emissions from cattle in India to synthesize the evidence, identify gaps and contribute to further understanding of the problem. At the same time, the paper highlights the solutions to reduce nitrogen pollution from cattle production in India. The main findings are that most cattle in India are not reared to provide meat protein. The implication is that reactive nitrogen per capita consumption is lower than most developed countries. However, there are substantial inefficiencies in feed conversion, feed nitrogen use and manure management in India. As a result, nitrogen losses and wastage are considerable in the different production systems. Furthermore, the review suggests that social, cultural and economic factors such as convergent social behaviour, urbanization, regulations, changing consumption patterns, the demand for cheap fuel sources, culture and religion influence the production systems and, consequently, the emissions from livestock. Suggested solutions to reduce nitrogen pollution from cattle production in India are improving livestock productivity, adopting better feeding, manure and pasture management practices and using behavioural nudges.
Despite the many challenges in achieving complete decarbonization of our energy supply, succeeding in that Herculean task would solve merely two-thirds of our greenhouse gas emissions problem. This chapter addresses how we might tackle the other third. Topics covered include: fugitive methane emissions from fossil fuel production; CO2 emissions from both traditional and industrial biomass combustion; emissions of CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide from the agricultural sector; CO2 emissions from land use changes and the forestry sector; the full range of greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector unrelated to energy; and the ongoing release of methane from our waste streams. Tackling these diverse and myriad emission sources will greatly tax the ingenuity and budgets of humanity.
While China is building nuclear reactors faster than any other country in the world, major constraints may limit nuclear energy’s ability to grow to the scale of hundreds of gigawatts that would be required for it to play a major part in decarbonizing China’s energy system. This chapter explores the major constraints on, and risks of, large-scale nuclear energy growth in China, and how both new policies and new technologies might address them. It focuses particularly on the two biggest constraints – economics and siting. Substantial government policies to support nuclear power and advanced reactor systems designed to address some of the key constraints are both likely to be needed for nuclear to have a chance of playing a major role in decarbonizing China’s energy system; nuclear energy’s role may be bigger in the second half of this century than in the first half.
Julia Lee identifies temporal, spatial, and affective innovation in 21st century transpacific fiction. Locating formally innovative contemporary Asian American writing in the post-1965 contexts of migration, global economies of labor, environmental anxiety, language difference, and racialized violence, Lee shows how writers have represented new technologies of immediate communication across oceanic flows of migrants, commodities, information, and waste in disjointed, parallel, and non-sequential narrative structures. Childhood trauma lingers across time and geography in a story about a Filipino nurse by Mia Alvar, while novels by Min Jin Lee, Ruth Ozeki, and Thi Bui layer Asian and American modernities, postmodernities, and contemporary present-tenses.
The history of waste records a relationship that has altered over time, resulting in various literal and symbolic manifestations. Waste Studies crosses conventional disciplines to offer ethical frameworks which pay attention to, understand, and act on bodily, cultural, and societal waste. With examples from novelists Toni Morrison and Wolfgang Hilbig, this chapter illustrates a number of aspects of waste in literature: waste as material agent; waste as metaphor; and narratives structured as waste, with little hope for clarity. The strategy of slow practice through narrative construction can prove a means to inculcate an ecological sensitivity and awareness we carry with us beyond the act of reading. While waste categories often are used to dismiss, deny, and reject certain humans, other-than-human agents, and material items, waste has also been used as a means to provoke compassion and ethical engagement by which we can develop a compassionate commonality with wasted beings to act for them, for us, and for the world. Waste Studies argues that the humanities can vibrantly and dynamically work to improve all of our lives in a concrete and material way.
Using latest science, explains the quantum of man-made chemical emissions, the main sources and the cost in human life. First global estimate of total anthropogenic chemical emissions and circulation. The issue is far larger than most people or governments imagine.
Humans may live in the Anthropocene, but this does not affect all in the same way. How would the Anthropocene look if, instead of searching its traces in the geosphere, researchers would look for them in the organosphere, in the ecologies of humans in their entanglements with the environment? Looking at this embodied stratigraphy of power and toxicity, more than the Anthropocene, we will discover the Wasteocene. The imposition of wasting relationships on subaltern human and more-than-human communities implies the construction of toxic ecologies made of contaminating substances and narratives. While official accounts have systematically erased any trace of those wasting relationships, another kind of narrative has been written in flesh, blood, and cells. Traveling between Naples (Italy) and Agbogbloshie (Ghana), science fiction and epidemic outbreaks, this Element will take the readers into the bowels of the Wasteocene, but it will also indicate the commoning practices which are dismantling it.
