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Available evidence demonstrates that it is feasible to integrate Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques with Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of obesity and that this combined intervention has the potential to improve health-related outcomes of patients and to maintain behavioural changes over time. In addition, the use of Virtual Reality (VR) using embodiment techniques in the treatment of behavioural disorders has proved its preliminary effectiveness.
1) to adapt the embodiment tool for treating obesity in a clinical setting, and 2) to compare its preliminary effectiveness to usual care.
A randomized control trial (SOCRATES project, funded by the European Union’s H2020 program under grant agreement No 951930) will be carried out with 66 participants with a Body Mass Index (BMI) >30, who will be split into two groups (control and intervention). The participants will be recruited from the external consultations of the Vall d’Hebron University Hospital. Readiness to change, BMI, dietetic habits and physical activity, self-perception of the body size, satisfaction with self-image and quality of life in relation to body image will be assessed before and after the intervention and at 4-week follow-up. Finally, variables related to the adoption of the VR tool in terms of perceived usability, user’s satisfaction and technology acceptance will be also evaluated.
Not yet available
The study will provide an important advance in the treatment of obesity, first, by improving the effectiveness of available psychological treatments integrating embodiment, MI and CBT techniques, and second, reducing treatment duration and costs compared to conventional therapies.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is considered the most prevalent anxiety disorder with the highest disease burden amongst anxiety disorders. Despite available effective treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, a majority of individuals with SAD do not seek treatment and many drop out when confronted with elements of exposure. Several studies highlight the many advantages virtual reality exposure holds over in vivo exposure. In this study, we investigate the added effect of real-time biofeedback during virtual reality exposure.
The current study is part of a large scale study called VR8. The current study aims to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a VR-biofeedback-intervention for adults with mild to severe social anxiety disorder, before continuing randomized controlled trials.
Data from semi-structured interviews and surveys will be compared to biodata collected during VR exposure. Participants include a minimum of (n=10) patients and (n=10) clinicians from the Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark. Surveys include questionnaires used for assessment of anxiety symptoms, usability of technology, and presence in the virtual environment. Collected biodata includes heart rate variability and electrodermal activity. Behavioral markers include eye-gaze. The findings will be analyzed and discussed in a mixed methods design.
The study is ongoing. Preliminary results will be available at presentation.
Successful development and implementation of a biofeedback-informed virtual reality exposure intervention may provide increased reach for patients and individuals who would have otherwise not sought- or dropped out of regular treatment, as well as inform the clinician on how to proceed during virtual exposure.
Conflict of interest
Prof. Stephané Bouchard is consultant to and own equity in Cliniques et Développement In Virtuo, which develops virtual environments, and conflicts of interests are managed according to UQO’s conflict of interests policy; however, Cliniques et Développeme
The characteristics of the Autistic Spectrum Disorder involve deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior and that there is a growing interest in the use of new technologies for neurorehabilitation.
This research aimed to verify the possibility of using Virtual reality for the treatment of Autism.
Scientific publications were selected from the PUBMED, ScieLO, LILACS and Google Scholar databases, written in Portuguese and English, with free access, between 2014 and 2019.
A total of 19 publications were identified. Concerning their design, 26,3% of them were experimental, 21,1% qualitative, 21,1% one-group pretest-posttest, 15,8% quasi-experimental, 10,5% descriptive and 5,2% of them were exploratory research studies. The studies focus on anxiety and phobias reduction, as well as teaching strategies to deal with stessful events. Eleven of the studies focused on the enhancement of independende and sef-confidence of the subjects. In five ot the studies the virtual reality was used with other technologies. In two of them the EEG was used along with virtual reality for detecting the cerebral region in activity during action.
Virtual reality was defended in most of the studies because it can provide a safe environment and offering high control of variables. Although the results indicate the use of virtual reality for the reduction of anxiety and the promotion of self-confidence and independence which aims the social deficits in autism, more research is needed to investigate the use or impact of VR on repetitive behavior.
