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University students are in transition to adulthood and face multiple challenges that may lead to suicide. They are reported to have a higher risk of suicide by the World Health Organization. As there is no national suicide database in Uganda, we analysed student suicide using the press/media reports of suicides published between 2010 and 2020. A total of deaths by 23 suicide were identified: 19 were males, relationship problems were the main suicide reason (n = 6) and hanging was the most frequently used suicide method (n = 7). A strategic intervention to tackle suicide risk among university students is warranted.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.
The study adopted an ex post facto design to investigate background variables as predictors of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education. The population included 28 counsellor educators in the Department of Guidance and Counselling of the sampled university. Background variables and the Web 2.0 Utilisation Questionnaire (BVW2.0UQ) was used to gather data, which were analysed using means, standard deviations and multiple regression analysis. Findings of the study indicated, among others, that the extent of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education was low, and that the joint influence of the background variables on the extent of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education was not statistically significant.
Outbreaks and containment measures implemented to control them can increase stress in affected populations. The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on perceived stress levels in the Jordanian population is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the perceived stress level and factors associated with it in the Jordanian population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Required data, such as those from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and possible predictors of perceived stress, were collected through a Web-based survey. Statistical analysis was conducted through SPSS.
The mean (SD) of perceived stress score was 19.8 (6.7). Regression analysis revealed that stress was increased in females, young adults, usually being stressed more than others by a health problem, increased perceived severity of the disease, increased overall worry score, and student’s worry regarding their studies/graduation. Perceived stress was decreased if participants’ self-rated health status score increased.
In the context of increasing public health preparedness, the results of this study can be used in designing interventions to alleviate stress in susceptible segments of the Jordanian community.
We examined the association of household food insecurity with educational outcomes and explored the moderating effect of gender and school lunch programme.
The study used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in 2014 using interviewer-administered questionnaires and school administrative records. We measured household food insecurity using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Educational outcomes referred to knowledge, attitudes and skills that students are expected to obtain while attending school. We obtained sixteen different measures of educational outcomes, ranging from academic grades to beliefs and attitudes towards school and education. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling with covariates at the student and school levels. We conducted moderation tests by adding a two-way interaction between food insecurity and gender, and between food insecurity and school lunch programme.
The study was conducted in 100 schools located in fifty-four districts within Ghana’s eight administrative regions in 2014.
Participants included 2201 school-going adolescents aged 15–19 years.
More than 60 % of adolescents were from food-insecure households. Household food insecurity was negatively associated with Math grade and school attendance. Food insecurity was also inversely associated with socio-emotional outcomes, including academic self-efficacy, commitment to school and academic aspirations and expectations. We did not find a moderating effect of gender and school lunch programme.
Food insecurity is negatively associated with wide-ranging educational outcomes related to both learning and socio-emotional abilities. Our study supports prior evidence suggesting the importance of food access on both cognitive and non-cognitive educational outcomes.
Starting from the importance and purpose of school counselling, the article highlights the content-methodical specifics and assumptions of effective counselling work with students, and gives a brief overview of the practice of school counselling in Serbia. On that basis, this study aimed at examining school counsellors’ experiences in counselling elementary/primary school children (e.g., reasons for counselling, ways of implementation and difficulties). A sample of 81 school counsellors participated in a semistructured interview. The results show that undesirable behaviour and learning difficulties are the most common reasons for counselling, initiative is mainly coming from teachers or counsellors, and individual work and corrective counselling are more common. The difficulties respondents mentioned mainly related to the students’ personalities. The experiences of practitioners imply that the counselling practice insufficiently appreciates the importance of an integrative-systematic approach in student counselling. In this regard, the conclusion provides some recommendations that could contribute to improving the practice of counselling in schools in Serbia.
Knowing your learner means more than being able to list the facts of their age, gender, socio-cultural demographics and report grades. This chapter’s fertile question invites you to consider what other factors need to be understood, and how we can go about gathering and acting upon this knowledge.
Case Learning for Teachers: Strategic Knowledge for Professional Experience is a unique resource for Australian pre-service educators that draws on the author's experiences as an education researcher, lecturer and classroom teacher. This textbook uses a case stories approach to support pre-service teachers in developing the skills of observation and reflective practice necessary for professional experience placements and the transition to the classroom. Part 1 introduces the case learning approach and outlines strategies for reading and writing case stories. Part 2 is structured by the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. The text includes case stories addressing topics like knowing your students, knowing content, planning for teaching, managing behaviour, diverse learners, assessment, and developing professional relationships in the school setting. Integrating threshold concepts and the case-learning model, the innovative approach taken by Case Learning for Teachers makes it an invaluable tool for pre-service teachers.
