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This chapter discusses midwifery practices in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in urban and regional areas. It begins by considering the challenges Indigenous women face when they experience maternity care in mainstream healthcare settings, and the importance of providing and receiving culturally safe maternity care. Traditional birthing practices used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women prior to colonisation are discussed. The chapter provides an overview of maternal and neonatal health today by considering statistics related to the health of Indigenous mothers and infants, fertility rates and gestational issues Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women may face, along with recent improvements in antenatal care and infant health outcomes. Current birthing practices are discussed, before Indigenous-led models of care are presented as ways to provide culturally safe care to pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. The chapter considers the role of Indigenous nurses and midwives in contributing to better maternal outcomes for Indigenous women and their babies, and provides concrete ways in which all nurses and midwives can provide culturally safe care.
The book concludes with an analysis of its key themes and arguments. It provides a comparative explanation of the region’s historical development, emphasising the role of elite and popular knowledge production in its social history. It considers the ways in which this approach may be applied to social history more generally.
Living for the City is a social history of the Central African Copperbelt, considered as a single region encompassing the neighbouring mining regions of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Haut Katanga and Zambian Copperbelt mine towns have been understood as the vanguard of urban 'modernity' in Africa. Observers found in these towns new African communities that were experiencing what they wrongly understood as a transition from rural 'traditional' society – stable, superstitious and agricultural – to an urban existence characterised by industrial work discipline, the money economy and conspicuous consumption, Christianity, and nuclear families headed by male breadwinners supported by domesticated housewives. Miles Larmer challenges this representation of Copperbelt society, presenting an original analysis which integrates the region's social history with the production of knowledge about it, shaped by both changing political and intellectual contexts and by Copperbelt communities themselves.
Chapter 8 considers implications of digital technology trends for issues related to insecurity and precarity. Rural and urban spaces are discussed in the context of digital technology trends. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implications of protest movements, such as #EndSARS in Nigeria, that illustrate ways in which digital technologies create digital communities and have an impact in contested spaces that exist around societal fissures, including intergenerational and other forms of conflict.
Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) face a unique set of medical, psychological, and social challenges, and access to specialised adult congenital heart disease care has been associated with improved outcomes. Rural adults with CHD may represent a uniquely disadvantaged group given additional challenges when accessing specialised care. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by adults with CHD in accessing outpatient cardiac care, with a specific focus on understanding differences between urban- and rural-dwelling patients.
This cross-sectional, survey-based study took place in the adult congenital heart disease clinic at an urban academic medical center. Additional medical information was abstracted in a retrospective manner from the electronic health record. In addition to descriptive statistics, t-tests and Chi-square tests were performed to investigate differences between urban and rural dwelling patients.
A total of 100 patients participated in the study (mean age 40 ± 13 years, 60% female, 18% rural dwelling). Across the total sample, the median driving distance to clinic was 20 miles (interquartile range 12–77); it was 15 miles for urban dwellers and 77 miles for rural dwelling patients (p < 0.001). The most commonly identified barriers to cardiac clinic visits were financial losses related to taking time off from work (39%), distance of clinic from home (33%), and weather (33%). Compared to urban dwelling patients, on average those who were rural dwelling had a lower level of education (p = 0.04), more difficulty paying insurance premiums (p < 0.001) and copays (p = 0.005), and were more likely to identify the distance from clinic (p = 0.05) and having to go into the city (p = 0.02) as barriers to clinic appointments.
The financial impact and distance to clinic were the most commonly identified barriers to outpatient cardiac care in this cohort of adults with CHD. These barriers, along with difficulty paying insurance premiums, are more common in rural dwelling patients. Initiatives such as telemedicine visits or providing financial subsidies for travel and treatment could help to expand specialty adult congenital heart disease care and better serve this growing patient population.
Over many decades, the poetry of Paula Meehan has given a voice to urban (Dublin) working-class experience, and in doing so, to paraphrase Yeats on Synge, expressed a life that had never before found expression in poetry. This is Meehan’s world, yet her world contains so much more too, in poems that encompass Buddhism, environmental concerns, and the classical world. Class consciousness is an intrinsic aspect of Meehan’s artistic vision, rather than a thematic add-on, and critical engagement with her work requires a decisive reorientation of conventional aesthetic categories. A key piece of revisionism present in the poems is Meehan’s critique of domestic space: as against convention, it is often public spaces that are welcoming, where domestic spaces are fraught with tension and violence. To her critique of domestic spaces and class politics, Meehan has notably added in her recent work a sophisticated strain of ecopoetics, taking us beyond human exceptionalism and into a deeper realm of connection with the natural world.
Lola Ridge is an exemplary case of an overlooked Irish woman poet of major talent, whose life and career failed to follow a conventional path, and who is only now receiving her full critical due. Born in Dublin, Ridge lived in Australia and New Zealand before settling in the United States, where she was active in leftist politics. Previous critics of Ridge have seen her Irishness as accidental rather than essential, but this is to downplay the ways in which her Irishness interacts with transnational poetics in the modernist age. Her first book, The Ghetto, is a striking example of the urban modernist lyric, comparable to the work of Mina Loy and Muriel Rukeyser, while her broader links to Imagism and Objectivism are dynamic and, for an Irish poet of the time, remarkable. Sensitive portraits of working-class and immigrant-class life are a particular forte. Irish politics are also a felt presence, however, as in her third book Red Flag. Looking forward to Adrienne Rich as much as to Eavan Boland, Ridge is a poet very much of our time, and one who belongs at the centre of the modern Irish canon.