The virtual environment with realistically rendered fear-inducing stimuli is enough to conduct VR exposure therapy (VRE), although the total control over the virtual environment also enables presentation of stimuli, contexts, and tasks not possible in in vivo exposure therapy (i.e. flight etc.)30 randomized controlled trials revealing high efficacy and effect sizes comparable of VRE-CBT to in vivo exposure therapy. Aerophobia is a very frequent limitation and affect 25% of the population and 30% of the subjects who fly make habitual use of anxiolytics.
The aims of this study is to show that conducting VR exposure in CBT for simple phobia (flight phobia) is effective and is an efficacious treatment for fear and anxiety,Vs other treatments.
Participants (n = 39; age between 19 and 60 years) in the active arms received individual CBT VR exposure for six sessions and outcome was assessed with questionnaires: MSPS;Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS); HAM-A; QMAV; QSAV – (Flying fear); QoL INDEX and a behaviour avoidance test (really take the plane). Wilcoxon tests was using for the statistical analysis.
36 subjects managed to take the plane at the end of treatment and the results obtained showed a significant difference between “before treatment (T0) and after (T1)” with the exception of the Rathus test. All the SF-36 scales show a significant difference between “before-after”. 3 subjects was dropped out
Using VR can be advantageous over standard CBT as a potential solution for treatment avoidance and as an efficient, cost-effective and practical medium of exposure.
The extent to which designers can understand users often determines the quality of design outcomes. A deep understanding of users allows the designers to focus on the right problem and make optimal design decisions, which encouraged designers to empathize with users. However, the current imagination-based empathizing strategy appears to be too susceptible to their previous experience and knowledge, which has been questioned concerning effectiveness and accuracy. On the other hand, Virtual Reality (VR) technology provides an opportunity for designers to gain experience-driven empathy by immersing them in a virtual environment that mimics the users' surroundings as if they are seeing the world from users' eyes. While abundant studies covered empathy VR and empathy for design, limited attention has been paid to the chance of bringing VR, empathy, and design research together. Addressing this gap, this study explored literature across domains, identified major concerns about this approach, synthesized the evidence, and discussed the feasibility and validity of the VR-based empathic design research approach.
Design is multi-modal, and depending on the current stage in the process, progress can be facilitated through working in either the physical or virtual domain with frequent iterations commonly required between. Traditionally, prototyping workflows are sequential, although current trends such as Digital Twinning and Mixed Reality (MR) enable decreased domain transition times, reducing the cycle time. This leads towards fully integrated digital-physical prototypes, enabling work in both domains simultaneously by increasing synchronicity of select variables. This paper considers those variables involved, the sensors that measure them and their rate of synchronisation, thereby investigating the feasibility of MR workflow interventions, and exploring the benefits that may be realised. The paper identifies four components of MR implementations in prototyping and myriad methods by which domain transition may occur and uses these in context of a case study to propose four levels of workflow synchronisation. It was found achieving some high rates of synchronicity is possible, but achieving the highest levels as prescribed by digital twinning is neither feasible nor pragmatic against current MR capabilities and design prototyping workflows.
The aim of this paper is to show to how far VR technology can help in the implementation of methods in product development. First, an overview of the product development approach and VR technology is given. Then, an evaluation scheme is developed to examine product development methods for their VR suitability. Finally, the results are evaluated and recommendations for future research are given.
Design for Sustainability is a research area based on a multidisciplinary approach, which has become increasingly important in recent years. Great attention is paid to the design of products that can impact on users' behaviours, through embedded smart technologies, e.g. Internet of Things (IoT). In fact, IoT systems are able to “dialogue” with the users, supporting the identification of any misbehaviour, and suggesting more sustainable ones.
This paper presents a research aiming at supporting users towards more conscious food consumption in their daily life to reduce food waste. As a case study, it has been developed an interactive system in which chicken eggs are used as main communication element. Indeed, the environmental footprint of the egg industry is very heavy, and eggs are one of the main wasted food. The interactive system consists of a physical product, an eggs tray, integrating sensors and actuators for handling the interaction with users. It is accompanied by an interactive application for monitoring eggs consumption, displaying eggs waste statistics, and an Augmented Reality part for children, aimed to improve their awareness about food waste and the impact on their food habits through an “edutainment” approach.