The present study applied a qualitative case study methodology to the educational challenges of three students from a refugee background, in order to identify an appropriate psychological assessment process with which to evaluate their difficulties. Three students who had arrived from Iraq 1–2 years ago (one male and two females; aged 13 and 14 years) were referred by their teachers for psychological assessment as their academic progress was poor, despite remedial education. An educational and developmental psychologist, guided by a steering committee of psychologists and educationists, interviewed each student, his/her parent/s, and teachers independently. Based on referral concerns, hypotheses relating to the cause of educational difficulties were generated and psychological tests and checklists were used with all students and their parents and teachers. The data collected assisted in understanding multiple factors that may affect learning for students who have arrived from a war-torn country, and highlighted the importance of gathering detailed case-specific information to understand each student’s background and current context. Challenges associated with the assessment process were identified. Further, ways in which psychologists and guidance officers, teachers and parents could promote these students’ learning were identified. Implications for schools and policy developers are discussed.
ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools.
To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum.
Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met.
Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures.
There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.
During South Vietnam's brief life as a nation, it exhibited glimmers of democracy through citizen activism and a dynamic press. South Vietnamese activists, intellectuals, students, and professionals had multiple visions for Vietnam's future as an independent nation. Some were anticommunists, while others supported the National Liberation Front and Hanoi. In the midst of war, South Vietnam represented the hope and chaos of decolonization and nation building during the Cold War. U.S. Embassy officers, State Department observers, and military advisers sought to cultivate a base of support for the Saigon government among local intellectuals and youth, but government arrests and imprisonment of political dissidents, along with continued war, made it difficult for some South Vietnamese activists to trust the Saigon regime. Meanwhile, South Vietnamese diplomats, including anticommunist students and young people who defected from North Vietnam, travelled throughout the world in efforts to drum up international support for South Vietnam. Drawing largely on Vietnamese language sources, Heather Stur demonstrates that the conflict in Vietnam was really three wars: the political war in Saigon, the military war, and the war for international public opinion.
Emigrants face a high level of food insecurity. There is a wide research gap in the domain of identifying the determinants and problems of dietary acculturation in the context of emigrant students. This article attempts to study the factors affecting the dietary acculturation of African emigrant students in India.
For conducting a first-of-its-kind study for African emigrant students in India, we used field survey method, and the primary data were collected using a pre-structured questionnaire.
This was a field survey conducted in Punjab (a state of India).
One hundred and twenty African emigrant students participated in the survey.
Results of logistic regression indicated that food awareness (P = 0·027) and food suitability (P = 0·043) were the major determinants of dietary acculturation. Lack of familiarity and lack of proximity to food access points are the major problems faced by the African emigrant students. African emigrant students prepared for dietary acculturation largely only after coming to India. There is a significant positive correlation (P = 0·013) between problems faced by the respondents and tendency to prepare for acculturation after coming to India.
Information regarding local food environment plays a significant role in dietary acculturation. There is a pertinent need to educate emigrant students regarding food availability and access by developing suitable educational content.
Culturally safe health practitioners are essential for effective service provision to culturally diverse populations, including Indigenous Australians. Therefore, cultural safety education during training as a health care professional is an essential component in helping improve the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined whether the implementation of an Indigenous cultural safety education workshop increased self-rated cultural safety knowledge and attitudes of allied health students. The study employed a quantitative before-and-after design using pre- and post-surveys to determine the level of attitudinal change in students who attended a day long workshop. The study sample consisted of 1st year (n = 347) and 4th year (n = 149) allied health students at a regional Australian university over the years 2007–2011. Whilst the results of this current study are varied in terms of achieving positive change across all of the taught items of knowledge and attitude, they provide some evidence around the value of this type of curriculum intervention in helping develop culturally safe practitioners. An important finding was around the student's becoming self-aware about their own values and cultural identity, combined with acknowledging the importance of this cultural identity to interactions with clients. This form of ‘cultural humility’ appears to be an important step to becoming a culturally safe practitioner. These types of interventions would be enhanced through embedding and scaffolding throughout the curricula.
A consistent challenge in community and collaborative archaeologies has been the appropriate identification and understanding of project constituencies. A key step in stakeholder analysis is understanding and harmonizing the goals of archaeological work to the social role of the institutions for which we work. To illustrate the value of such a stance, we examine on-campus archaeology programs at colleges and universities, arguing that treating students as vital stakeholders is an important ethical obligation for both researchers and administrators. Including students as stakeholders in campus archaeology provides pedagogical benefits and a meaningful way to instill an appreciation of archaeology in an important constituency of potential voters and future decision-makers. We present a case study from Santa Clara University (SCU), reporting results of an online survey of undergraduates that was intended to gauge community interests in campus archaeology and heritage. We also detail activities undertaken by SCU's Community Heritage Lab in response to survey findings in order to raise the profile of the archaeological and other heritage resources on our campus.
