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Quayson’s chapter compares the Dublin of Joyce’s Ulysses in 1904 with the real-life multilingual city of Accra, Ghana. In these twentieth- and twenty-first-century contexts, Quayson finds different forms of epic dreaming and material work. From among these celebrations of the kinetic aspects of urban life, he focuses on advertising billboards and personal slogans and pronouncements, arguing that these slogans and Joyce’s interior linguistic landscape in Ulysses exemplify what Deleuze and Guattari have described as the deterritorialization of language. Quayson draws on these theorists to offer a new way of understanding a central problem of language in Joyce’s writing – the self-interlocution and the relations between external stimuli and internal activities of the mind – and the nature of the Accra streetscape, in which vehicle slogans and inscriptions turn oral discourse into a written text, transforming stigmatized terms of African indigenous languages into co-creative dimensions of English discourse.
Despite improvement of mental health outcomes over the last years in Tunisia, there are still striking rural-urban mental health inequalities.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the rural-urban differences in accessing mental health care among patients with psychiatric disorders
A cross sectional and descriptive survey was conducted between March and April 2021 in the department of psychiatry D of Razi Hospital including 70 patients admitted or treated as outpatients. The sex ratio was 1.
The participants were aged between 17 and 68. About 11.42% came from rural areas. In these areas, 75% percent had low income versus 30.64% in urban areas. (p=0.047) The percentage of celibacy in urban areas was 68.85% versus 37.5% in rural areas (p=0.042) No significant difference was observed between the level of education and living in rural or urban areas. There was no association between rural or urban origin and number of admissions or treatment adherence or use of cannabis. The mean time between symptoms onset and consulting was 8.51 years in rural areas versus 2 years in urban areas. Moreover, time between symptoms onset and admission was significantly associated with rural or urban origin (p=0.045). The mean duration was 13,33 years (±10) in rural areas versus 3.12 years (±4.13).
Families living in urban areas had better income and would come to psychiatric hospital earlier. Therefore, we should help patients in rural areas access to mental health facilities for a better medical care.
Anyone who studies design today is confronted with a professional field that places a variety of demands on future designers. Designers are expected to solve problems of all kinds in innovative ways: They should be able to implement briefings reliably and keep the production method and its costs in mind; they should be able to predict trends reliably; they should know their target groups and deliver products tailored to them. Of course, designers should also be able to communicate, visualize, and present their ideas convincingly. Rarely are these skills combined in one person, which is why designers also need to be able to work in a team. Students should therefore not only be sensitized to design, but also to intercultural differences, and be familiar with and able to classify different social milieus in order to design accordingly for specific target groups (families with small children, for example, hardly ever buy tables with sharp edges). Students should also become aware of their own esthetic preferences and staging strategies. This chapter presents an example of undergraduate research in design and discusses theoretical and conceptual problems of research in design.
The inactive lifestyle of urban Indians has increased their risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A qualitative study was designed to explore barriers and facilitators related to exercise participation among urban Indians. Underpinned by the developmental life course theory, nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 29 women and 26 men residing in Mumbai, India. Focus groups were gender and age stratified. Both thematic analysis and content analysis techniques were used to analyse the data. While the lack of time was mentioned as a barrier by all groups, an unstructured schedule was mentioned specifically by women and awareness of physical health benefits emerged as the most popular facilitator for recreational physical activity. Based on the results of the FGDs, a pilot exercise intervention for sedentary women (N = 6) was conducted which consisted of a morning walk six days a week for 10 weeks. Post-intervention, an FGD was conducted to explore participants’ perspectives on their experience in the intervention. The participants reported that the intervention enhanced exercise self-efficacy and well-being. Exercise as relaxation, spousal support, and need for peers to exercise with emerged as primary themes during the follow-up FGD. These findings can inform the development of age and gender-specific as well as culturally appropriate interventions to facilitate active living.
This article studies the Ikoyi reservation in Lagos, Nigeria to assess changing relationships between the colonial state, urban space, and race between 1935 and 1955. Colonial authorities established reservations as special zones to house colonial officials and other white Westerners. The article shows that the Ikoyi reservation was a significant location where a wide range of actors contested relationships between statehood and race. These renegotiations contributed to making a late colonial state, a terminal form of colonial state in which explicitly racialised discourses of statehood and urban space were challenged while implicitly racialised standards and practices often persisted. Through a focus on Ikoyi, the article highlights the important relationships between segregationist projects and late colonial statehood.