Research to-date has examined the impact of intergenerational support in terms of isolated types of support, or at one point in time, failing to provide strong evidence of the complex effect of support on older persons’ wellbeing. Using the Harmonised China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011, 2013 and 2015), this paper investigates the impact of older people's living arrangements and intergenerational support provision/receipt on their physical and psychological wellbeing, focusing on rural–urban differences. The results show that receiving economic support from one's adult children was a stronger predictor for higher life satisfaction among rural residents compared to urban residents, while grandchild care provision was an important determinant for poor life satisfaction only for urban residents. Having weekly in-person and distant contact with one's adult children reduced the risk of depression in both rural and urban residents. Older women were more likely than men to receive support and to have contact with adult children, but also to report poor functional status and depression. The paper shows that it is important to improve the level of public economic transfers and public social care towards vulnerable older people in rural areas, and more emphasis should be placed on improving the psychological wellbeing of urban older residents, such as with the early diagnosis of depression.
This book is a history of Chinese cities from their origins to the present. Despite being an agricultural society for thousands of years, China had a dynamic imperial urban civilization. This consisted of a complex empire-wide urban system linking cities, towns, and villages. Although there was variation across the empire, there was a recognizable Chinese urban form, especially in imperial capitals. At the same time, cities were managed by a mixture of Chinese officials and organizations such as migrant associations. Finally, a vibrant urban culture developed that distinguished cities from the countryside that surrounded them. Then, over the past century, because of a number of historical forces, including industrialization and the emergence of governments committed to urbanization, this urban civilization was transformed into the world’s largest modern urban society. Indeed now, with some of the largest cities and most densely populated and networked cities in the world, China is shaping what it means to be a modern urban society. Like those throughout China’s history, these cities are connected to others around the world, and by highlighting these links, this book writes China into the history of how the world has become a modern urban society.
In this accessible new study, Toby Lincoln offers the first history of Chinese cities from their origins to the present. Despite being an agricultural society for thousands of years, China had an imperial urban civilization. Over the last century, this urban civilization has been transformed into the world's largest modern urban society. Throughout their long history, Chinese cities have been shaped by interactions with those around the world, and the story of urban China is a crucial part of the history of how the world has become an urban society. Exploring the global connections of Chinese cities, the urban system, urban governance, and daily life alongside introductions to major historical debates and extracts from primary sources, this is essential reading for all those interested in China and in urban history.
Recent studies have shown that the punitive drug laws enacted in the mid-1970s led to a sharp increase in incarceration only in the mid-1980s, when city police departments started policing street-level drug markets much more intensively. The case study of New York City in the wake of the Rockefeller Drug Laws of 1973 presents an explanation. Only when new policing ideas, popular dissatisfaction with street crime, and the revival of the city's fiscal capacity coalesced as part of a larger project to rebuild urban governance in the aftermath of the fiscal crisis of the 1970s did New York turn toward street-level drug enforcement. An examination of the political history of street-level drug enforcement offers a better understanding of the history of New York's war on drugs, as well as a new chronology of the political dynamics of state rebuilding in the 1980s.
“I seen my opportunities and I took ’em,” explained George Washington Plunkitt speaking to the journalist William L. Riordan at the dawn of the twentieth century. For many college students, William Riordan's collection of musings and reminiscences from New York State Senator Plunkitt, delivered at a shoeshine stand on Manhattan's West Side, offers a definitive introduction to the history of urban machine politics. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall: A Series of Very Plain Talks on Very Practical Politics, first published in 1905, has become a ubiquitous text, frequently assigned in political science courses and excerpted in U.S. history source books. Plunkitt's reflections, while entertaining, present a transactional and opportunistic form of political practice. He famously differentiates between honest graft and dishonest graft; insists that showing up at fires to help victims is key to holding your district; declares the Irish to be natural born leaders; and derides reformers as “mornin’ glories.” He rages against the key urban reform project of the era, civil service examinations, as “the curse of the nation,” amounting to “a lot of fool questions about the number of cubic inches of water in the Atlantic and the quality of sand in the Sahara desert.” Civil service exams blocked machine politicians from distributing jobs to loyal followers, which in the case of the New York Democratic machine typically meant recently arrived Irish immigrants. As Plunkitt explains, “The Irishman is grateful. His one thought is to serve the city which gave him a home. He has this thought even before he lands in New York, for his friends here often have a good place in one of the city's departments picked out for him while he is still in the old country.” Plunkitt's characterization of the linkage between migrant arrival and municipal work points to the central role that access to city payrolls played in the economic and political history of the New York Irish. Arguably, the only other urban group that relied as heavily on city jobs for economic mobility has been African Americans.
