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Chapter 9 begins by reviewing some general issues in testing - the different functions of tests (proficiency, achievement, diagnostic), summative and formative evaluation, norm versus criterion referencing and washback. It then outlines the theory of testing that underlies task-based assessment, arguing that it must take account of both competences (e.g. grammatical, sociolinguistic and strategic) and the ability to use language. It compares the interactive approach and the real-life approach to assessment. It discusses the challenge facing task-based assessment, namely how tasks can provide evidence of learners’ ability to use an L2 that is generalizable (i.e. not limited to the particular task used in a test). The chapter concludes by looking at the development of task-based tests in a number of case studies.