This article tracks how a trope of middle-class household thrift, grounded on the autarchic Aristotelian oikos, has long fueled derogatory discourses in Britain aimed at low-income urban residents who practice quite different forms of thrift. Since the 1970s this trope has migrated across scales, proving a potent metaphor for national economic policy and planetary care alike, and morally and economically justifying both neoliberal welfare retraction compounded by austerity policies and national responses to excessive resource extraction and waste production. Both austerity and formal recycling schemes shift responsibility onto consumer citizens, regardless of capacity. Further, this model of thrift eclipses the thriftiness of low-income urban households, which emerges at the nexus of kin and waged labor, sharing, welfare, debt, conserving material resources through remaking and repair and, crucially, the fundamental need for decency expressed through kin care. Through a historicized ethnography of a London social housing estate and its residents, this paper excavates what happens as these different forms and scales of household thrift coexist, change over time, and clash. Ultimately, neoliberal policy centered on an inimical idiom of thrift delegitimizes and disentitles low-income urban households and undermines their ability to enact livelihood practices of sustainability and projects of dignity across generations.
The prologue provides an introduction to the history of Ichijōdani, as well as an overview of the three primary methodological interventions of the book. It reviews the scholarly literature on medieval urban life in Japan and explains this study’s distinctive contributions. The chapter also provides details on the theoretical literature in material culture studies and their articulations in this book. The Prologue ends with a discussion of ruins and the emphasis this study places on the violent destruction of Ichijōdani as a central and defining feature of the site.
The Japanese provincial city of Ichijōdani was destroyed in the civil wars of the late sixteenth century but never rebuilt. Archaeological excavations have since uncovered the most detailed late medieval urban site in the country. Drawing on analysis of specific excavated objects and decades of archaeological evidence to study daily life in Ichijōdani, Reading Medieval Ruins in Sixteenth-Century Japan illuminates the city's layout, the possessions and houses of its residents, its politics and experience of war, and religious and cultural networks. Morgan Pitelka demonstrates how provincial centers could be dynamic and vibrant nodes of industrial, cultural, economic, and political entrepreneurship and sophistication. In this study a new and vital understanding of late medieval society is revealed, one in which Ichijôdani played a central role in the vibrant age of Japan's sixteenth century.
Through an engagement with the histories of Muslim pasts, presences, and absences in the locality of Jangpura-Bhogal in the Indian capital city of Delhi, this article examines the constitutive relationship between displacements and city-making. It addresses Jangpura-Bhogal's post-colonial history (1947–present) through instances of the erasure of Muslim property, spaces, and histories, and the reoccupations, replacements, and redefinition of spaces, properties, and memories that they constituted. The article shows how protracted material displacements of Muslim property and spaces have contributed to the erasure of a Muslim historical presence from Jangpura-Bhogal. By tracing the afterlives of these material displacements, it tracks how narrative discourses draw on these Muslim absences and the sense of an abstract ‘diverse space’ to produce new sets of exclusions and practices of Othering in the present. The discussion focuses on the processual/everyday, ‘below the radar’, and, at times, invisible displacements, more than sudden eruptions of violence or overt ideological projects aimed at a deliberate Muslim erasure. Thus, Delhi's post-colonial history is not only about the well-rehearsed story of migrations and arrivals but equally about departures and displacements that have produced the neighbourhood and the city as particular kinds of majoritarian places and spaces. Current acts of Muslim displacement, that is, the Delhi ‘riots’ of February 2020 are enabled not only through visible and violent histories of Muslim marginalization, but also by longer histories of non-overt erasures, displacements, and replacements.
To explore the influence of socio-economic position (SEP) on habitual dietary intake in Colombian cities.
We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in five Colombian cities. Dietary intake was assessed with a 157-item semi-quantitative FFQ previously developed for the Colombian population. Nutrient analysis was performed using national and international food composition tables. SEP was assessed with two indicators: a government-defined, asset-based, household-level index called socio-economic stratum (SES) and, among adults, highest educational level attained.
The five main urban centers of Colombia: Bogotá, Medellin, Barranquilla, Cali and Bucaramanga.
Probabilistic, multi-stage sample of 1865 participants (n 1491 for analyses on education).
For both sexes, increasing SES was associated with a lower consumption of energy (P-trend <0·001 in both sexes), carbohydrates (P-trend <0·001 in both sexes), Na (P-trend = 0·005 in males, <0·001 in females), SFA (P-trend <0·001 in both sexes) and among females, cholesterol (P-trend = 0·002). More educated men consumed significantly less energy and carbohydrates (P-trend = 0·036 and <0·001, respectively). Among men, intake of trans fats increased monotonically with educational level, being 21 % higher among college graduates relative to those with only elementary education (P-trend = 0·023). Among women, higher educational level was associated with higher MUFA intake (P-trend = 0·027).
SES and educational level are strong correlates of the usual diet of urban Colombians. Economically deprived and less educated segments of society display dietary habits that make them vulnerable to chronic diseases and should be the primary target of public health nutrition policies.