Considering the effects of the level of social support and self-esteem as risk factors in the onset and continuation of depression, the purpose of the current study (in addition to studying the demographic items of depression) was to investigate the correlation between depression and level of social support and self-esteem in Iranian university students studying non medical majors.
The study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research carried out on the students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. Self administered questionnaires on socio-demographic information (age, gender, marital status, and educational level), Eysenk self-esteem scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Cassidy social support scale were randomly given out to students who were selected by multi stage randomized sampling. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 using the χ2-test.
1200 students responded to the anonymous questionnaires. A total of 57.2% of the participants had depression (36.3% mild, 14.4% moderate and 6.5% severe). Depression was significantly higher in males, singles and in 25-29-year-old students. Results showed that 9.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% of the participants reported low, moderate and high levels of social support respectively. 1.8% and 6.3% of the participants reported low and moderate levels of self-esteem respectively; while 91.9% reported high levels of self-esteem.
Depression has a higher rate in non-medical university students of Iran than general population. Levels of social support and self-esteem were negatively associated with frequency of depression.
The contribution of mental health to the risk of smoking is increasingly acknowledged but still insufficiently studied during the key period of student life. In particular, the simultaneous action of stress and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the risk of smoking remains poorly understood.
To assess the effects of stress and ADHD symptoms on tobacco smoking.
Multivariate modeling was conducted on the French i-Share study (n = 8110, median age 20.3 years, 74.8% females, 32.9% regular/occasional smokers) to evaluate the associations between stress, ADHD symptoms and tobacco smoking, adjusting for potential family/socio-demographic confounders.
Students with high levels of stress were more likely to smoke > 10 cigarettes/day (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–1.96) than those with low levels of stress. Students with high levels of ADHD symptoms were more likely to smoke > 10 cigarettes/day (aOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.58–2.75) than those with low levels of ADHD symptoms.
Stress and ADHD contribute independently to the risk of smoking. Interventions targeting each condition are likely to reduce the burden of tobacco use in students.
Starting university is an important time with respect to dietary changes. This study reports a novel approach to assessing student diet by utilising student-level food transaction data to explore dietary patterns. First-year students living in catered accommodation at the University of Leeds (UK) received pre-credited food cards for use in university catering facilities. Food card transaction data were obtained for semester 1, 2016 and linked with student age and sex. k-Means cluster analysis was applied to the transaction data to identify clusters of food purchasing behaviours. Differences in demographic and behavioural characteristics across clusters were examined using χ2 tests. The semester was divided into three time periods to explore longitudinal changes in purchasing patterns. Seven dietary clusters were identified: ‘Vegetarian’, ‘Omnivores’, ‘Dieters’, ‘Dish of the Day’, ‘Grab-and-Go’, ‘Carb Lovers’ and ‘Snackers’. There were statistically significant differences in sex (P < 0·001), with women dominating the Vegetarian and Dieters, age (P = 0·003), with over 20s representing a high proportion of the Omnivores and time of day of transactions (P < 0·001), with Dieters and Snackers purchasing least at breakfast. Many students (n 474, 60·4 %) changed dietary cluster across the semester. This study demonstrates that transactional data present a feasible method for dietary assessment, collecting detailed dietary information over time and at scale, while eliminating participant burden and possible bias from self-selection, observation and attrition. It revealed that student diets are complex and that simplistic measures of diet, focusing on narrow food groups in isolation, are unlikely to adequately capture dietary behaviours.
Chapter 7 shifts attention to a different class of migrants in the post-Mao era, the new middle class and wealthy migrants. The chapter traces the rapid feminization of migration, the expanding importance of student migration, and the new prominence of skilled migrants and investors. It also shows how a drastic expansion in the numbers of Chinese tourists going abroad has shaped diasporic trajectories. The chapter also traces the emergence of new diasporic institutions, such as emigration companies, tourist agencies, and real estate firms, and their role in the development of “new Chinatowns” or “ethnoburbs” in overseas destinations.
The purpose of this research was to examine internet addiction among high school and university students in terms of interpersonal relationships, automatic thoughts and problem-solving skills. The sample of the study comprised a total of 480 participants: 195 (40.6%) high school and 285 (59.4%) university students. Females constituted 53.3% (256) of the participants and males 46.7% (224). In addition to a Personal Information Form, the Interpersonal Relationship Styles Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Problem Solving Inventory and Internet Addiction Scale, for which validity, reliability and adaptation studies were performed, were used for data collection. A significant difference was determined between the groups with no or limited symptoms of internet addiction in terms of inhibitory interpersonal relationship styles, automatic thoughts and problem-solving skills. Inhibitory interpersonal relationships, automatic thoughts and problem-solving skills were identified as predictive of internet addiction.