The chapter begins by differentiating between two English preconceptions of the American environment, wilderness and waste, and characterizes first-generation colonization as a pastoral retreat supported by English georgic assumptions and practices. The chapter then compares puritan and Algonquian conceptualizations of the natural environment, notably including differing conceptions of property, and discusses the influence of puritan justifications of colonization on John Locke’s theorization of land as alienable property. The chapter goes on to trace environmental changes wrought by colonization, including transformations effected by nonhuman agents as well as human agents, and locates these transformations in the climate context of the Little Ice Age. Domestic animals created environments in which certain English plants flourished while indigenous plants declined. Because English grain crops did not prosper in New England, however, the colonists adopted the indigenous grain, maize, and scaled up the indigenous forest-fallow cultivation system to unsustainable levels. Unsustainability in turn invited frontier expansion. The essay concludes by briefly investigating the tension in puritan thought and practice between worldly engagement and spiritual transcendence on both a national level, where it is evident in millennialism, and an individual level, where it shaped puritan poetics.
Antiquity—the past—has been fundamental to archaeology from the very beginnings of the discipline, and it remains the central concept around which archaeological research is developed. Over the years, however, alternative ways of doing and thinking archaeology have come forth to challenge this orientation on the past. Despite their growth in scope and sophistication, these alternatives remain at the margins of our community. In this article, the authors argue that it is in the best interests of archaeology—both as a community and as a discipline—to not brush aside these alternatives but rather to afford them serious attention.
This concluding chapter locates our present geological moment politically and economically, arguing that the major ecological degradation which has been made visible at the level of geological time is a result of the Lockean designation of ‘unused’ land as waste to be made productive. And crucially, this designation of land as waste goes hand in hand with the extraction from deep time: it involves bracketing out the long-term history of the landscape and its ecological future for the work of extracting economic value in the now. To expand our time horizons is, in fact, to recognise the contemporary relationship with deep time as wastage.
Chapter 3 explores modernist uses of the pastoral that deny the escape into nature and emphasize instead the biological limitations of human life. This dark pastoral mode coincides with setbacks to nature preservation in the United Kingdom during and following WWI and heightening during the economically stressful 1930s. Beginning with the iconic presentations of decay and destruction found in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, the chapter considers Eliot’s symbolic registers of waste and regeneration in relation to actual attempts at land restoration in the United Kingdom. As the first large land holding entrusted to the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves, the case of Woodwalton Fen presents the tensions between “reserving nature” and “putting lands in order.” The undoing of pastoral retreat at the hands of anthropogenic control develops further in the early poems of W. H. Auden and arrives most forcefully in the fiction of Djuna Barnes, whose dark pastoral aesthetic subverts Thoreauvian notions of self-sufficiency in nature. Robin Vote as the “black sheep” in Djuna Barnes’s 1936 novel Nightwood poses a queer resilience to those who seek to tame and exploit living beings.
The Guts of the Matter is a study of our oldest ecological problem: the transmission of infectious intestinal pathogens from human waste. Over deep time, fecal pathogens have killed innumerable infants and young children and been a principal constraint on human population growth. Over the past several generations, we have gained increasing control over the transmission of infectious intestinal disease. These advances have contributed to an ongoing population explosion that is dramatically transforming global ecological systems. The introduction provides a guide to the book’s structure, introducing the individual chapters with a brief summary of each.
Are insects the farm animal of the future? A key agenda for agricultural production systems is the development of sustainable practices whereby food and feed can be produced in an environmentally efficient manner. These goals require novel approaches to complex problems and demand collaboration between scientists, producers, consumers, government and the general population. The provision of feed for animals is a major contributor to land and water use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Further, overfishing and a reduction in available land and water resources on which crops can be grown has led to an increase in price of protein ingredients such as fish meals and oils and soybean meals. Determination of novel solutions to meet the feed protein requirements of production animals is key to the development of sustainable farming practices. The Australian pork industry aims to develop production systems that efficiently use available resources (such as feed and energy) and limit the production of emissions (such as manure waste and GHGs). Invertebrates (insects e.g. black soldier flies) are naturally consumed by monogastric and aquatic species, yet the large-scale production of insects for feed (or food) is yet to be exploited. Most insects are low producers of GHGs and have low land and water requirements. The large-scale production of insects can contribute to a circular economy whereby food and feed waste (and potentially manure) are reduced or ideally eliminated via bioconversion. While the concept of farm-scale production of insects as domestic animal feed has been explored for decades, significant production and replacement of traditional protein sources has yet to be achieved. This review will focus on the potential role of insect-derived protein as a feed source for the Australian pig production industry.