The 1983 Chicago mayoral election, which polarized Black and white voters, left the nascent Latino electorate in an uncertain position. A reevaluation of this election clarifies the impact of Black mayoral candidate Harold Washington, whose candidacy laid bare significant political divisions and anti-Black sentiment among Latinos as they grappled with their relationship to whiteness. Divisions aside, Washington's effort to court the Latino vote helped legitimate a monolithic, panethnic label in Chicago politics, as evidenced by organizational records, campaign advertising, electoral data, and bilingual media coverage. Reframing the 1983 election as a dual process of race making and panethnic labeling bridges scholarship on Black mayors, Latino politics, and urban history, and questions an enduring political memory of 1983 that has obscured both Latino anti-Blackness and the fragility of Latino unity.
Cities are responsible for over 70% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use. Building and upgrading city infrastructure in developing countries could release 226 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide by 2050, if these cities obtain levels of infrastructure in developed countries today. Urban GHG emissions vary across economies, geography, wealth and urban form. The largest direct and indirect GHG emission sources are buildings, industry and transport. Urban climate change impacts of heat, sea-level rise, extreme weather, and water scarcity will exacerbate extant stressors in developing countries. Mitigation and adaptation measures interact, sometimes with unintended consequences. Systems approaches, integrated planning and strategy that recognises synergies and conflicts, are crucial to optimal outcomes. The city scale is good for innovation, aligned with national governance, for effective climate action. Many cities are committed to 100% renewable energy and net zero emissions by 2030. Key enablers are: a shared city region vision; effective stakeholder engagement; relevant, credible, accessible knowledge for decision-making; and aligned institutional arrangements.
Vagrant ‘loafers’ were a preoccupation of novelists and social reformers who saw them as emblematic of social and racial decline during the 1880s and 1890s. This chapter first examines the articles and book-length reports that sought to define and solve the problems of unemployment, inefficiency and vagrancy. These were underwritten by theories of degeneration, social Darwinism and eugenics, ideas that ensured that the vagrant poor were increasingly characterised in ‘scientific’ terms as a biological threat to society and the white ‘imperial’ race. The second half of the chapter examines how this anxiety was expressed in the slum fiction of Arthur Morrison and Margaret Harkness, and in particular how the portrayal of loafers in slum novels and social investigations shaped H. G. Wells’s first dystopia, The Time Machine (1895). Although the influence of social investigation has been noted, Wells’s engagement with the slum novel, and what he perceived to be its failings, has hitherto been overlooked.
Vagrants were everywhere in Victorian culture. They wandered through novels and newspapers, photographs, poems and periodicals, oil paintings and illustrations. They appeared in a variety of forms in a variety of places: Gypsies and hawkers tramped the country, casual paupers and loafers lingered in the city, and vagabonds and beachcombers roved the colonial frontiers. Uncovering the rich Victorian taxonomy of nineteenth-century vagrancy for the first time, this interdisciplinary study examines how assumptions about class, gender, race and environment shaped a series of distinct vagrant types. At the same time it broaches new ground by demonstrating that rural and urban conceptions of vagrancy were repurposed in colonial contexts. Representational strategies circulated globally as well as locally, and were used to articulate shifting fantasies and anxieties about mobility, poverty and homelessness. These are traced through an extensive corpus of canonical, ephemeral and popular texts as well as a variety of visual forms.
London was a centre of vagrancy in the Victorian period. Its refuges, lodging-houses and workhouses ensured that large numbers of vagrants travelled to the capital, especially during the winter months when travelling on the open road could be difficult and dangerous. The first half of this chapter examines how these forms of relief structured the vagrants’ movement and resulted in what I call ‘metropolitan vagrancy’. This was a constrained form of movement, typically limited to the winter months, that was contoured by the resources that the vagrant poor were able to access and the mounting restrictions that were placed on them by the Poor Law. The second half examines an understudied depiction of homelessness that was, in part, a product of these restrictions: the queue outside the ‘casual’ or vagrant ward of the workhouse. This became an image that articulated anxieties about the difficult distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, and also conveyed fears about the illiberality of the Poor Law and the potentially revolutionary response that it might provoke. This chapter examines works by Charles Dickens, Charles Kingsley and the painter Luke Fildes.
This book is a comprehensive manual for decision-makers and policy leaders addressing the issues around human caused climate change, which threatens communities with increasing extreme weather events, sea level rise, and declining habitability of some regions due to desertification or inundation. The book looks at both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and adaption to changing conditions as the climate changes. It encourages the early adoption of climate change measures, showing that rapid decarbonisation and improved resilience can be achieved while maintaining prosperity. The book takes a sector-by-sector approach, starting with energy and includes cities, industry, natural resources, and agriculture, enabling practitioners to focus on actions relevant to their field. It uses case studies across a range of countries, and various industries, to illustrate the opportunities available. Blending technological insights with economics and policy, the book presents the tools decision-makers need to achieve rapid decarbonisation, whilst unlocking and maintaining productivity, profit, and growth.