New design objectives as the digital twin encourage companies to replace the tradition document-based systems engineering approach by a model-centric one. All views of the system rely on different types of models that serve many objectives, especially to improve communication among stakeholders. However, the increasing number of heterogeneous models jeopardize communication at the end. Indeed, to get a holistic view of the virtual definition, engineers have no other alternative than to navigate through numerous models requiring domain-specific software and language. In this paper, we propose to use virtual reality to develop an immersive environment for a collaborative model-centric review of engineered systems. The virtual environment, which relies on a digital thread stored in a graph-oriented database, enables users to explore a model-centric design by navigating through the models in a unique virtual space. To illustrate our proposal, we use a model-centric design of a telescope and shows how our preliminary prototype supports the reviewing activity with data limited to the architecture and geometry. Future works will concentrate on the integration of data related to other perspectives on the system.
How to enhance creativity, especially by applying new technologies to creativity methods, is a question posed continuously by researchers. One reason for this is that creativity is an important part of people's daily lives and an essential component of society. Therefore, many methods to enhance creativity have been created, especially brainstorming, which is one of the most popular and effective tools that inspire individuals to generate ideas, hence enhancing creativity. Moreover, technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), provide an opportunity for individuals and groups to be creative. In response, recent studies have adopted VR in brainstorming to enhance creativity. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis of experimental approaches and creativity measures employed in this context. Addressing this question, this study categorized existing articles on the topic related to categories of avatars, environments, interfaces, or applications. The findings elaborate on trends, measures employed to evaluate creativity and idea generation, identified categories, and results of these studies.
Virtual Reality (VR) is progressively adopted at different stages of design and product development. Consequently, evolving interaction requirements in engineering design and development for VR are essential for technology adoption. One of these requirements is real-time positional tracking. This paper aims to present an experimental design of a new real-time positional tracking device (tracker), that is more compact than the existing solution, while addressing factors such as wearability and connectivity. We compare the simulation of the proposed device and the existing solution, discuss the results, and the limitations. The new experimental shape of the device is tailored towards research, allowing the engineering designer to take advantage of a new tracker alternative in new ways, and opens the door to new VR applications in research and product development.
In the product development process, digital support continues to advance. Some work steps during product development are still carried out without assistance. Sketch creation is one of these. Therefore, the content created here is rarely documented due to the effort required for digital transformation. An alternative can be sketching in virtual reality. This article explores whether 3D sketching in VR enables faster sketching and can offer the basic features of hand-drawn sketches. To verify this, a tool for 3D sketching was developed. 27 test subjects were asked to solve one out of two different design tasks using this tool. The experiments were evaluated using video coding to identify the subjects actions. The created solutions have been analyzed about quality. The study showed initial indications that sketching in VR generally enables faster processing while maintaining the same solution quality.
The increased availability of affordable virtual reality hardware in the last years boosted research and development of such systems for many fields of application. While extended reality systems are well established for visualization of product data, immersive authoring tools that can create and modify that data are yet to see widespread productive use. Making use of building blocks, we see the possibility that such tools allow quick expression of spatial concepts, even for non-expert users. Optical hand-tracking technology allows the implementation of this immersive modeling using natural user interfaces. Here the users manipulated the virtual objects with their bare hands. In this work, we present a systematic collection of natural interactions suited for immersive building-block-based modeling systems. The interactions are conceptually described and categorized by the task they fulfil.
More than ever, the ability to quickly and effectively shape ideas in a 3D environment is essential for industrial designers and with the rise of XR technology, a shift from traditional, screen-based CAD to VR-based CAD could improve time to market and personal effectiveness for product designers. In this study, this shift is assessed from a user experience perspective. Ten professional product developers are asked to design respirator masks. The experiment takes place in the Gravity Sketch VR app, using a HTC Vive Pro HMD. The participants are observed, surveyed and interviewed regarding different parameters on their experience. Participants experienced VR Aided Design as quick and intuitive. They personally felt performant and they enjoyed the process. As of now, VRAD is not seen as an alternative to neither sketching nor CAD. Instead, new users experience it being a new tool that can be positioned either parallel to or in between ideation sketching, clay modeling and detailed CAD design. Lastly, this paper includes a preliminary look at a VR Stylus for virtual reality aided design.