This article tracks the historical processes that shaped human waste management practices in Majunga, Madagascar from the city's founding in the mid-eighteenth century to contemporary times. Moving beyond colonial urban histories of sanitation, this article charts the meanings, strategies, and work practices Majunga residents employed to deal with predicaments of waste in everyday life. I argue that the particular material configuration of the colonial sanitation infrastructure in Majunga required new forms of labor — especially maintenance work — which city dwellers evaluated through existing moral norms. With the construction of French colonial sanitation infrastructures and the new labor regimes they necessitated, waste management became a key vector through which notions of difference were negotiated over the early- to mid-twentieth century. Shifting emphasis away from colonial infrastructure as disparity and onto moments of reception can contribute fresh insights not only on the histories of African cities, but also to histories of technology in the Global South.
Feeding big round-bales in round-bale feeders are known to reduce labor and costs. However, one disadvantage is the high feed wastage. The aim of these experiments was therefore to investigate the effect of feeder design, type of roughage and size of round-bales on feed wastage in sheep. Four round-bale feeders (Diagonal Rail Sheep Circular Feeder (RD), Knarrhult Flexible Round-Bale Feeder (KR), Telemark Round-Bale Feeder (TR) and Standard Sheep Circular Ring Feeder (RV)) were distributed into four identical experimental pens and used in both experiments. In Experiment 1, two types of roughages were used; Roughage 1: low-quality, grass silage harvested at late stage of maturity with dry matter (DM) content of 560 g/kg and Roughage 2: high-quality, hay harvested at an early stage of maturity with DM content of 738 g/kg. In Experiment 2, ewes were offered hay harvested at the late stage of maturity with DM content of 766 g/kg as half and whole round-bales. In both experiments, four groups of 10 ewes of the Norwegian White breed were rotated between the experimental pens and each treatment lasted for 4 days. Feed wastage (roughage on the ground surrounding the feeder) was collected daily. The amount of feed wastage was generally high. The type of roughage (Experiment 1) had a large effect on feed wastage (P < 0.001), where Roughage 1 had a mean feed wastage of 1.88 kg DM/day per ewe and Roughage 2 had 0.48 kg DM/day per ewe. When Roughage 1 was provided, it was evident that the ewes pulled out the long fibrous stems of the feeders and left them as wastage while selecting the leaves. This was not the case for Roughage 2. When feeding half round-bales (Experiment 2), the mean feed wastage was 1.50 kg DM/day per ewe compared to 2.88 kg DM/day per ewe when feeding whole round-bales (P < 0.001). This is probably due to the ewes spending more time eating with their heads inside the feeder when fed half round-bales (P < 0.001) and thus dropped more of the potential wastage inside the feeder. Less feed inside the feeder may also be the reason that feed wastage decreased gradually from Day 1 to Day 4 in both experiments (P < 0.001). Feeder design also had a significant impact on feed wastage (P < 0.001). We conclude that providing early harvested roughage and feeding half round-bales significantly reduced feed wastage.
This article discusses the everyday practices of a mobile network of migrant waste traders originating from northern Vietnam, locating them in an expanding urban waste economy spanning across major urban centres. Based on ethnographic research, I explore how the expansion of the network is foregrounded by the traders’ dealing with the precarious nature of waste trading, which is rooted in the social ambiguity of waste and migrants working with waste in the urban order. Characterised by waste traders as a “half-dark, half-light zone”, the waste economy is unevenly regulated, made up of highly personalised ties, and relatively hidden from the public. It is therefore rife with opportunities for accumulating wealth, but also full of dangers for the waste traders, whose occupation of marginal urban spaces makes them easy targets of both rent-seeking state agents and rogue actors. While demonstrating resilience, their practices suggest tactics of engaging with power that involve a great deal of moral ambiguity, which I argue is central to the increasing precaritisation of labour and the economy in Vietnam today.