Hispanic/Latino populations are disproportionately impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. The impact of state reopening on COVID-19 in this population after stay-at-home orders is unknown. We evaluated the incidence, prevalence and trends during reopening of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a major federally qualified health centre in Providence, Rhode Island. A total of 14 505 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 19 March to 18 August 2020, of which, data on 13 318 (91.8%) patients were available; 70.0% were Hispanic/Latino, and 2905 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The urban Hispanic/Latino population was almost five times more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 4.97, 95% CI 2.59–9.53, P < 0.001) compared to non-Hispanic White. The positivity rates among the urban Hispanic/Latino population remained >10% during all phases of reopening. The trends of the incidence rates showed similar associations to those we observed for positivity rates. Public health interventions to address SARS-CoV-2 in Hispanic/Latino communities are urgently needed, even in latter phases of state reopening.
This chapter emphasizes actions at the regional scale, specifically the West Coast hip neighborhoods of the Bay Area during the 1960s. The runaway crisis of the late 1960s and the People’s Park standoff in 1969 are the focus of this chapter, which explores the role that “the West” and “nature” each played in the counterculture imagination and in the emergence of the popular ecology movement on the streets of Berkeley. This chapter stresses again the more intimate scale of the body and the influence that mobile, sometimes sick, and recalcitrant youth bodies played in the remaking of public space and ideas of autonomy as youth and their adult allies fought for “the right to the city.” The flood of rootless, placeless teens in public space, parks, and new “youth ghettos” forced local municipal renegotiations of young people’s legal status, contributing to broad national changes to the very meanings of youth, youth public health accommodation, and environmental activism during a decade marked by such contests.
This paper considers two different Indigenous-led initiatives, the Neeginan initiative (Winnipeg, Canada) and the Kaupapa Māori movement (New Zealand), within the context of urban Indigenous self-determination, examining the role, or contributions of, each towards the realisation of Indigenous self-determination. Neeginan originates from, and focuses on, building a sense of community, through education programs, social assistance and affordable housing, with local Indigenous knowledge providing the foundational guiding principles. This is compared to the Kaupapa Māori movement's role in the revival of traditional cultural and language practices in education, which has resulted in the development of an overwhelmingly successful parallel non-government school system based on Māori culture, language and philosophy.
This chapter first provides a framework for understanding recent local government approaches to aligning Uber and Lyft operations with urban transportation policy goals—including improving street safety, improving transportation access, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Many of these approaches to setting policy and designing streets are not regulatory per se, though they can and have been used as de facto regulatory strategies. This “implicit” regulatory approach has arisen in part because most local governments in the U.S. lack the formal authority to regulate Uber and Lyft. Furthermore, most local governments also lack the data necessary to develop and/or enforce appropriate regulations of the app-enabled for-hire vehicle industry.
The chapter continues with a case study of how the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, in partnership with researchers at Northeastern University, developed a creative and partnership-driven approach to policy-making in the face of a severe data deficit. Agency staff and University researchers scraped data from the Uber and Lyft application programming interfaces and used those data to better understand how people move in San Francisco County. This work demonstrates the importance of innovative, goal-oriented problem-solving approaches to inform the regulation of increasingly complex city streets.
Three broad social factors – childhood adversity, immigration, and urban living – are robustly associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. To date, however, there is no consensus on what it is about these phenomena that raises the risk of psychotic illness. In 2005, J. P. Selten and E. Cantor-Graae proposed a “social defeat” hypothesis according to which the social determinants of schizophrenia are best characterized as experiences of social subordination. In recent years, the social-defeat hypothesis has been broadened to include experiences of social exclusion. In this chapter, we review the different versions of the social defeat hypothesis and argue that it fails to account for the urban effect. We further argue for the potential utility of paying greater attention to social science when theorizing about the social determinants of schizophrenia.
Newly established populations of endangered species can help mitigate declines elsewhere and can be a valuable genetic reservoir. When these populations are located within anthropogenic habitats, they may also help mitigate the potential biodiversity loss created by urbanization. The Red-crowned Amazon Amazona viridigenalis is an endangered species that has become naturalized in multiple urban areas throughout the United States and Mexico, and these populations may currently outnumber the population within their historical habitat. While these urban populations may hold the majority of this endangered species, very few studies have analyzed the status and trends of this species, or of threatened parrots in general, in urban areas. Our study focuses on an urban Red-crowned Amazon population in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas: the only parrot population currently recognized as native to the United States. To determine a timeline of Red-crowned Amazon arrival and growth in the LRGV, we reviewed published literature and online citizen science databases. To quantify current population levels and trends, we conducted 412 surveys at all known roost sites throughout the LRGV from January 2016 through April 2019. We also quantified the ratio of adult and juvenile parrots at roosts. Our data suggest the species has been present in the LRGV consistently since the 1970s and showed rapid growth from the mid-1990s through roughly 2016. Roost counts suggest there is currently a minimum LRGV population of about 680 and the population has been relatively stable over the last 3.5 years. Productivity averaged 19% over three breeding seasons, suggesting successful internal reproduction. This study provides important baseline information for the management and conservation of Red-crowned Amazons in the region and provides a valuable timeline on the beginnings and trends of this recently established urban population of Amazona parrot.