Creativity is very important for designers, and methods to stimulate designers' creativity are the long-term focus of art design education. The senses are an important channel for designers to receive information and define core issues. Stimulating the designer's senses can help enhance their perception and creativity, and is of great benefit for the quality and efficiency of the design outcome. Today's interactive media technology provides more possibilities and advantages for designers' perception and sensation. The purpose of this research is to explore a way to stimulate the designer's senses through the use of interactive media, thereby improving the designer's design thinking and creativity, and providing designers with innovative design support. By means of interactive ground projection and experiments, and discussion of the advantages of interactive media to stimulate designers' senses, this research proposes innovations in art design educational media, which is valuable for the training and learning of designers and the development of virtual education environment in the future.
Long-term behaviour changes are critical to answering societal and individual challenges surrounding areas such as sustainability and health. Current understanding of how to bring about sustained behaviour is focused on the identification of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) without explicit guidance on how these should be matched with technological solutions. Based on this gap we set out to answer the research question: What is the relationship between BCTs and interactive immersive technologies with respect to long-term, sustainable behaviour? To this end, we report a literature review on technology trends in the fields of human computer interaction, human robot interaction, and game design. Based on this review we develop three main contributions with implications for design theory and practice. First, we propose a number of characteristics and mechanisms in emerging immersive technologies. Second, we highlight technological pathways connected to specific BCT clusters likely to be disrupted: technology as a conveyor of information, an augmenter of feedback, and as an embodiment of empathy. Third, we explore these connections between BCT clusters and the actual technological interventions.
Over the last ten years, several stakeholders from the higher education sector have been involved in the area of student activation. This is due to the fact that, among other things, lecturers can get better feedback from the learners through active learning and thus can make the lecture more goal-oriented. Due to technological progress and currently available learning platforms, interactive methods are often used, which can be carried out with the help of online tools. Among the most commonly used methods are Peer Instruction (PI) and Just in Time Teaching (JiTT).
All kinds of Mixed Reality are increasingly used in industrial and social context, such as product development processes. Through Augmented Reality (AR) technology and the constant availability of powerful mobile devices, 3D-based content can be virtually linked to the real environment. This enables teaching complex content efficiently, which is otherwise difficult to achieve using conventional methods.
This paper shows an example on the creation of an AR-Experience to activate students even in a situation, that prevents attandence learning. The procedure is explained along the design and calculation of a non-switchable clutches within the lecture "machine elements".
Interactions of users with AI powered solutions (AIPS) have the potential to affect collective behaviours and amplify unanticipated outcomes. Product developers, organisations, and companies are increasingly being expected to take responsibility for the unanticipated outcomes of their products. In this paper we explore a proactive approach to prototyping AIPS-user interactions using Social Virtual Reality (SVR) environments that allows for the anticipation of potential outcomes. We contend that doing so would limit the detrimental effect outcomes could have on product developers' resources and reputation
The present work introduces a cyclical model which showcases the process of immersion during Immersive Technological Experiences (ITEs) such as Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality. This model is based on the identified concepts around immersion and immersive environments across 30 years. The concepts' similarities were used to organize them on a cyclical model by acknowledging the user's presence at the beginning and end of immersive experiences. The proposed model's value relies on its cyclical approach based on a user-centred perspective and having a general overview of the immersion process. The Immersive cycle can serve as a mapping tool for developers and researchers, thanks to the inclusion of guidelines that complements the model. Both of these were used in three different examples of ITEs. Furthermore, the cyclical model could be used as a tool for ideation and conceptualization during the early stages of developing immersive experiences. Nevertheless, it is recognized that this is the first step in developing this model; therefore, it still needs to be validated and improved based on tests with developers, designers and researchers in the field.
Until now, the application of virtual reality as a distraction model has been widely described in the medical field, showing different benefits offered on patient’s perception, particularly related to pain and anxiety. Previous clinical experience of virtual reality applications on surgical intervention has shown how during procedures with local anaesthesia, this modality improves patients’ experience without changing times, costs, and clinical outcomes. Herein, we report our experience with three patients during diagnostic cardiac catheterisation, showing the effect of this technology on patients’ perception and metrics during the procedure.