Sophisticated capital intensive waste-recycling technologies are unviable in small rural abattoirs in India due to low volume of wastes (principally blood and rumen digesta) generated and lack of infrastructural facilities. We report recycling of slaughterhouse wastes as an organic fertilizer, ‘bovine-blood-rumen-digesta-mixture’ (BBRDM). Bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed in 3:1 ratio in a metallic container, boiled and stirred continuously till the mixture was largely free of water. The mass was sun-dried for 3 days to obtain the final product. BBRDM was applied for field cultivation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., local variety ‘Patharkuchi’) in West Bengal state (India) during 2012–13 and 2013–14. We compared tomato yields obtained with BBRDM (N:P2O5:K2O 30.36:1:5.75) and conventional inorganic fertilizers [diammonium phosphate (DAP), N:P2O5:K2O 18:46:0 + potash, N:P2O5:K2O 0:0:44]. BBRDM was applied at a higher rate compared with DAP + potash to meet the farmers’ desire for enhanced yields. 75 kg ha−1 was applied at the 2nd week while 150 kg ha−1 was applied at the 8th week after transplantation. Yields (total fruit weight) obtained from BBRDM-treated plants were higher in comparison with DAP + potash-fertilized plants by 46–48% as the former supplied 2.5 times more nitrogen (N) than the latter. The partial factor productivity of DAP + potash was 73–76% higher than BBRDM. Conversely, as BBRDM was produced through local entrepreneurship from slaughterhouse wastes, the cost of this organic product would be expected to be much lower than the commercial inorganic fertilizer. Furthermore, application of BBRDM negates the environmental cost of treating slaughterhouse effluent. Considering the same cost of applying 225 kg fertilizer ha−1, higher yield with BBRDM should result in greater potential revenue for the farmer compared with yields with DAP + potash. The C/N ratio of BBRDM is 4.8, having relatively high N content. Accordingly, rapid release of plant-available N was observed in BBRDM-fertilized soils. The temporal increase in soil NH4+may be attributed to lack of soil N immobilization. Local farmers are willing to accept the new fertilizer as a substitute for currently used chemical fertilizers.
In the UK, disposal of packaged intermediate-level radioactive waste may involve waste packages being placed in a geological disposal facility (GDF) and surrounded by a cementitious backfill. Cracking of the backfill could occur due to a number of mechanisms, and this could affect the post-closure performance of the GDF.
This work has assessed potential cracking in the backfill during the backfilling and early post-closure period of GDF vaults with an open crown space in a higher strength rock. From the comprehensive range of processes considered, three were identified as potentially causing cracking: (1) during backfilling, plastic settlement under solid horizontal surfaces could result in horizontal gaps beneath waste packages; (2) within days of backfilling, early-age thermal contraction of the backfill could result in primarily vertical cracks; (3) over a number of years, expansion of waste packages could result in large horizontal cracks.
A groundwater flow model incorporating a representation of the cracks was used to calculate flows through a backfilled GDF vault, and through the cracks themselves. Including cracks increased the flow rate significantly. A reactive transport model was used to estimate the evolution of the pore water chemistry as groundwater flows through the cracked backfill. Calcite and brucite were predicted to precipitate, with brucite subsequently dissolving. Calcite build-up could seal some cracks.
Higher activity radioactive wastes remain hazardous for extremely long timescales, of up to hundreds of thousands of years. Disposing of such wastes deep underground presents the internationally accepted best solution for isolating them from the surface environment on associated timescales. Geological disposal programmes need to assess potential releases from such facilities on long timescales to inform siting and design decisions and to help build confidence that they will provide an adequate degree of safety. Assessments of geological disposal include consideration of the wastes, the engineered facility, the host geology and the surface and near-surface environment including the biosphere. This paper presents an overview of recent post-closure biosphere assessment studies undertaken in support of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Radioactive Waste Management Directorate disposal system safety case for geological disposal of the United Kingdom's higher activity radioactive wastes. Recent biosphere studies have included: (1) ensuring that the United Kingdom's approach to consideration of the biosphere in safety case studies continues to be fit for purpose, irrespective of which site or sites are considered in the United Kingdom's geological disposal programme; (2) updating projections of global climate and sea level, together with consideration of the potential importance of transitions between climate states; (3) considering geosphere–biosphere interface issues and their representation, including redox modelling and catchment-scale hydrological modelling; and (4) identifying key radionuclides and developing a series of reports describing their behaviour in the biosphere together with an evaluation of associated implications for post-closure assessment calculations.